Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

Regional Water and Land Use Planning: Systematic Planning Support

Written By

Harro Stolpe, Nguyen Ngoc Ha and Christian Jolk

Submitted: October 25th, 2021Reviewed: January 17th, 2022Published: May 4th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.102713

IntechOpen
Water Conservation - Inevitable StrategyEdited by Murat Eyvaz

From the Edited Volume

Water Conservation - Inevitable Strategy [Working Title]

Associate Prof. Murat Eyvaz, Dr. Ahmed Albahnasawi, M.Sc. Ercan Gürbulak and Prof. Ebubekir Yüksel

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Abstract

Sustainable water and land use planning is an important component of regional planning. Regional planning, as a multi-sectoral concept, serves as a framework for sub-regional and local planning. Water and land use planning needs as comprehensive a system understanding as possible, of water and land uses. This forms the basis for managing water resources quantity and quality, in coordination with the existing land use. The developed systematic GIS-based planning approaches, for a sustainable water allocation and water quality conservation, as well as the resulting recommendations for actions, supports water management on a regional and local planning level. The developed concepts are illustrated by up-to-date project results of the R&D research projects “ViWaT-Planning” Stolpe et al., in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and “iWaGSS” Jolk et al., in the Olifants River Basin in South Africa. Both R&D projects are funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and are coordinated directly with existing water management institutions and their measures in both countries. The focus of this publication will be on the general methodology of planning support, in the fields of water and land use.

Keywords

  • regional water and land use planning
  • Mekong Delta
  • Olifants River

1. Introduction

Several research projects developed by the Institute of Environmental Engineering + Ecology (EE+E), at the Ruhr-University Bochum, assess water and land use at the regional level to support spatial planning. These research projects are located, mainly, in Vietnam and in South Africa, under different spatial and climatic conditions. Table 1 characterizes the different investigation areas [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].

LocationHydrological systemClimateWater systemObjectivesR&D project
Vietnam
Red RiverRed River DeltaTemperate, dry winter, hot summerPolder managementWater quantity, water qualityIWRM
MekongMekong DeltaTropical, savannahOpen canal system, weirs, sluice gatesWater quantity, water qualityIWRM; VIWaT Planning
Vu Gia Thu BonVu Gia Thu Bon lowlandTropical, monsoonRiver, open canal systemWater quantity, flood, salinityLUCCI, WaLaMa
Dong NaiMiddle Vietnam highlandsTropical, monsoonDam managementWater quantity, water qualityIWRM
Dong VanNorthern Vietnam highlandsTemperateKarstWater quantity, water qualityKawatech
South Africa
OlifantsHigh PlateauAridDam managementWater deficit management, water qualityMOSA, iWaGSS

Table 1.

Regional water and land use projects in Vietnam and South Africa, performed by the EE+E.

In each R&D project, the central core of the work was to analyses the current water and land use system, in a transparent and systematic way. This analysis aids in designing suitable management measures for water resources, with regards to water quantity and water quality.

Based on the investigated current state of water management in the different water systems, problems and problem areas are identified and needs for action are described and prioritized, on a regional scale. The results of the aforementioned R&D projects, is a systematic planning support system, for identifying problems and conflicts, in water and land use management.

Systematic water and land use planning is understood as a continuous process that must be able to respond to changing natural conditions and land use innovations. Updates are, therefore, required from time to time. Such updates can be done, effectively, within a geodata management system. Such a system has to involve the planning levels relevant to water and land use issues:

  • The national level provides a framework of laws and technical standards for water and land use to be managed at the regional or local level.

  • The regional level is used to name specific water and land use management measures, on the basis of a regional framework for planning and detailed inquiries, in order to remedy discovered problems and to make decisions on specific locations. The regional level has a special significance due to spatial and thematic interactions.

  • The local level is used to carry out object planning at the previously identified locations.

This top-down process enables the higher levels to influence the lower levels. Conversely, it should be accompanied by bottom-up processes, for the lower levels to be considered at the higher levels. Only in this way can a continuous planning process be adapted to the constantly evolving innovations.

The basis for such a planning system approach is a suitable collection, harmonization and evaluation of the relevant water and land use related information, as well as a generally comprehensible presentation and visualization of the various planning issues, to support decision making. This process is to ensure the scientific soundness and application of advanced technologies, the connectivity, the forecasting ability, the feasibility, and the effective and thrifty use of the land and water resources; the objectivity, publicity, transparency and conservation (e.g. in Vietnam: Clause 5, Article 4, Law on Planning No. 21/2017/QH14).

