Desalination technologies have made a significant impact in seawater and brackish water desalination. Recently, the evolution of membrane development has improved performance to lower operating costs and membranes have become the preferred technology for water desalination. Fortunately, different raw materials can be used for preparing membrane sheets which include either organic or inorganic materials, such as cellulose acetate, polyamide, polyimide, ceramic, natural, or artificial polymers. On the one hand, as a result of the variety of the raw materials which already exist in the entire world, different membrane separation processes might be applied dependent on the nature of the membrane sheet and the requirements of treatment process. On the other hand, there are different types of membranes can be used for membrane desalination by using different technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO). The ternary phase diagram for membrane casting solution has an important role to get the required membranes.
Part of the book: Desalination Updates