Part of the book: Pesticides
The use of agrochemicals, especially herbicides, is necessary to control pests in order to produce adequate food for the global population (estimated at 7 billion). Glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides have been used extensively for this purpose but recent studies have reported these chemical substances to be found in aquatic ecosystems, wildlife and humans in various quantities. In this chapter, we reviewed the impacts of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on wildlife and humans using measured endpoint effects caused by genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. We used findings from different current investigations to demonstrate adverse effects, or otherwise, of glyphosate exposure to wildlife and humans. Our review reveals that glyphosate and its formulations may not only be considered as having genotoxic, cytotoxic or endocrine disrupting properties but they may also be causative agents of reproduction abnormalities in both wildlife and humans. Furthermore, the extensive use of glyphosate-based herbicides in genetically modified glyphosate-resistant plants grown for food and feed should be of grave concern since they can be sources of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in wildlife and humans.
Part of the book: Toxicity and Hazard of Agrochemicals