A sudden release of UF6 inside a building or to the atmosphere could conceivably cause undesirable health effects to workers and the public in general, mainly associated with the exposure to hydrolysis products HF and UO2F2. Although the hydrolysis reaction of UF6 is fast, after escaping of UF6 into the atmosphere, besides HF and UO2F2, UF6 may also be found in the atmosphere. This chapter proposes a real-time technique to provide information to technical personnel and facility operators on the atmospheric release of UF6 to ensure that the workers, the public, and the environment are adequately protected. The system comprises a combined differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman lidar to detect gaseous UF6 and HF, simultaneously. The DIAL provides information on UF6 concentration using a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm as the off-wavelength and a Nd:YAG-pumped Coumarin 450 dye laser using a Littrow grating mounting operating in the frequency doubled at 245 nm as the on-wavelength. Recording Raman scattering of molecular HF at wavelength of 297.3 nm (with Raman frequency shift of 3959 cm−1) is a versatile technique to identify HF as a probe for real-time detection and localization of UF6 leaks.
Part of the book: Uranium
Sufficient control over the excitation of the Rydberg atom as a quantum memory is crucial for the fast and deterministic preparation and manipulation of the quantum information. Considering the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam spatial features, localized excitation of a four-level atom to a highly excited Rydberg state is presented. The position-dependent AC-Stark shift of the first and Rydberg state in the effective quadrupole two-level description of a far-detuned three-photon Rydberg excitation results in a steep trapping potential for Rydberg state. The transfer of optical orbital angular momentum from LG beam to the Rydberg state via quadrupole transition in the last Rydberg excitation process offers a long-lived and controllable qudit quantum memory. The effective quadrupole Rabi frequency is presented as a function of ratio of the first to Rydberg excitation laser beam waist and the center of mass position inside the trap. It depicts high accuracy of detecting Rydberg atom at the center of the trap, which can pave the way for implementation of high-fidelity qudit gate.
Part of the book: Quantum Electronics