Part of the book: Plant Breeding
Simple sequence repeats (SSR) have been applied as useful markers for understanding cotton genetics. In the last decade, chromosome-deficient stocks of Gossypium hirsutum L. were used in the development of chromosome substitution lines for G. barbadense L., G. tomentosum Nuttall et Seemann, and G. mustelinum Watt chromosomes or chromosome segments. Several DNA markers have already been assigned to the individual chromosomes of G. hirsutum. We created new cotton monosomic lines in Uzbekistan after irradiation of seeds by thermal neutrons or pollen gamma‐irradiation to complement other global efforts in the development of cotton chromosome substitution lines. The primary objective of this chapter is to report the use of chromosome-specific SSR markers and a well-defined tester set of cotton translocation lines from the Cotton Cytogenetic Collection at Texas A&M AgriLife Research to confirm chromosome specificity of monosomic lines in Uzbekistan cytogenetic collection of cotton. Our results have assigned several different monosomic lines to the chromosomes 2, 4, 6, and telosome 11 At‐subgenome and chromosomes 18 and 20 or 22 Dt‐subgenome. These lines will be very useful in molecular mapping, the creation of substitution lines, and cotton breeding.
Part of the book: Cotton Research
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) produces naturally soft, single-celled trichomes as fiber on the seed coat supplying the main source of natural raw material for the textile industry. It is economically considered as one of the most leading cash crops in the world and evolutionarily very important as a model system for detailed scientific investigations. Cotton production is going through a big transition stage such as losing the market share in competition with the synthetic fibers, high popularity of Bt and herbicide resistance genes in cotton cultivars, and the recent shift of fiber demands to meet the standard fiber quality due to change of textile technologies to produce high superior quality of fibers in the global market. Recently, next-generation sequencing technologies through high-throughput sequencing at greatly reduced costs provided opportunities to sequence the diploid and tetraploid cotton genomes. With the availability of large volume of literatures on molecular mapping, new genomic resources, characterization of cotton genomes, discoveries of many novel genes, regulatory elements including small and microRNAs and new genetic tools such as gene silencing or gene editing technique for genome manipulation, this report attempted to provide the readers a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton fiber genomics research.
Part of the book: Past, Present and Future Trends in Cotton Breeding