Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in West Africa. Sporadic and anecdotal cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported in the past. Recent data showed the changing of epidemiology of leishmaniases in West Africa, with the occurrence of outbreak of CL due to Leishmania major in urban and rural areas. CL is transmitted by Phlebotomus duboscqi. The role of Sergentomyia (Spelaeomyia) darlingi as vector in rural areas has been evoked but not confirmed. Cases of VL due to Leishmania spp. have been described in West Africa; however, parasites species were not identified and dogs were suspected to be the reservoir. No humans’ case of symptomatic VL due to L. infantum has been described in West Africa. Recent data in rural areas of Senegal confirmed dog as reservoir of L. infantum. In the same study in Senegal, Sergentomyia sandflies were found infected with L. infantum, indicating a possible role in leishmaniasis transmission. Coinfection leishmaniases-HIV is reported but rare. In this chapter, we included most recent publications and propose an updated landscape of CL and VL epidemiology in West Africa.
Part of the book: Leishmaniases as Re-emerging Diseases