Over the last decades, Bayesian hierarchical models defined by means of directed, acyclic graphs have become an essential and widely used methodology in the analysis of complex data. Simulation-based model criticism in such models can be based on conflict measures constructed by contrasting separate local information sources about each node in the graph. An initial suggestion of such a measure was not well calibrated. This shortcoming has, however, to a large extent been rectified by subsequently proposed alternative mutually similar tail probability-based measures, which have been proved to be uniformly distributed under the assumed model under various circumstances, and in particular, in quite general normal models with known covariance matrices. An advantage of this is that computationally costly precalibration schemes needed for some other suggested methods can be avoided. Another advantage is that noninformative prior distributions can be used when performing model criticism. In this chapter, we describe the basic framework and review the main uniformity results.
Part of the book: Bayesian Inference