National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic EngineeringPakistan
Bioinformatics, a computer-assisted science aiming at managing a huge volume of genomic data, is an emerging discipline that combines the power of computers, mathematical algorithms, and statistical concepts to solve multiple genetic/biological puzzles. This science has progressed parallel to the evolution of genome-sequencing tools, for example, the next-generation sequencing technologies, that resulted in arranging and analyzing the genome-sequencing information of large genomes. Synergism of “plant omics” and bioinformatics set a firm foundation for deducing ancestral karyotype of multiple plant families, predicting genes, etc. Second, the huge genomic data can be assembled to acquire maximum information from a voluminous “omics” data. The science of bioinformatics is handicapped due to lack of appropriate computational procedures in assembling sequencing reads of the homologs occurring in complex genomes like cotton (2n = 4x = 52), wheat (2n = 6x = 42), etc., and shortage of multidisciplinary-oriented trained manpower. In addition, the rapid expansion of sequencing data restricts the potential of acquisitioning, storing, distributing, and analyzing the genomic information. In future, inventions of high-tech computational tools and skills together with improved biological expertise would provide better insight into the genomes, and this information would be helpful in sustaining crop productivities on this planet.
Part of the book: Bioinformatics