The methodologies developed in the different R&D projects (see Table 1), used modern techniques of data acquisition, harmonization and processing, as well as methods to evaluate and visualize the results with the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

This publication summarizes experiences gained from several research projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), related to data management and spatial decision support.

All projects were carried out in close cooperation with a high number of responsible institutions in Vietnam (e.g. MOST Ministry of Science and Technology, MONRE Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, NAWAPI National Center of Water Resources Planning and Investigation as well as local responsible authorities) and in South Africa (e.g. DWA Department for Water Affairs, DWS Department of Water and Sanitation, The WRC Water Research Commission, Kruger National Park and SAEON South African Environmental Observation Network, etc.).

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2. Methodological approach

The central objectives of the R&D projects, listed in Table 1, was to develop a systematic and updatable GIS-based planning support approach, to describe and analyses the current state, future states and the respective problems, on water and land use management.

A prerequisite to this work, is to acquire and develop a structured collection of the relevant data on water and land use. In both countries Vietnam and South Africa, a large amount of relevant data exists, but it is not always systematically collected, stored and evaluated.

The most important step in the methodological approach is to store the scattered data sets of varying topicality (administration, topography, population, water demand, water resources, water quality, sensitivity of water resources, etc.) in one centralized location, for example, a geodatabase. Additional steps include the harmonization of the data sets as well as to check the data sets on their plausibility.

Table 2 shows some of the varying constraints to data collection in Vietnam and South Africa, on which the sometimes-time-consuming initial phase of regional water and land use projects, depends.

Based on the collected data and information, including the aforementioned harmonization and plausibility checks, a water and land use planning information system, as well as GIS-based water and land use planning maps for decision makers, were developed.

Based on the systematically collected, stored and evaluated database different methods to analyse water quantity as well as water quality, were developed (see Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Structure of the water and land use planning system and planning maps.

For water quantity aspects, methods were developed to compare water demands/water uses with water resources:

  • Water demand/water use: related to different land uses (agriculture, aquaculture, settlements, mining, industry, etc.)

  • Water resources: surface water, groundwater

  • Result of comparison: available water quantities, water deficits, water surpluses, water allocation

For water quality aspects, methods were developed to combine contamination potentials of land uses (agriculture, settlements, mining, industry, etc.), with the sensitivities of the water resources (surface water, groundwater, ecology).

  • Contamination potentials: different land uses are responsible for various contamination potentials for surface water and groundwater, depending on chemical substances used (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) and their application methods, as well as agricultural practices, themselves.

  • Sensitivity of water resources: sensitivity of water resources are varied, according to the boundary conditions for surface water (flow velocity, pollutant degradation, extraction practices and their proximity to sensitive resources, etc.), for groundwater (filtering effect of the covering soil layers, extraction practices and their proximity to sensitive resources, etc.) and the ecological status of the resources.

  • Result of comparison: the result of the combination is the designation of different contamination risks (e.g. high contamination potential + high sensitivity = high risk or low contamination potential + low sensitivity = low risk, etc.).

Based on the systematic approach outlined in Figure 1, a number a different water resources planning maps, have been developed. They represent water quantity as well as water quality issues. All the thematic maps were visualized in water planning maps (in some cases bundled in a Water Management Atlas or in a Web-GIS system [5]).

An important task was to design the work in such a way that it does not depict conditions that are valid in the short term, but rather derives planning-relevant statements that are valid in the longer term.

This publication discusses examples for the determination of the usable water quantity in the Mekong Delta, in Vietnam and for the determination of contamination risks in the Olifants river basin, in South Africa.

2.1 Available water quantity (example of Vietnam)

In accordance with the aforementioned planning levels, at the national level in Vietnam, the Planning Law No. 21/2017/QH14 [6], 2017, the Resolution No. 120/NQ-CP, 2017 [7] and the Decree No. 37/2019/ND-CP [8] are of basic importance in the context of water and land use planning. At the regional level, Decree No. 37/2019/ND-CP is of importance.

Based on these legal preconditions, the starting point of any planning-oriented water and land use management consideration, is to carry out an adequate system analysis. The system analysis should present the essential qualitative and quantitative interdependencies, as a basis for the planning assessments.

