Part of the book: Biomass Now
Biofloc technology (BFT) is considered the new “blue revolution” in aquaculture. Such technique is based on in situ microorganism production which plays three major roles: (i) maintenance of water quality, by the uptake of nitrogen compounds generating in situ microbial protein; (ii) nutrition, increasing culture feasibility by reducing feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a decrease of feed costs; and (iii) competition with pathogens. The aggregates (bioflocs) are a rich protein-lipid natural source of food available in situ 24 hours per day due to a complex interaction between organic matter, physical substrate, and large range of microorganisms. This natural productivity plays an important role recycling nutrients and maintaining the water quality. The present chapter will discuss some insights of the role of microorganisms in BFT, main water quality parameters, the importance of the correct carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in the culture media, its calculations, and different types, as well as metagenomics of microorganisms and future perspectives.
Part of the book: Water Quality
Animal-origin food production presents an accelerated growth worldwide due to an increase in human demand. The aquaculture sector is one of the major players in terms of volume of animal protein production, and the availability of feedstuff to supply aquaculture feed (aquafeed) chain will be one of the main challenges for the next decades. Aquafeeds are mostly based on cereals, oilseeds, and marine-origin ingredients. The competition for feedstuff from the terrestrial animal industries such as pet, poultry, and swine challenges the profitability of aquafeeds, and complimentary ingredients need to be found. Many studies have focused on alternative protein sources, but the benefits of plant proteins, microorganisms-based, and diverse animal by-products are still under intense investigation to address some constraints including antinutritional factors and unbalanced nutrient profile. In this sense, the use of insects on the nutrition of aquatic animals could be an alternative. This chapter was elaborated to be an introductory reading for both academic and private sector and will discuss (i) the benefits of insects in animal nutrition, (ii) elucidate the nutritional aspects of different insect meals, (iii) bring some practical developments on aquatic nutrition, and finally (iv) discourse about constraints on insect use and its future perspectives.