Acute Pain Management in Intensive Care Patients: Facts and Figures
Pain is an unpleasant experience for all patients including intensive care patients; if it is not treated properly, it has deleterious effects on patients’ acute and chronic well-beings. In ICU patients, it causes sympathetic stimulation leading to adverse hemodynamic effects and after discharge, these patients are at the higher risk for developing chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorders. Apart from racial and regional factors, sleep deprivation, anxiety, and delirium increase the pain perceptions. Pain assessment is a prerequisite for adequate pain management. The ICU patients are sedated and ventilated, and assessment scales differ depending on whether the patient is able to communicate. There are different pain assessment scales for both groups of patients. The preferred mode of delivery of analgesic medication is intravenous route as intramuscular and subcutaneous route are not reliable for drug delivery in these patients. Patient and nurse controlled analgesia gives better sense of pain control. In the treatment of pain, opioids are the commonly used medications, but paracetamol, dexmedetomidine, and gabapentin are increasingly used. Newer trends are multimodal analgesia, where the combinations of analgesic medications with different mechanism of action are used. Another trend is increasing use of analgosedation; they not only control the pain but also relieve anxiety.
Part of the book: Pain Management in Special Circumstances
Urosepsis: Flow is Life
Urosepsis is one of the important etiological factors for community as well as hospital-acquired infections. Accordingly, urosepsis is divided into community-acquired and hospital-acquired urosepsis. Obstruction to the flow of urine is a common risk factor for community-acquired urosepsis, whereas the indwelling urinary catheter is the risk for the hospital-acquired urosepsis. E. coli remained the most common bacteria-causing urosepsis. If not treated early and appropriately, urosepsis can complicate into septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction. The cornerstone for the improved outcome of these patients is initial resuscitation and proper antibiotic therapy and restoring the flow of urine or removing the infected urinary catheter. Community-acquired urosepsis can be prevented by removing the obstruction to flow of urine permanently. The hospital-acquired urosepsis can be prevented by strictly following catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention bundle and removing the catheter as early as possible.
Part of the book: Clinical Management of Shock
Peripartum Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy and peripartum increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) by many folds. Interestingly, the VTE is more common during the pregnancy, whereas the pulmonary embolism is more frequent in postpartum period. There are various risk factors for the VTE and pulmonary embolism in these patients. The important risks are improper thromboprophylaxis, obesity, and multigravida. The clinical parameters and the d-dimer are not used for diagnosis of thromboembolism during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The compression ultrasonography (CUSG) is commonly used for VTE diagnosis; for the pulmonary embolism diagnosis, one has to consider the radiation hazard to the fetus as well as to the mothers. Ventilation/perfusion scan is the imaging of choice for patient who has respiratory signs with normal chest radiograph. If chest X-ray is abnormal with suspicion of peripartum pulmonary embolism (PPE), the choice should be computed tomographic angiography. Heparin and its derivatives remained the anticoagulation of choice for the treatment of VTE as well as the PPE, as it is a shorter acting, easy to reverse with protamine sulfate. Proper thromboprophylaxis is the key for prevention of VTE and peripartum pulmonary embolism.
Part of the book: Embolic Disease
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Facts and Figures
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare clinical entity during pregnancy. PPCM is a diagnosis of exclusion. These patients do not have prior history of heart disease, and there are no other known possible causes of heart failure. It is more common in African countries, may be related to the consumption of kanwa, in the postpartum period. The multiparity, African descent and pregnancy-induced hypertension are a few risk factors for PPCM. The exact etiology of PPCM is not known; possible theories range from myocarditis to the maladaptation to the changes of pregnancy. The clinical manifestation varies from shortness of breath to thromboembolic phenomenon. Echocardiography is essential for diagnosis as well as differential diagnosis of PPCM. These patients preferably are managed in tertiary healthcare facilities. Anticoagulation and antiarrhythmic medications are pillars for the management of PPCM patients. If required, mechanical devices should be used temporarily. PPCM patients may need heart transplant. The beneficial role of bromocriptine and immunosuppression is not clear in PPCM patients. Subsequent pregnancies should be avoided to prevent the PPCM occurrence.
Part of the book: Inflammatory Heart Diseases
Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation from Classification to the ManagementView all chapters
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) are the rare neurosurgical emergency. cAVM is an abnormal vascular web, composed of nidus, feeding artery and draining veins. It commonly occurs in the supratentorial area of the brain. The common grading system used in cAVM is Spetzler-Martin grading, which takes into consideration the size of nidus, the location of cAVM and the venous drainage. The cAVMs may develop flow and pressure-related aneurysms, which will increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients. cAVMs vary in size and undergo growth, remodeling and rarely regression. Most of the cAVMs are asymptomatic, but the common presentation are headache, seizure, intracerebral hemorrhage or focal neurological deficit. The cerebral angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cAVM. Management of the cAVM includes medical therapy, surgical excision, radiosurgery and embolization.
Part of the book: Vascular Malformations of the Central Nervous System