Atrial fibrillation (AF) is initiated by pulmonary vein (PV) and non-PV foci, which could be associated with initiating and maintaining AF. The development of the remodeling process and preexistent anatomical structures are likely to relate to the structural and electrophysiological changes in the PVs and non-PV area, which could promote the local conduction abnormalities and cause an increased PV/non-PV arrhythmogenicity. In this section, we assessed the features and relating factors of PV/non-PV arrhythmogenicity in patients with AF and evaluated its clinical implication. As a result, we realized the atrial anatomical features, such as the left atrial roof shape, left lateral ridge, and Marshall vein provided us with an understanding of PV and non-PV arrhythmogenicity in patients with AF. In addition, the presence of residual arrhythmogenic non-PV foci is associated with increased AF recurrence after catheter ablation; therefore, the information of arrhythmogenic foci (AMF) is also useful for determining the appropriate strategy of ablation for AF.
Part of the book: Abnormal Heart Rhythms