Part of the book: Responses of Organisms to Water Stress
Micronutrient elements such as zinc, boron copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and chlorine are frequently responsible by the regulatory activity of the cell organelles, being nutrients that are absorbed and found in lower concentrations in plant tissues, they also contribute to supply the nutritional exigency of the plant. Study with Zea mays plants exposed to Zn toxicity + Si presented significant increases in stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency, respectively, in comparison with treatment only with Zn. In relation to chlorophylls a, b and total and carotenoids presented non-significant increases, when compared to plants exposed to Zn toxicity. This study revealed the positive contribution of the Si on gas exchange and reduction of the negative effects provoked on chlorophylls and carotenoids in maize plants under Zn toxicity. Other results described that prolonged exposure to excessive Cu resulted in serious toxic effects on the rice seedlings. In contrast, Tre pretreatment has been shown to be beneficial in alleviating Cu toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the ability of Tre to restrict Cu uptake and accumulation to maintain Cu homeostasis, and to induce production of antioxidant and Gly enzymes to alleviate excessive Cu-triggered oxidative stress. Stress caused by the excessive supply of micronutrients to plants frequently promotes repercussions on oxidant system, inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage is a situation characterized by the large ROS accumulation and insufficient detoxification promoted by antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the tolerance of plants to toxicity induced by micronutrients, as uses of other elements and substances, in which it can positively act with specific transporters, metal ion homeostasis and compartmentalization of micronutrients into the vacuole.
Part of the book: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants
The nitrogen (N) fertilization synthetic or biological is primordial for food production worldwide. The consumption of N fertilizers in agricultural systems increased in exponential scale, mainly in developing countries. However, some negative points are associated to industrial N consumption; consequently the industry promoted ways to minimize N losses in production systems of tropical agriculture. Biological nitrogen fixation is a very important natural and sustainable process for the growth of leguminous plants, in which many micronutrients are involved, mainly as enzyme activators or prosthetic group. However, other mechanisms in the rhizosphere and molecular region still need to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to compile information about the historical and current affairs about the advances in N fertilization in tropical environments through a history from N fertilization worldwide, N balance in the main agricultural systems, introduction of alternative ways to avoid N losses, advances between BNF and micronutrients, as well as the effects of N absence in plant metabolisms. Biological nitrogen fixation is a very important natural process for the growth of leguminous plants, in addition many metallic nutrients, micronutrients, are involved in BNF metabolism, mainly as enzyme activators or prosthetic group. But other mechanisms in the rhizosphere and molecular region still need to be clarified.
Part of the book: Nitrogen Fixation