Vocalized emotional expressions such as laughter and surprise often occur in natural dialogue interactions and are important factors to be considered in order to achieve smooth robot-mediated communication. Miscommunication may be caused if there is a mismatch between audio and visual modalities, especially in android robots, which have a highly humanlike appearance. In this chapter, motion generation methods are introduced for laughter and vocalized surprise events, based on analysis results of human behaviors during dialogue interactions. The effectiveness of controlling different modalities of the face, head, and upper body (eyebrow raising, eyelid widening/narrowing, lip corner/cheek raising, eye blinking, head motion, and torso motion control) and different motion control levels are evaluated using an android robot. Subjective experiments indicate the importance of each modality in the perception of motion naturalness (humanlikeness) and the degree of emotional expression.
Part of the book: Becoming Human with Humanoid