Nowadays, biomarkers are useful in the early detection and risk stratification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. Studies confirmed the implication of adipokines, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines, prothrombotic factors, and others in MetS pathogenesis. Leptin:adiponectin ratio is useful in predicting insulin resistance and MetS severity; leptin is correlated with obesity and waist size and adiponectin is inversely related with MetS components. Ghrelin is inversely correlated with MetS components, and studies confirmed its role in MetS prediction. Regarding the pro-inflammatory cytokines, studies confirmed that interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are positively correlated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, and in postmenopausal women with central obesity. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels could be implicated in insulin resistance. Recent studies also confirmed that novel biomarkers such as pentraxin-3 are positively correlated with MetS severity and the presence of vascular lesions, and it could bring new data on the MetS mechanism. Within this chapter, we review data on the contribution of biomarkers as well as on the stratification of MetS patients, discussing their key contribution for creating a risk assessment algorithm.
Part of the book: Ultimate Guide to Insulin
Nanotechnology potential in antimicrobial therapy is increasingly demonstrated by various data. Results reveal antibacterial properties, comparable to that of conventional antibiotics. Working on parallel experiments, researchers continue to bring evidence demonstrating age-old-recognized antibacterial properties of various natural components of plant and animal origin. Later years brought an increasing trend for combining synthetic and natural composition in new constructs. The tendency aims to bring more on different essential aspects, such as active substance release, improvement of antibacterial effect, and up-regulation of the mechanisms at the structure-cell interface. Present chapter structures the up-to-date achievements in the field, including the concept of design, biological effects, benefits, mechanisms, and limitations of the field. Also, expected future research directions are to be discussed.
Part of the book: Nanomedicines