This chapter reviews the selection of chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroid insecticides, carbamates, and phenylureas. Options with different GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and LC-MS/MS methods will be discussed for inclusion of the targeted pesticides. In addition, methods for the analysis of metabolites of these chemical classes of pesticides are investigated, including the feasibility of simultaneous analysis with parent pesticides. In some cases, a targeted approach is required for the analyses of metabolites. These methods apply to a wide variety of sample matrices including environmental (air, water, and soil), food (fruits, vegetation, or food products), and biological samples (urine and blood). The focus of the chapter is on MS detection approaches with consideration of the chromatographic separation conditions as required. A short discussion of multiresidue analysis methods and/or where feasible, other chemical classes or selected pesticides from these chemical classes can be analyzed in existing methods is included.
Part of the book: Mass Spectrometry
This chapter focuses on sample preparation procedures for pesticide analysis of food commodities, biological and environmental matrices. This will include pesticides with a broad range of polarity including those that are more amenable to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (organochlorines, organophosphorus pesticides, and pyrethroids) and those commonly analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (carbamates, azole, and strobilurin fungicides, and phenylureas as well as organophosphorus pesticides). QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) methods or QuEChERS methods with modifications to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix, buffering, changing extraction solvent from acetonitrile to ethyl acetate are examined. Subsequent cleanup using dispersive solid phase extraction or cartridge format solid phase extraction has also been completed to reduce matrix effects. Other solid matrices are frequently extracted with pressurized liquid extraction, microwave assisted extraction, or ultrasonic extraction combined with or followed by dispersive solid phase extraction or solid phase extraction. Particularly for chromatography-mass spectrometry, careful consideration of matrix effects needs to be made when considering the design of the sample preparation procedures. Selection of extraction solvent needs to consider both polarity of target analytes (and their solubility in selected solvents) as well as co-extracted matrix components.