Part of the book: Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Endometriosis is a chronic, nonmalignant and estrogen‐dependent disease in which endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma are outside the uterine cavity (ovaries, peritoneum, or rectovaginal septum). The prevalence is estimated from 2 to 10% in women of childbearing age and it rises up to 50% in women with infertility. Despite maximal efforts, the therapy of first choice in the management of endometriosis is still unclear. The aim of this chapter is to present an update of its management, emphasizing the benefits and disadvantages of surgical methods. We performed a systematic literature search on the PubMed database of English literature (search terms: endometrioma, surgery, ovarian reserve, assisted reproductive technologies) from 2010 to 2014. For endometrioma, operative laparoscopy proved to be the gold standard. Surgical procedures consist of partial excision of the cyst wall and electro‐coagulation of the rest. Stripping technique may be a better method for reducing the recurrence of pain symptoms, recurrence, and reoperation rates, but it raises concerns about ovarian reserve. For endometriosis, surgery often includes partial rectum or sacrouterine ligament resection. Hysterectomy is not obligatory and refused by the young patients. The approach should be laparoscopic and if necessary vaginal assisted. Good cooperation between various disciplines (gynecology, surgery, urology) is mandatory.
Part of the book: Fertility-oriented Female Reproductive Surgery
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogenous class of aggressive lymphoma and is considered as the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Several genetic anomalies such as point mutations, numerical alterations, and, more rarely, translocations and gene amplifications play a role in the pathogenesis of this class of B-cell lymphoma and have been related to specific histological and immunophenotypic subtypes. On the other hand, the treatment protocol in DLBCL did not witness significant changes during the last two decades. The widespread adoption of rituximab as an important adjuvant to standard chemotherapy protocol in CD20+ cases was a notable exception, which provided significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival, with limited toxicity. However, no less than 20% of patients diagnosed with DLBCL exhibit relapse after the initial response to R-CHOP regimen, while more than 15% of the patients exhibit primary refractory disease. This is the reason why a review of all the morphological, clinical, and therapeutic particularities of DLBCL is required.
Part of the book: Normal and Malignant B-Cell