The study focuses on NF membranes modification and performance improvement while desalinating brackish water. The study provides valuable information about flux and rejection changes and relationship with pressure changing before and after modification. Experimental works included in the study investigate modified and unmodified NF membranes performance while filtering synthesized single salt and mixture salt solution at various concentrations (ranged from 1000 ppm to 4000 ppm) and various pressure magnitudes (pressure ranged from 2 to 10 bars). The rejection rates witnessed an increase after membrane modification took place with about 11–30% for magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate, and 50–60% for sodium chloride and potassium chloride.
Part of the book: Desalination Updates
This study presents recent literature that sheds light on the SWRO membrane biofouling, Inventory of causes, consequences, measurement, and possible solutions. In particular, biofouling of SWRO is considered as one of the challenges faced by seawater desalination today. For seawater desalination, mitigating membrane biofouling is essentially required and yet to be overcome. Specific shortcomings and prospective solutions are reviewed towards understanding the biofouling mechanism, pretreatment impacts, level of assimilable nutrients, and real-time monitoring. Accordingly, this review aims to address recent advances in biological fouling measurements and control to better understand biofouling and the best ways of dealing with such a challenging issue.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes