Part of the book: Carcinogenesis
Over the past decade, leukemia exists and frequently occurs in adults. Radiation exposure, hereditary syndromes, smoking, age, and many other unknown factors are generally the major risk factors for leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that is dispersed from its beginning and may be perceived as a prototype of metastatic cancer, yet leukemia is considered a highly malignant neoplasms responsible for a large number of cancer-related deaths. In addition, to uninhibited proliferation, leukemic cells dispense early from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood, followed by an infiltration of various organs such as lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, intestinal tract, skin, or mucous membranes. Several studies are concerned with the critical role of angiogenesis in the development and growth of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Moreover, angiogenic mediators created by AML cells act through external or internal autocrine loops, thereby directly indorsing cell survival, spread, and disease development. In recent years, many researchers focus on angiopioetins (Ang), an innovative family of angiogenic mediators, which have shown to be vital regulators of angiogenesis and vascular stability. Ang-1 and its antagonist Ang-2 act via the receptor tyrosine kinase sTie 2, which is expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) of the vasculature and in subset of hematopoietic stem cells. Binding of Ang-1 causes phosphorylation of sTie2 and ensures the integrity of the vasculature by stimulating interactions between ECs and endothelial support cells. This chapter reviews the incidence, mortality, pathogenesis, and diagnostic procedures of AML. As well as aims at evaluating serum levels of endostatin, MMP- 9, and uPAR in acute myeloid leukemia patients before chemotherapy and after achieving complete remission. At the same time, the chapter also assesses the pretreatment levels of plasma Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2, and the calculated ratio of Ang2/sTie2 receptor in a cohort of AML patients also studies their impact on the AML patients' overall survival.
Part of the book: New Aspects in Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Human Carcinogenesis