In a slender water body with a large aspect ratio, the angle of wind waves relative to the direction normal to the shoreline may exceed 45°, resulting in the emergence of cuspate forelands and the segmentation of the water body. The BG model was used to predict the segmentation of a rectangular water body by wind waves when the probability of occurrence of the wind direction is given by a circular or elliptic distribution, and the segmentation of a rectangular water body into a circular or elliptic lake was predicted in each case. The segmentation of a shallow water body with a triangular or crescent shape was also predicted together with the prediction of lakeshore changes when a rocky or sandy island exists in a circular lake.
Part of the book: Applications in Water Systems Management and Modeling
The long-term beach changes along the Kaike coast (Japan) have been investigated. Being a major source of sand to this coast, the Hino River has supplied a large amount of sand during the extensive mining of iron sand in the past, resulting in the shoreline advance. However, the stoppage of the sand mining has caused a marked decrease in the sand supply, resulting in a rapid shoreline recession around the river delta. The beach changes triggered by these human activities have been investigated using an old geographical map and aerial photographs taken between 1947 and 2005. Then, the beach changes have been reproduced using the contour-line-change model considering the change in grain size of the beach sediments. Bathymetric data have been analyzed in order to evaluate the longshore sand transport and the fluvial sand supply from the Hino River. The measured and predicted three-dimensional beach changes were in good agreement and the effectiveness of the contour-line-change model for predicting long-term beach changes was confirmed by this case history.
Part of the book: Sedimentary Processes