Examples of bioparhamaceutical products of Saccharomyces.
Saccharomyces is a eukaryotic organism that possesses approximately 6,000 known genes since 1996. It has long been used for food, bakeries, drinks, and therapeutics due to its many ingredients and its role in several mechanisms. Saccharomyces can be used as an experimental organism for medicinal products in the pharmaceutical industry. Particularly in public health, the use of Saccharomyces in the production of vaccines is remarkable. It has been alleviated that this yeast helps clarify the function of individual proteins in pathogenic viruses. To clarify virus life and host interactions, virus replication systems in Saccharomyces were interested in scientists. The new antiviral strategies with yeasts suggest the biological mechanism of a pathogen virus. Due to the variety of diseases and current epidemic conditions, these organisms play an essential role in prevention and treatment. This chapter will try to update Saccharomyces’ scientific discoveries with the most recent and up-to-date literature.
- pandemic diseases
- experimental organisms
- public health
- antiviral strategies
Besides poor treatment and vaccination programs, a healthy immune system and antioxidant mechanism are the essential defenders considering the current viral diseases. The viral diseases hosted in a body has several impacts on organs and systems. Also, long-term drug use or vaccination programs can cause some acute side effects on the body, such as gut microbiota, immunity, lung tissue, etc. Therefore, probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, natural antioxidants have been generally recommended over the years. Probiotics named live microorganisms have beneficial effects on systems, and they have been used successfully. Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that stimulate intestinal tissue growth and modulate immunity. Vitamins, minerals, and natural antioxidants have been used to enhance immune activity and health in viral diseases. It can be said that all these supplements are essential for adequate homeostasis.
Today, evaluate the most effective, economical, and safe vaccines is a significant challenge. Thus, some crucial organisms have been interested in vaccine production as well as nutrition. Among the different vaccination process, yeasts have a broad interest in the scientific area (Figure 1). These unicellular and saprotrophic fungi have been used as a biological model. They have also been accepted as critical models for experiments due to their cellular structure, components, and rapid growth. Yeast also can be cultured easily and manipulated genetically. These features showed that yeasts are beneficial to identify the cellular mechanism of virus and vaccine programs safely [1, 2].
The yeast Saccharomyces, the essential eukaryotic organism, have been used as a biological model. Nevertheless, there is a notable gene homology in this yeast with human genes. In this chapter, we try to identify the Saccharomyces yeast as a useful model for biological experiments and observe the importance of viruses, viral diseases, and vaccines.
Saccharomyces, which is a genus belonging to the Saccharomyces fungus kingdom, includes many yeast species. The name of Saccharomyces is derived from the Latin words saccharo- (sugar) and - Greek mikes (mushrooms). These yeasts were initially suggested in 1680, and named Saccharomyces in 1837. A successful systemic concept on these higher eukaryotes was designed by Mayr . Yeasts’ cultured forms have been used for thousands of years due to rapid reproduction and essential components. Typical features of Saccharomyces are the usage of nitrate and ability for the fermentation of carbohydrates. Saccharomyces have an excellent capacity for ethanol production, and they are suitable yeasts for large-scale fermentation . These important yeasts can be used for the food industry to produce several foods such as bread, beer, wine, distilled spirits, and industrial alcohols. The most knows are
Saccharomyces yeasts focus on the dietary field as a probiotic and the process of treating the disease. Belong the probiotic action; these yeasts have several vital roles on mechanisms such as bacterial adhesion, enhancement of immune cells and responses, modulation of the signaling pathways of the host, and improvement of the strengthening of enterocytes . Nevertheless, Saccharomyces are used as model organisms in biological studies, particularly chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
3. Experimental organism for pharmaceutical industry
Over the last fifty years, remarkable progress in our ability to produce advanced drugs has improved people’s health and longevity. Pharmaceutical proteins are one of the fastest-growing groups of medicines and are currently critical to treating many diseases .
