Climatic changes can cause serious reductions in yield and crop quality. Under the threat of climatic changes, one of the precautions to cope is selection and development of resistant vegetable genotypes to abiotic stresses. Several physiological and biochemical reactions and different tolerance levels can occur according to plant species. When plants are subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, temperature extremes, herbicide treatment and mineral deficiency, the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. Since activated oxygen species can disrupt normal metabolism through oxidative damage to lipids, protein and nucleic acids, plants possess a number of antioxidant enzymes that protect them from these cytotoxic effects. To control the level of ROS and to protect cells under stress conditions, plant tissues contain several enzymes for scavenging ROS. The high levels of antioxidative enzyme activities were determined in the tolerant genotypes of tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, cucumbers, melons, squash, beans, okra, etc. to several abiotic stress factors. Both the whole plant and in vitro callus culture experiments gave similar results. Antioxidant enzymes can be useful for screening to determine the tolerant and sensitive plant genotypes against abiotic stresses.
Part of the book: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants
Eggplant is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable species in the world and Turkey. The breeding of eggplant with high yields and quality is one of the important efforts in the seed sector today. Traditional breeding activities cannot respond quickly to market mobility. With the integration of dihaploidization methods into the breeding cycles, breeding programs have gained significant momentum. The most used haploidy technique in eggplant is the anther culture based on androgenesis, and its use in public and private sectors has become widespread in recent years. To date, the use of the isolated microspore culture technique as another androgenesis technique is limited; however, the studies are in progress in particular for indirect microspore embryogenesis. Genotype effect is one of the most decisive factors determining the success of androgenesis in eggplant. Also, the other factors such as nutrient medium content, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, age and growing conditions of donor plants, determination of the appropriate microspore developmental stages, different pre-treatments, temperature shocks and incubation conditions are also effective on androgenesis success. In this review, it is aimed to provide information about the in vitro eggplant androgenesis studies, which have been carried out and are currently being conducted in Turkey.
Part of the book: Sustainable Crop Production