The use of silver in antimicrobial management is very ancient. Silver-based materials have proven interesting, practical, and promising for various applications. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been one of the nanostructures most studied and investigated over the past several years. AgNPs have greater specific properties depending on their size and form. These noble synthesised metrics have numerous optical, electrical, catalytic, and optical characteristics. These properties are ideal for many fields, depending on their size and shape. The outbreak of multiple infectious diseases has been a major strain on global economies and the public health sector. Extensive treatments have been suggested for disease control in environments containing infectious diseases through advanced disinfectant nanomaterials. This chapter investigates the application and mechanism of silver nanoparticles in certain nanobiotechnology sectors as a useful nanomaterial. In the sense of the market statistical survey research, AgNPs are emerging as one of the fastest developing product groups in the nanotechnology industry, providing a wide variety of nanosilver products in various applications. Lastly, due to the massive use of AgNPs in products recently, there are many concerns about AgNPs toxicity and safety had also been discussed.
Part of the book: Silver Micro-Nanoparticles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), like exosomes and microvesicles, are membrane-bound vesicles released by most cell types in response to cellular stress as well as normal physiologic conditions. EV plays a vital part in cell communication and tumor immunology. Tumor-derived EVs carry a wide range of tumor neoantigens and have a distinct molecular signature that reflects the tumor’s genomic complexities. These tumor-derived EVs provide a glance into the immunological tumor microenvironment and have a perspective to be a novel, minimally invasive cancer immunotherapy biomarker. Antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have changed the treatment of broad diversity of solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer, head, and neck squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, melanoma, etc. Invasive tissue biopsy is necessary for both histologic diagnosis and next-generation sequencing efforts. The latter has become increasingly widespread in today’s healthcare. There is an unmet need for non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g., plasma-based) biomarkers in both diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The selected investigation of EV in biospecimens, including plasma and saliva, can achieve this goal by potentially avoiding the need for tissue samples. In this chapter, we discuss the present challenges of biomarkers in cancer immunotherapy and the mechanistic role of tumor-derived EV in regulating the anti-tumor immune response.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles