Demographic characteristic of informants.
The present study was aim to document the traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of wild edible plants in District Bagh Azad Kashmir. Ethnomedicinal data was gathered from 80 informants using open ended and semi structured interview, field observation and group discussion. A total of 51 wild edible plant species mentioned by informants’ as medicinal belonging to 42 botanical genera and 32 botanical families with Legumenaceae (6 spp.) and Rosaceae (5 spp.) being most frequently used. Herbs (45.09%) were most commonly used for prepration of herbal recipies. The preferably used plant part for herbal preparation are leaves (64.7%). The plant species with highest relative frequency of citation are Morus nigra (0.9) and Melia azedarach (0.9). The highest UV values was recorded for M. nigra (1) and Berberis lycium (1). The highest RI value was calculated for Urginea indica (90). Berberis lycium had 100% fidelity level. Wild edible plants species are under high anthropogenic pressure and need immediate conservation through community base management, public awareness and germplasm collection. There is dire need for reappraisal of traditionally knowledge on wild edible plants which not only conserve this traditional heritage but may also contribute in future drug discovery.
- wild edible plants
Humans have quite complex relationship with plants extending far back from the beging of human civilization on the earth. Plants are intially used for food, medicine and shelter. However various other uses ared discover by human beging with the passage of time and the dependence of human being on plant incresaed many fold, and in this manner support various other aspects of human proseperity and walfare [1, 2]. Ethnobotany paly key role in understaning the past and present dynamic interrelationship between socioculture system and phytodiversity . The term Ethonotany was first coined by John W. Harsberge in 1896 . However Ford (1978) developed the ethnobotanical discipline which descirbed the collection, identifcation and uses of plants by the people . In borader aspect, ethnobotany referes to the discipline which use various anthropolgical approaches to understand the knowledge systems. During the current era, the ethnobotany emerge as mutidisplinay subject which focus on people plant relationship not only by collection and documentation of plants and their potential uses but also invovle economy, anthorpology, botany, pharmacology, public heatlh and vaious other fields. Thus people palnt interaction is quite broader aspect encompassing religious, social, artistic, commerical and symbolic relationship.
Ethnobotanical survey play pivotal role in highlighing the important plant species of the particular area. These species may be quite significant in pharmaceutical, farming, medicine and nuraceutical industry. The documentation of tradiational knowledge provide the basis for development of various modern drugs. It has been estimated that about 25% of modern medicine are plant based and majority of allopatheic medicine are synthetic analogue to the natural compound isolated from various plant species . About 70–80% population of developing countries still depend upon herbal remedies for curing various ailments. This may due their cost effectivness, less side effect, cultural acceptibility and lack of modern health facilites. Herbal remedies are even extensivly used in various developed countries e.g. 40–50% population in Germany, 30–50% in China, 42% in the USA, 49% in France and 48% in Australia used plant based medicine as supplementary health care [7, 8, 9].
Wild plants species grows in natural or semi natural ecosystem spontaneously and exist independently without any human intervention. In contrast cultivated or domesticated plants have grown under human intervention, such as collection or breeding, and rely on management for their continuing survival. Wild edibel plant are gathered throughout the world using tradiational practice from different habitats such as forests, wetlands cultivateable fields and roadside. Since ancient times, wild plants have played a pivotal role in survival and livlehood of number of ethnic communities across the world by providing medicine, food, colors, shelter, poisons, textiles and also used in cultruarl and religious cermonies . They are preffered by the people because of their aromatic and fresh taste, growing in pollutant free envirnoment, rich mineral nutrients, strong vitality and number of health and medicinal benefits .
According to estimate there are about 20,000 wild plant species across the world [12, 13]. In the past, more than 7000 wild edible plant species have been used by the humans . Out of total, only 3000 speccies have been ued as agricultural crop and 150 species are commercially cultivated. However 90% of our food is obtained from only 20 species [12, 15, 16]. The usage of wild edible plant as food occur both in the time of food shortage and surplus and this usage has not completely disappeared even in the agricultural socities where people primarly depends upon crop plant [17, 18]. Throughout the contemporary world, about 200 million people full fill their food and livilehood requirments from frorest . Previous reports also documented the theraputic potential and nturional value of wild edible plants [15, 16, 19].
The wild edible plants (WEPs) are an integral component of biodiversity and there in situ conservation offers various sociocultural, economic and agriculture benefits [10, 20]. The role of wild edible plants in folk tradiations is quite significant. However the most relevant and consistent reason for better management of wild edible plants are there use as food and medicine. Therefore, the ethnobotanical research is important in identifying new source for food and providing raw material for drug discovery. The presence of high amount of various micrnonutrients, minerals and vitamin increase the nutritional quality of wild edible as compared to domesticated varieties and hence prefered by ethnic communities . Some areas of the world have particular diversity of plants and animals [15, 16]. District Bagh, is one of such area located in western Himalayan region of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. The area harbored number of wild edible plants, which are use by local in variety of ways. Large numbers of wild edible plants are widely distributed throughout the District and consumed in various ways. Nutritionally, most of these plants are highly important because of presence of fiber contents, minerals and vitamins. Root, nut, tubers, fruit and bark are commonly consumed parts, which were analyzed for carbohydrate, protein, fats and minerals.
Previous epidemiological reports confirmed that diet have key role in curing various chronic ailments. This evidence suggest that change in behavior of diet such as high consumption of grains, fruits and vegetable is a practical strategy in minimizing or controlling the incidence of various chronic ailments. High consumption of wild fruits and vegetables have strong link with low risk of cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, Aging, cataracts. The connection between food and health is becoming highly significant as people now demand tasty, healthy and natural functional foods which grow in uncontaminated environment. In different regions of the world the knowledge about such wild edible plants as medicine and food is disappearing. This is because it mainly transferred orally and vertically from generation to generation as a part of traditional knowledge. Hence it is very crucial to document the data about popular uses of such plants before this knowledge become extinct. Therefore, current study is design to (a) document ethnomedicinal knowledge about wild edible plants (b) quantitatively analyze the data by using various indices such as frequency of citation, use value, informant consent factor, relative importance and fidelity level.
2. Material and methods
2.1 Study area
District Bagh is one of the diversity rich area lies in western Himalayan region of Azad Kashmir. Its geographical coordinates are between latitude 33°53′–4°07′ N and longitude 73°30′ to 74° E. The altitude of the area varies between 600 and 3300 m. The total land area is 770 m2 and total population is 0.397 illion. Map of the study area is given in Figure 1. The climate of the area is of Mediterranean type with annual precipitation of 1500 mm. January is coldest month with average minimum temperature fall below −2°C and June is warmest month where average maximum temperature remains close to 40°C.
The local inhabitant of the area belongs to diverse ethnic group mainly Maldial, Abbasi, Khawa, Rajpoot, Gujar and Sadaat. The whole population is Muslim. Commonly spoken languages include Hinko, Pahari, Kashmiri and Gojri. The vegetation of the area varies from subtropical to temperate type comprises a wide variety herbs, shrubs, trees and climbers. The people residing at higher altitude have poor socioeconomic condition and have a long abundant and tradition practices of eating wild plants. Due very limited access to modern health facilities, they still use these plants to cure various ailments. However, knowledge about medicinal and other use of plants are mainly confine to elder peoples and health Practionaire (hakims).
2.2 Ethnobotanical data collection
Ethnomedicinal data about wild edible plants was obtained from 80 informants (35 males; females) open ended and semi structured interviews, field observation and group discussion. The consent was verbally obtained from the participant before starting interview. Ethical codes of American society of Ethnobiology was followed strictly during survey. Ethical permission to conduct survey was obtained from ethical committee of university, while legal permission was obtained from members of municipality. Complete information about wild edible plants such as local name, medicinal usage, part used in herbal recipie, cooking recipe, mode of consumption, disease treated were carefully recorded.
2.3 Plant collection and identification
Field survey was conducted during March 2020 to February 2021. The wild edible plants specimens were collected in triplicate during different season throughout year. The specimens were properly dried, pressed and pasted on herbarium sheets. By using flora of Pakistan (https://http://www.efloras.org) the specimens were identified. APG IV (2016) system was adopted for taxonomical verification of families while the correct botanical nomenclature was given by using The Plant List (2013). The identified specimens were further confirmed at Pakistan Agriculture and Research Council (PARC), Islamabad. The finally idenetified speciemen were submitted finally in herbarium of Botany Department of Women University.
2.4 Quantitative ethnobotanical indices
The collected ethno medicinal data of wild edible plants was quantitatively analyzed by using following indices:
2.4.1 Relative frequency of citation (RFC)
The local significance of particular plant species as cited by the informants was determined by using relative Frequency of Citation. It was figured out after Vijayakumar et al.  by given formula:
whereas, FC is informant who reported specific wild edible plant species and N is total informants. Its value range between 0 and 1.0 when no informant cited use of species as useful and 1 when all the infsormant cited the species as useful.
2.4.2 Use value index
The relative importance of particular specie in region is reflected by use value (UV) and determined by following Vijayakumar et al.  by given formula:
Where, UV are use reports cited by each informant for given wild edible plant species and N are total informants.
2.4.3 Relative importance
It was figured out after Khan et al.  by given formula:
Where PH is the pharmacological attribute of the selected plant, Rel PH = relative pharmacological attributes of a given plant.
Where BS is body systems healed by given species and Rel BS is relative body systems healed by that species.
2.4.4 Informant consensus factor (ICF)
The consensus among the informants about usage of wild edible plants for treating different disease categories will check by using ICF. It was determined after Heinrich et al.  using given formula:
Where, Nur is use reports in given diseases category, Nt are species numbers used for curing various diseases of that category.
2.4.5 Fidelity level (FL)
It reflect weigtage of particular plant species by informants to heal given ailment and was figured out after Alexiades and Sheldon  using given formula
Where Np are informants citing use of specific wild plant species for a particular ailment and N are the total informants mentioning uses for a particular wild plant species for all disease category.
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Demography and knowledge variation
A total of 80 informants (35 males; 45 females) were selected to gathered knowledge about usage of wild edible plants from District Bagh. The informants were divided into four groups i.e. gender, age, education and profession (Table 1). The informants were first classified on the base of gender. Women informants were more in number as compared to men because the interviewee was female and women do not hesitate to share information with her. Besides, the women had high traditional knowledge (average cited species 3.90; average cited uses 5.15) about usage of wild edible plants as compared to male (average cited species 4.56; average cited uses 6.73) This may because the women generally mange the indoor and domestic activities while the males mostly engage in earning and field works. The other reason may be strongly connected network among the women and greater knowledge sharing with high number of central individual. These findings are strongly supported by Kayani et al., Aziz et al., Shaheen et al., Farooq et al. and Amjad et al.
|Profession||Traditional health practionaires||9||11.25||20.48||13.98|
Age was second criteria used for classification of informants. Base on age the informants were categorized into three categories i. e. 20–40, 41–60 and 60–80. The older age people (between 60 and 80) had more knowledge (average cited species 11.32; average cited uses 12.91) about wild edible followed by elder (average cited species 8.16; average cited uses 7.31) and younger (average cited species 3.44; average cited uses 3.67). The older age people had vast experience of practicing wild plants. While the younger had limited interest in learning and practicing traditional knowledge due to change in lifestyle and modernization. Similar trend were also observed by Qaseem et al. in Kotli, Shaheen et al. in Pearl valley and Umair et al.  in Hafizabad.
The third significant factor was education. Educated peoples had less knowledge about wild edible plants as compared to educated people. This is due to frequent utilization and direct attachment of uneducated informants with wild edible plants species. Beside they mostly contact with traditional healers during illness. The modern education and culture mostly detach the people from nature. Likewise, the traditional health practitioner (hakim) had more knowledge about wild plants because they remain in touch with them. They have strong academic knowledge about usage of herbs for curing various ailments. Previous reports from other areas of Pakistan and other world also report similar findings.
3.2 Taxonomic diversity of wild edible plants
A total of 51 wild edible plant species distributed among 42 genera and 32 families were documented from District Bagh. Maximum plant species were herbs (24 spp.; 45.09%) followed by shrubs (14 spp.; 27.45%) trees (12 spp.; 23.52%) and climber (2 spp.; 3.92%) (Figure 2). The dominance of herbaceous flora is due to location of study area in dense forest at higher altitude where there is high rainfall and moisture content.
Legumenaceae is a dominant family in the area having 6 species followed by Rosaceae (5 spp.) and Moraceae (4 spp.) (Figure 3). The dominance of these families in the study area might because the habitat and environmental conditions of the area are favorable for the member of these families. The local inhabitants of the area had great familiarity to the member of these families. The presence of high amount of active ingredients in its members might be another reason for their dominance. Previous reports from other areas of Pakistan and world support our findings [7, 27, 28].
3.2.1 Plants parts used
Local inhabitant of study area used various plants part to prepare different herbal recipes. Leaves were most frequently used plant part (64.7%) for herbal preparation followed by whole plants (5.88%) root (9.8), fruit (27.4), seed (19.6), flowers (7.8) bark (11.7%) bulb (3.92%) bark gal (1.96%)and petals (1.96%) as shown in (Figure 4). The high efficacy of leaves in phytotherapy might be due to presence of extractable crude drugs, phytochemicals and many other mixtures. This studies conducted with different regions of Pakistan Bano et al. and Ahmad et al.
3.2.2 Mode of consumption
Wild edible plants were consumed in different ways by local inhbatiant to cure various ailments. Maximum species (species; 41.1%) were used in cooked form, followed by raw (15 species; 29.4), extract (6 species; 11.7%), soup (6 species; 11.7%) paste (4 species; 7.8%), powder (1 species; 1.9%) chewed (1 species; 1.9%) and poulite (1 species; 1.9) as shown in (Figure 5). Our findings are supported by previous documentation [7, 29, 30, 31]). Cooking and eating raw snakes are common practice in food anthropoglogy as descibed in various previous reports. The specific parts of wild edible plants are diectly cooked as a vegetable by mixing with water, soup and milk friuts are eat in raw form. Paste and poulite are apply on skin for various diseases treatment like scabies, skin worms.
