Part of the book: Primary Care at a Glance
Chronic heart failure (CHF or simply HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that involves more than 2% of the general population and over 10% of the older people. For people with reduced ventricular function (the classical HFrEF phenotype), the guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) (e.g., Ace-inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, rehabilitation or implantable ventricular devices) demonstrated to be efficacious in reducing hospitalisations and prolonging survival. Vice-versa, the HF with preserved ejection fraction (diastolic HF or HFpEF phenotype) is a much more complex syndrome, in which co-morbidities (such as COPD, depression, anemia, and diabetes, CAD) play a significant role in the decompensation episodes.
Part of the book: Primary Care in Practice