Part of the book: Industrial Waste
Ethanol is one of the leading alternative fuels. Efforts have increased the development of technologies for producing ethanol efficiently and economically. The continuous fermentation using yeast cells immobilized in low‐cost materials is presented as an excellent alternative. We used four lignocellulosic wastes for the inmobilization process. The materials were characterized physicochemically. The composition was determined by the Van Soest method. Zeta potential was measured to establish the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character of the material surfaces. The contact angles measurements were used to confirm the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character and the free energies interaction was established. Images were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and determination of surface areas and volumes was performed by adsorption and desorption isotherms. It was established that cell surface properties are modified by the immobilization process to which they are subjected. It was evident that cell immobilization depended on the properties of the carrier, as well as cell surface properties. Thus, in order to improve the process of cell immobilization, it is essential to understand the type of carrier‐cell interactions that occur during the immobilization process, making necessary the knowledge of the main surface characteristics of both the media and of cells that can affect the process.
Part of the book: Yeast