The project area, situated within the Mekong Delta (see Figure 2), is located in the South of Vietnam. It includes seven provinces, south-west of the Hau River, with an area of 22,000 km2 and contains approximately nine million inhabitants.

Figure 2.

Mekong Delta water and land use system in the dry season (Arrows: blue = fresh water from Hau River, red = saline water exchange/intake. Water bodies: blue = fresh, red = saline, green = alternating fresh/saline).

The Mekong Delta is a tropical delta area with terrain elevations mainly between 0 and 50 cm A.S.L. The Delta is a complex system of rivers, canals, rice paddies, aquacultures and wetland ecosystems, as well as infrastructure for water supply and irrigation.

The prominent feature of the Mekong delta is the existing dense water network of mostly human-made canals with various functions, including: ship transportation, irrigation, waste water discharge, water storage, etc. Characteristic for the Mekong Delta is the existing effective regional freshwater and saltwater management, controlled by weirs and sluice gates, with different water management functions, such as fresh water intake, fresh water and saline water separation, saline water intake and saline water discharge. These functions enable or constrain different land uses (rice and fruit production in freshwater areas, shrimp aquaculture in saltwater areas).

The driving forces for this water management are the tides and the changing water flows during the rainy and dry seasons. The tides and seasonal water levels allow for a recurrent exchange of fresh and salt water in the Mekong Delta.

The agricultural areas, such as rice and fruit production, are fed by freshwater from the Hau River. The areas with saline water from the sea are characterized by saltwater fish and shrimp farming.

Current trends show a significant decline in rice areas and an increase in aquaculture and settlement areas. Natural areas are only present in remaining areas. The land use planning under the first Mekong Delta Integrated Regional Plan (MDIRP) reinforces this trend as the influence of salt increases due to sea level rise, land subsidence and the decline of inflows into rivers.

2.1.1 Water demand, water resources in dry season

In the following table, the focus is on the dry season, as this is the critical time for ensuring water supply.

Within the study area, there are different water demands related to different land uses. There is a demand for fresh surface water in the rice areas, a demand for saline seawater, as well as a demand for fresh groundwater, in the aquaculture areas and alternating water demand (saline seawater and rainwater) in the rice-shrimp areas. Additionally, there is a demand for rainwater in the rainfed wetland/rice areas. Table 3 provides the basic information on water resources and the associated water demand for the main land use types (see Figure 2), in the Mekong Delta.

DataVietnamSouth Africa
Data availabilityNo Open Data ActOpen Data Act
Distributed over institutionsDistributed over institutions
Data formatsSeveral different data formatsShape Data, Google Earth
Data consistencyLow to medium qualityHigh to medium quality
MetadataNon-existentSparse
CostsUsually include an acquisition feeGenerally available at no cost

Table 2.

Different data handing in Vietnam and South Africa.

Land useWater resourcesProblems/measure need
Paddy rice—fresh waterFresh surface water from Hau RiverSurface water pollution by waste water and agrochemicals; water shortages at the Hau River mouth during saline intrusions; lack of fresh water in dry season
Aquaculture—saline waterSaline sea water, fresh rain water, groundwaterSurface water pollution by waste water and aqua chemicals; lack of fresh water; local groundwater over-exploitation
Rice/shrimp—alternating fresh or saline waterSaline sea water in dry season, fresh rain water in rainy seasonSurface water pollution by waste water, agrochemicals, aqua chemicals; soil salinization
Wetland forest/rice—fresh waterFresh rain waterSurface water pollution by waste water and agrochemicals; lack of fresh water in dry season
Urban and rural settlements, industry—fresh waterSurface water (e.g. from Hau River), groundwater, rain waterSurface water pollution by waste water; lack of fresh water in dry season; local groundwater over exploitation, lack of space for rain water harvesting and storage

Table 3.

Main water and land uses in the Mekong Delta according to the map in Figure 2 water demand, water resources, problems and measure need.

In determining the water demand, the following water use sectors are considered: agriculture, aquaculture, domestic water, drinking water, etc. A method for estimating total water demand, according to the current land use classifications by the Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), was developed and applied.

In the freshwater areas along the Hau River in the north-east of the study area, the main user of large quantities of freshwater, in the dry season, is rice cultivation (see Table 4). The demand for water can be supplemented by water storage in small canals, from the rainy season, as well as inflows from the Hau River. The water demand for residential land uses, in this area, is covered by surface water from the Hau River or groundwater.

Land useArea (ha)Area (%)Water demand
(million m3/a)
Water demand
(%)
Triple rice135,993521.35360.9
Double rice83,148320.79435.7
Rivers, canals, water surfaces13,7425
Residential land in rural area815830.0140.6
Residential land in urban area546120.0130.6
Others14,78860.0472.1
Total rice, residential246,502942.17497.9
Total all land uses261,2901002.221100

Table 4.

An example of land uses and water demands from so-called subregion III, a freshwater area in the northwest of the study area (see Figure 2) near the border to Cambodia.

In the saline areas in the southwest, where there is no relevant demand for fresh water for irrigation, the main sources of freshwater come from groundwater extraction, rain water harvesting as well as storage (e.g., for domestic purposes, food processing, etc.).

2.1.2 Problems, contradictions, need for action

The following problems with different land use and their associated water demands, become apparent:

  • Quality problems and limitations of the usability of surface water resources occur due to pollutant inputs (sewage, agrochemicals, aqua chemicals, etc.)

  • Quantity problems occur due to episodic saltwater intrusions, in the Hau River mouth. During such periods, water abstraction for irrigation purposes is not possible.

  • There is a freshwater demand in the saline areas that cannot be met by rainwater, as there are too few areas and facilities to collect the rainwater in rainy season. This leads to overuse of groundwater in these areas.

  • The demand for groundwater in the saline areas, leads to local over-exploitation of groundwater resources, which leads to land subsidence.

  • The current problems are exacerbated by a greater diversity of water users with different water needs, and thus the quantitative increase in water demand.

  • There is also a decline in natural freshwater ecosystems and loss of ecological functions within the rivers and canal systems.

Water demand, water use and water resources, as well as the resulting problems and contradictions, are depicted in corresponding planning maps and underpinned by results from mathematical models. Proposals for the avoidance and improvement of water and land use are derived from this.

2.2 Contamination risks (example of South Africa)

South Africa is facing major challenges in the water sector. The uneven distribution within river networks and insufficient precipitation leads to water-supply shortages, especially in dry season. Additionally, water infrastructure and the management of water supply and waste water treatment, is in deficit. The rapid industrial growth, the progressing urbanization and the industrially organized agriculture, lead to increasing water demand and water quality problems [2].

The investigated Olifants River Basin is located in the provinces Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga, in the northeast of South Africa (see Figure 3). It has a total area of 54.626 km2.

Figure 3.

Olifants River Basin.

In contrast to the Mekong Delta, the Olifants River Basin has a semi-arid climate and, therefore, stressed water resources. Economically, it is characterized by intensive mining activities, irrigated and rainfed agriculture and tourism (Kruger National Park). Surface water, stored in dams and reservoirs, supplements most of the water demand. The largest dams are: Loskop Dam and De Hoop Dam (see Figure 3).

The Olifants River Basin is characterized by two main river systems: the Olifants and Steelpoort Rivers (see Figure 3). Groundwater use is limited to only one exploitable aquifer, formed by basalts. The rest of the river basin consists primarily of sedimentary rocks (e.g. sandstone) and intrusive igneous rocks (e.g. granite) (see Figure 4).

Figure 4.

Lithology [9,10,11,12].

Water quality issues are a limiting factor for the socio-economic and environmental development in South Africa. Many studies in South Africa focus on the negative side-effects of dynamic population and economic growth, industrially organized agricultural practices and contamination potential, originating from the mining sector. In addition to these topics, inefficient water infrastructure is also one of the main problems [2].

The Water Quality Report of the Department of Water Affairs [13] and the Planning Level Review of Water Quality in South Africa [14], provides an assessment of the existing conditions of water quality in the Olifants River Basin.

According to Van Veelen [13], the analysis results of the water quality in the Olifants River Basin highlight the following: salinity related impacts due to mining, power generation and industries; unacceptable EC concentrations due to irrigation return flows; acid mine drainage; mesotrophic to eutrophic dams; unacceptable phosphate concentrations in rivers; unacceptably high levels of heavy metal concentration in parts of the catchment; pesticides and herbicides in rivers due to agricultural activities.

This wide range of water quality-related problems, needs a holistic and efficient research approach. The method developed for assessing contamination risks, includes consideration of the following contamination pathways:

  • Infiltration of pollutants into groundwater

  • Erosive surface runoff of pollutants into surface water bodies

  • Direct discharge of pollutants into surface waters

In this publication, only the sensitivity of the groundwater resources and the contamination potentials of agriculture, are determined and aggregated, to contamination risks on a sub-basin level.

