In recent years, an increasing number of publications have shown the negative effects of anesthetics on the developing brain and have made inquiries about anesthesia for pediatric patients in practice. Anesthesia is applied to millions of children for surgery, imaging, and other invasive procedures; the issue is very serious and concerns. In this chapter, experimental and clinical studies about the issue have been summarized. As a result, anesthetic drugs except alpha-2 adrenergic agonist anesthetic (NMDA antagonist or a GABA agonist) used in pediatric patients (especially if there is no painful situation) have potential neurotoxicity. Particularly, if anesthesia exposure was applied in the fragile period (the first 4 years) and if used at higher concentrations or repeated anesthesia application, adverse effects of anesthesia exposure on the developing brain have been claimed. But, the issue is not fully clarified yet.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Anesthesiology