Patients with renal diseases are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, as they have profound changes in all three classic components of coagulation, defined approximately 150 years ago by Virchow: blood flow, vessel wall (endothelial injury), and coagulation properties of the blood (e.g., coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and platelets). The prothrombotic state in chronic kidney disease (CKD), glomerular diseases (including systemic lupus and vasculitis), and some less frequent conditions (idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, antiphospholipid syndrome, hemolytic‐uremic syndrome, etc.) is associated with vascular endothelial damage, increase in certain coagulation and antifibrinolytic factors, decrease in anticoagulation proteins, dyslipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, changes in platelet membranes, hemo‐ and peritoneal dialysis and heparin treatment, increased microRNAs and circulating microparticles, antiphospholipid antibodies, nephrotic syndrome, anemia with high platelet count, and so on. Nevertheless, the same patients have substantially increased risk of bleeding due to platelet dysfunction and intake of certain medications (antiaggregants, heparin and low‐molecular weight heparins, and anemia). The aim of this review is to present the main thrombo‐embolic risk factors in a wide variety of patients with renal diseases, including chronic glomerulonephritis (primary and secondary), chronic renal disease, and idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. We have evaluated the risk factors for arterial and venous thromboses in a wide variety of renal patients with both glomerular and non‐glomerular diseases, including the presence of nephrotic syndrome, inborn and acquired coagulation defects (i.e., factor V Leiden, MTHFR gene mutation, 20210 prothrombin gene mutation, and antiphospholipid antibodies), corticosteroid treatment, and dyslipidemia. We are describing the results of these investigations and suggesting prophylactic anticoagulant strategies in such patients. Multiple risk factors influence the coagulation system in renal disease leading to both hypercoagulation and hemorrhagic diathesis. Therefore, renal patients should be thoroughly investigated for coagulation abnormalities, especially if pathogenic (i.e., corticosteroid and immunosuppressive) and anticoagulation treatment is to be initiated. Moreover, the doses of anticoagulant/antiaggregant and hemostatic medications should be considered carefully, having in mind the underlying diseases and risk factors, renal function, and concomitant treatment.
Part of the book: Embolic Diseases