2.2.1 Sensitivity of groundwater resources

Figure 4 illustrates the lithology of the Olifants River Basin. The runout evaluation of the uppermost groundwater aquifer was carried out, based on the lithological classes and is described via their hydraulic conductivity in the hydrogeological map series of the Republic of South Africa [9, 10, 11, 12]. Overlying strata above the aquifers were not considered, as these cannot be safely assessed at the chosen scale of 1:1,300,000. As the protective effect of overlying strata is ignored, the classification of resource sensitivity lies within secure margins. The consideration of overlying strata is to be included in subsequent planning levels.

The resource sensitivity of groundwater is established for the uppermost groundwater aquifer, also taking into consideration groundwater use. Groundwater resource sensitivity is classified, based on runout and groundwater use as per Table 5.

Very high groundwater sensitivityHigh groundwater sensitivityMedium groundwater sensitivityLow groundwater sensitivity
Increased groundwater use areaSolid rock—high yield (e.g., basalt); floodplains with low depth to water tableSolid rock—medium yield (e.g., alternating layers of sandstone, shale); loose material—medium yield (e.g., sand)Solid rock—low yield (e.g., granite)

Table 5.

Evaluation of groundwater resource sensitivity in the Olifants River Basin [9, 10, 11].

Figure 5 depicts the groundwater resource sensitivity in the Olifants River Basin. Areas with groundwater extraction and use are characterized by very high resource sensitivity. They are shown, using a hatched pattern. This characterization is based on existing risks through contaminant inflow, due to informal and illegal borehole construction or borehole use. A further justification for this characterization is the special need for protection of the directly used groundwater resource. In accordance with the Technical Rules for the Protection of Groundwater (Protected Areas for Groundwater, W101 [15, 16]), which were drawn up in Germany, by the DVGW, together with LAWA, a protection zone of 500 m around each borehole was defined, in this study, for the project area.

Figure 5.

Sensitivity groundwater.

In Figure 5, areas with the classification “high” resource sensitivity are depicted in red, those with “medium” resource sensitivity are depicted in orange and those with “low” resource sensitivity are depicted in green.

2.2.2 Contamination potentials of land uses

Distinction is made between the following possible contamination potentials:

  • Contamination potential from diffuse sources, through infiltration of agricultural contaminants into groundwater

  • Contamination potential from diffuse sources, through infiltration of waste water from settlements into groundwater

  • Contamination potential from point sources, through infiltration of contaminants into groundwater (commercial, industrial, dumpsites, mines)

In the following sub-chapter, the contamination potential from diffuse sources, through infiltration of agricultural contaminants into groundwater, will be discussed.

For the different land use classes in the Olifants River Basin, contamination potential through infiltration of nutrients into groundwater, is assumed. Figure 6 depicts land cover and its classification, based on the South African National Land-Cover Database [17]. The nutrient availability potential is differentiated, according to different land cover classes, analysed by Moolman [18], for the Olifants River Basin (see Table 6).

Figure 6.

Land cover (72 classes) [17].

Land use classesContamination potential
Bare Rock and Soil (erosion: dongas/gullies)Medium
Bare Rock and Soil (erosion: sheet)Medium
Bare Rock and Soil (natural)Low
Cultivated: permanent—commercial drylandHigh
Cultivated: permanent—commercial irrigatedHigh
Cultivated: temporary—commercial drylandHigh
Cultivated: temporary—commercial irrigatedHigh
Cultivated: temporary—semi-commercial/subsistence drylandHigh
Cultivated: temporary—semi-commercial/subsistence irrigatedHigh
Degraded: forest and woodlandMedium
Degraded: thicket and bushland (etc.)Medium
Degraded: unimproved (natural) grasslandLow
Forest (indigenous)Low
WoodlandLow
Forest plantations (Acacia spp.)Medium
Forest plantations (deforestation)Medium
Forest plantations (Eucalyptus spp.)Medium
Forest plantations (other, mixed spp.)Medium
Forest plantations (Pine spp.)Medium
Improved grasslandMedium
Thicket, Bushland, Bush Clumps, High FynbosLow
Unimproved (natural) grasslandLow
WetlandsLow

Table 6.

Contamination potential land use classes [18].

In a next step, the results were divided into three contamination potential classes. Areas with a “high” nutrient available potential are depicted in red, those with a “medium” nutrient availability potential are depicted in orange and those with “low” nutrient availability potential are depicted in green (see Figure 7).

Figure 7.

Contamination potential of diffuse sources, due to infiltration of agricultural contaminants into groundwater.

2.2.3 Groundwater contamination risk

The groundwater contamination risk classification, is the result of aggregating the aforementioned groundwater resource sensitivity and the corresponding contamination potential.

Table 7 represents the aggregation method used to establish the contamination risk for groundwater resources, from agriculture. These contamination risks are classified as “very high”, “high”, “medium” and “low”.

Table 7.

Groundwater contamination risk through infiltration of agricultural contaminants.

Figure 8 depicts the groundwater contamination risk in the Olifants River Basin. The contamination risk of areas depicted in 44 red is “high”, the contamination risk of areas depicted in orange is “medium” and areas depicted in green have a “low” contamination risk.

Figure 8.

Groundwater contamination risk due to infiltration of agricultural contaminants into groundwater.

Overall, the results for the Olifants River Basin shows large areas with an increased contamination risk. Vast areas with an increased contamination risk are highly relevant for water supply (boreholes) management interventions. A reduction of the contamination risk, for example through water protection concepts, is necessary.

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3. Conclusions and outlook

The discussed methodology was developed and applied, under different boundary conditions, in several river basins in Vietnam and South Africa. Depending on the available information and data, the methods used to evaluate the water resources quantity and quality, were adapted to the different boundary conditions. The methods were also integrated into the existing spatial water and land use planning concepts.

This methodology is found to be suitable for the identification of problems and need for action, at the regional level and as an orientation for sub regional/sub-basin levels, as well as water management units, with their local investigations and measurements protocols.

The thematically-oriented collection of geodata, related to water and land use, will create a centralized geodatabase, in which all relevant information will be available, across varying institutions and disciplines.

The described methodology analyses and compares water demands and water resources, in detail, as well as sensitivities of water resources and contamination potentials. Results of the methodology, define existing and expected problems and needs for action, on a river basin and sub-basin level, with regard to the availability of water resources and pollution risks.

The application of the methodology will enable stakeholders to make decisions, on a scientific basis. The identification process enables decision makers to attend effectively to the issues with high priority ratings first.

The close cooperation with the Vietnamese and South African authorities, within the projects, ensures a holistic implementation of the different methods on a local level. The participation of the responsible water agencies, on national level, guarantees a sustainable adjustment and a nation-wide transferability of the methods.

The derived results, from the developed methods, are documented in several reports and documents [4, 19, 20, 21]. This publication has outlined the methodology developed. Further publications show concrete applications for planning support at the regional level in Vietnam and in South Africa. This refers to the main planning maps (see Table 8), related explanations and recommendations for measures (monitoring, use restrictions, sanitation, etc.).

Regional planning support—Planning MapsMD/ORB
Water quantityFresh SW demand according land usesMD
Available fresh SW resources considering water qualityMD
Deficits, surpluses of fresh SWMD
Fresh GW demand according land uses and GW extractionsMD
Available fresh GW resourcesMD
Deficits, surpluses of GWMD
Water qualityContamination Potentials for fresh SWMD
Sensitivity of fresh SW resourcesMD
Contamination risks for fresh SW, monitoring results of SWMD
Contamination potentials for fresh GWMD, ORB
Sensitivity of fresh GW resourcesMD, IRB
Contamination risks for GW, monitoring results of SWMD, ORB

Table 8.

Outcome: main GIS-based updatable planning maps.

SW = surface water, GW = groundwater, MD = Mekong Delta, ORB = Olifants River Basin.

In addition, the GIS-based methods were transferred to web-based GIS systems. The software tools complement the sustainable use of the methodology. They facilitate easy-to-use, standardized and quality-assured techniques for updating data and integrating new data. In a user-friendly way, the software tools also make the planning maps available, countrywide, through a web browser.

The main users of the methods and systems should be, for example, institutions for coordination of regional planning or river basin organizations. The web-based systems developed provide an important comprehensive information basis. Based on this, decision-makers can make decisions in a transparent and comprehensible manner.

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Written By

Harro Stolpe, Nguyen Ngoc Ha and Christian Jolk

Submitted: October 25th, 2021Reviewed: January 17th, 2022Published: May 4th, 2022