Currently, automation does not take into consideration the cognitive and emotional state of the crew. Rather, automation provides assistance based on explicit and static task assignments, with no adaptive capabilities, even though it is capable of providing higher or lower levels of support depending on the crew state and/or complexity of the operational situation. This chapter presents a new adaptive automation concept which offers an innovative ‘team’ centred approach to solving crew awareness/workload management problems and enhancing flight safety. Partnership underpins the ‘Third Pilot’ approach. The crew (pilot flying and pilot monitoring), automation and the ‘Third Pilot’ are in charge together. Overall, partnership is proposed. This replaces existing paradigms involving dynamic changes in control function, where changes can be autonomously controlled by the system. Moreover, a new multimodal cockpit concept is advanced providing enhanced assessment of crew state/workload.
Part of the book: Aircraft Technology
Mobility is associated with driving a vehicle. Age-related declines in the abilities of older persons present certain obstacles to safe driving. The negative effects of driving cessation on older adults’ physical, mental, cognitive, and social functioning are well reported. Automated driving solutions represent a potential solution to promoting driver persistence and the management of fitness to drive issues in older adults. Technology innovation influences societal values and raises ethical questions. The advancement of new driving solutions raises overarching questions in relation to the values of society and how we design technology (a) to promote positive values around ageing, (b) to enhance ageing experience, (c) to protect human rights, (d) to ensure human benefit and (e) to prioritise human well-being. To this end, this chapter reviews the relevant ethical considerations in relation to assisted driving solutions. Further, it presents a new ethically aligned system concept for assisted driving. It is argued that human benefit, well-being and respect for human identity and rights are important goals for new automated driving technologies. Enabling driver persistence is an issue for all of society and not just older adult.
Part of the book: Security and Privacy From a Legal, Ethical, and Technical Perspective