Gravity is the most important force which determines the structure and evolution of stars like the Sun as well as the structure and evolution of galaxies. The law of universal gravitation is generally sufficient to describe the gravity of the Earth, the Moon, or the planets orbiting the Sun. With the recent development of sensitive gravimeters, the gravity survey has become one of the most used geophysical tools in applied geosciences for tasks including: exploring for oil and gas fields by studying geological structures and salt dome intrusion, monitoring groundwater and geothermal reservoirs by determining recharge and discharge masses, monitoring volcanic activity and hydrothermal activity beneath volcanoes, monitoring CO2 movement during and after sequestration, locating active faults responsible for big earthquakes, and also exploring mines and detecting local cavities. In this chapter, we present a brief introduction to gravity and Bouguer gravity, the different corrections applied to measured gravity and follow with cases of applied microgravity measurements in different fields of geosciences.
Part of the book: Gravity
Remote sensing is becoming an important and useful tool in mapping large, remote areas and has many applications in geosciences such as geologic and geo-structural mapping, mineral and water exploration, hydrocarbon exploration, natural hazards analysis, and geomorphology. The recent advances in remote-sensing imaging acquisition and availability of images can help geoscientists to explore and prepare maps quickly and evaluate the geo-potential of any specific area on the globe. Advances in remote-sensing data analysis techniques have improved the capacity to map the geological structures and regional characteristics and can serve in mineral exploration in complex and poorly understood regions. In this chapter, geophysical remotely sensed data (airborne geophysics) are integrated with other sources of remotely sensed data to analyze three separate areas, one each for geological structure, lineament presence and orientation, and geothermal potential. Three case studies are discussed in this chapter from three countries—Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, and Algeria—to show the effectiveness of remote sensing in mapping and detecting geo-structural, geomorphological, and geothermal characteristics of ground surfaces.
Part of the book: Recent Advances and Applications in Remote Sensing