Part of the book: Oxidative Stress and Diseases
All organisms maintain a strict redox environment, crucial for cell physiology, by preserving the pro-oxidant compounds generated during cell metabolism and from antioxidant system elements. In pathophysiological conditions, the redox environment is altered, causing oxidative stress, cell damage, and eventually cell death. In this chapter, we review the elements involved in the redox environment, including the oxidant, antioxidant, and glutathione systems. In addition, we summarize the physicochemical bases of the redox environment and the biological functions of the glutathione cycle. Finally, we propose a redox environment regulation model that considers some regulated variables that are actively involved in maintaining the redox environment: reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and the redox couple GSH2/GSSG.
Part of the book: Basic Principles and Clinical Significance of Oxidative Stress