Proteins have a catalyzer role in several metabolic reactions as well as an essential responsibility for cellular mechanisms. There are unique systems that can be used to produce proteins for the pharmaceutical industry from a single cell to multiple organisms, including eukaryotes, especially yeasts. Dozens of pharmaceutical proteins, including insulin, vaccines, and blood factors, produced by
The yeast Saccharomyces has been accepted as the significant organism for several metabolisms such as cell cycle, biogenesis, protein folding, genetic manipulation, recombination, etc. .
|Human serum albumin||Blood factors||Payne et al. |
|Recombinant proteins||Protein||Huang et al. , Ferrer-Millares et al. , Ma et al. , Cino |
|Insulin||Hormone||Martinez et al. |
|Glucagon||Hormone||Egel-Mitani et al. |
|Human parathyroid hormone||Hormone||Song et al. |
|Purified protein for vaccines||Protein||Hadiji-Abbes et al. , Zhang et al. , King et al. , Kaslow and Shiloach , Fazlalipour et al. .|
|Virus like particles||Protein||Jacobs et al. , Kim et al. , Kim et al. .|
|Gene expression systems||Gene||Malak et al. , van Ooyen et al. , Vierira Gomes et al. .|
Recombinant proteins are recognized as an important part of the drug industry. Among these proteins, Saccharomyces has greater attention than others due to their eukaryotic properties, easy genetic manipulation, and capable of modifications.
4. Antiviral strategies
While the vaccines currently available have proven invaluable in the fight against infectious diseases and eradicating viruses, there are many drawbacks to the current vaccine preparation or application regimen despite these successes. Certain limitations of conventional vaccines require multiple adjuvants and injections to induce a necessary or optimal immune response. Another reason is the constant increase in the number of post-vaccination allergic reactions or hypersensitivities in a specific group of people [47, 48].
Today, there are several critical viral diseases such as human hepatitis B and C, immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS), coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID19), etc. Due to the inadequacy of treatment options for these infections, new antiviral strategies and model organisms, particularly yeast, were of interest to the researchers.
Yeasts have a delivery system for nucleic acids, and thus they can be an alternative for virus description. Besides, a humanized yeast system was identified for yeast/virus systems to study diseases . Yeasts are used for subunit vaccine formulations with producing antigens against viruses. It was reviewed that yeast can be used for vaccine development in such strategies; whole recombinant yeast, virus-like particles, yeast display, and purified protein immunogens . Among yeasts,
Rosenfeld and Racaniello  reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) was demonstrated in
All things considered, the yeast-based carrier system can be a potential model to develop the vaccine insights of virus-host interactions. The yeast strategies can improve the recognition of pathogen antigens peptides, activate the immune response, and also modulate the yeast-based vaccines. Researchers for further pioneering findings have still endured the studies.
5. Future perspectives
There have been many illnesses that have not been controlled by vaccination and new ones as well. Mutation, genetic exchange, environmental and interspecific transference, or human contact are the most emerging diseases. However, new scientific technologies, model organisms and a number of researchers have proven beneficial to vaccination strategies. In this respect, it is possible to observe yeasts for the upcoming vaccines for several diseases.
Yeast engineered to the virus has been accepted as an ideal therapeutic approach. This vaccine’s strategy is improving humoral immunity due to the ability of yeast to the generation of immune responses.
There is a numerous increasing study to obtain the vaccine strategy of yeasts. Studies in yeast proteins and cell wall components, including beta-glucan, may become more critical for vaccine strategies under different phases of clinical trials on animals or humans. According to the essential features of yeast, the yeast-based vaccine strategy is being necessary for vaccine development. It has foreseen that diversity of yeast strains will improve in the future.
The yeast system provides invaluable antiviral strategies. Significant studies have been conducted on yeast progression in the identification of viral diseases and antiviral strategies. Based on a better understanding of yeast protein and viruses, the search for new vaccines and medications for viral or pandemic diseases is safer and more effective. However, experiments with animal models and human cells are still underway in many types of yeast. Knowledge of these new biological systems and technologies, models, and organisms will open up new science avenues.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Human immunodeficiency virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-disease 2019 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Deoxyribonucleic acid Ribonucleic acid
Human immunodeficiency virus
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Appendices and nomenclature
The most important eukaryote; Saccharomyces.
insulin and its analogs
The organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope