Mahmoud Rafea

Karolinska InstituteSweden

He was graduated from the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University in November 1975. While conducting his internship and residency at the hospitals of the Egyptian Ministry of Health and at the university hospital KASR ELAINY (1976 – 1980), he completed an M. Sc. degree, in clinical pathology and chemistry. In December 1980, he was linked to medical research through working in research laboratories of the Theodore Bilharz Research Institute, which belongs to the Egyptian Academy of Science. He established his clinic in 1984. In the same time, he started studying computer science while he is working in his laboratory. In 1985, he published his first paper at the Sixteenth Annual Pittsburgh Modeling and Simulation Conference which is entitled: \An Approach to Hypertension Etiologic Diagnosis Using A Computerized Consulting System.\ He joined ARC (the Agriculture research Center), in late 1992. ARC consists of 29 specialized institutes. He worked as a Research Assistant in one of ARC institutes: CLAES (The Central Laboratory for Agricultural Expert Systems), which is a specialized institute for computer applied research in agriculture and veterinary. In 1995, he got his Ph.D. in Artificial Intelligence from Cairo University. He worked for 2 years (sabbatical), as a senior researcher in Stockholm, SWEDEN with SICS (the Swedish Institute of Computer Science) from 2000-2002. Based on his research, he was promoted, by ARC, to a full professor in computer science in February 2006. He is currently directing the research and development activities of CLAES. In 2002, he re-started medical research. He found that erythrocytes transport antigens to maintain self tolerance and to protect fetus as an allograft. He presented his initial findings in the annual meeting of the American Society of Reproductive Immunology (ASRI), in 2005. Also, he found that erythrocytes, through this transport function, create a security hole that is used by invading microorganisms. In 2007, he registered a patent entitled: METHODS FOR PREPARATION OF VACCINES, LABORATORY KITS, AND TREATMENT COMPONENTS. He presented his ideas in the medical schools of the following universities: Oslo, Stanford, and Karolinska. In 2009, he worked with Professor Serhiy Souchelnytskyi in Karolinska Institutet, to prepare a vaccine and diagnostic kit for TB. They discovered the proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that exist in erythrocytes of TB patients.

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