Yannick Bailly was born in 1956. During his Ph.D. at the University of Strasbourg and the University of P. & M. Curie in Paris, he deciphered the nervous system controlling fish gill exchanges. Afterward, at the CNRS in Paris, he greatly improved the understanding of synapse elimination in the developing rodent cerebellum. Since 1994, after returning to Strasbourg as a CNRS Research Director, his laboratory has become renowned for its expertise in ultrastructural neuroanatomy. Yannick Bailly has made major contributions concerning the synaptic localization of cardinal molecules involved in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyloid precursor proteins and presenilins in Alzheimer’s disease and prion protein. His research group has provided valuable insight into neuronal death mechanisms involved in brain pathologies, in particular in prion diseases.