3.2.3 Quantitative etnobotanical indices
220.127.116.11 Relative frequency of citation
18.104.22.168 Use value (UV)
The relative importance of plant species associated with the use of particular species reported by the informants is reflected by use value. The use value of document species ranges from 0.1 to 1. The maximum UV values was reported for
|Sr. no.||Botanical name/Voucher number||UI||UV||FC||RFC||PH||BS||Rel PH||Rel BS||RI|
22.214.171.124 Relative importance (RI)
Relative importance reflect diversity of particular species for curing various ailments in area. The relative importance of the documented species ranges between 12.14 and 90.00. The highest RI value was calculated for
3.2.4 Informant consensus factor
The consensus of informants on wild edible plants to cure various diseases was determined by using ICF. To develop this consensus, all the treated aliments are categorized into 10 diseases groups. The value of ICF varied between 0.4 and 0.94. (Figure 6). The highest value of ICF (0.94) is digestive system and liver disease categoreis. The most frequently used plants for this category are
3.2.5 Fidelity level
The fidelity level of wild edible plants species for curing different ailments in the study area varies between 30 and 100%. The fidelity level of only
The present study revealed that the rural communities of District Baghs still use wild edible plants for medicne, food and other purposes. But this indigenous knowledge on plant usage is disappearing rapidly due to moderanization, which should be conserved before it extinct. Ther use pattren of wild edible plants mainly infulenced by socio ecnomic factor instead of climatic factors. Study of the results showed that in the study area, most of the wild edible plants are used by poor families during difficult and normal time. However ther is rapid decline in use of several species which may lead to the extinction of this tradiational knowledge. The citation and use reports of wild vegetables verified that cultural heritage and cultural worth regarding collection of wild edible palnts is analogue because most of cited species are same. The majority of the plants were employed to treat digestive system and liver disorders, skin diseasess and respiratory tract diseases. The plant species with high RFC, UV, RI and FL should be subjecte to further pharmacological and phytochemical studies to verify this tradiational knowledge which can be used in future for novel drugh development. The current study also revlead that wild edible plants species are under high anthorpogenic pressure and need immidate conservation thorugh community base management, public awaness and germplasm collection. Besides, The conribution of ethnic communities for diversification of medicine and food sources should be recognize at the national and international level. There is dire need for reappraisal of tradiational knowledge on wilde edible palnts which not only conserve this tradiational heritage but may also contribute in furture drug discovery.
Pictures of wild edible plants reported from study area.
Ethnomedicinal uses of wild edible plants of District Bagh.
|Sr no.||Botanical name/voucher number||Vernacular name||Family||Habitat||Part used||Mode of consumption||Mode of administration||Diseases treatment|
|Bark||Powder||Diabetes, stomach disorder|
|3.||Kao||Oleaceae||Tree||Seed||Extract||Internal||Toothache, Stomach disorder, diarrhea, heart diseases, High cholesterol, high blood pressure|
|4.||Khatti booti||Oxalidaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Influenza, fever|
|Seed||Cooked||Internal||urinary tract infection, wash to rid children hookworms|
|5.||Amala||Phyllanthaceae||Tree||Seed||Extract||External||Hair care, skin care|
|6.||Sonf||Apiaceae||Herb||Seed||Soup||Internal||Respiratory tract diseases, urinary tract infection, kidney stone|
|7.||Karkatshringi||Anacardiaceae||Tree||Fruit||Soup||Internal||Cough, asthma, dysentery, liver, disorders, snake bite|
|8.||Jangli gulab||Rosaceae||Shrub||Leaf||Extract||Internal||Blood purifier, wound healing|
|10.||Kachmach||Solanaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Paste||External||Scabies, skin worms|
|12.||Karken ber||Rhamnaceae||Shrub||Leaves||Soup||Internal||Cold, dysentery|
|14.||Jungli palak, Hula||Polygonaceae||Herb||Fruit, Root||Cooked||External||Skin diseases|
|16.||Kunji||Dryopteridaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Diarrhea, headache, heart diseases, respiratory disorder, uterus disorders|
|18.||—||Portulacaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Extract||Internal||Diuretic, fever, urinary disorders, dysentery|
|19.||Not Known||Leguminosae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||diabetes, decreasing blood, cholesterol.|
|20.||Faba bean||Leguminosae||Tree||Flowers||Cooked||Internal & External||Diuretic, removal of wards|
|22.||Daru||Lythraceae||Shrub||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Sore throats, coughs, urinary infection, digestive disorders|
|23.||Darkh||Meliaceae||Tree||Fruit||Soup||Internal||Malarial fever, purify blood, diabetes|
|24.||Shatoot||Moraceae||Tree||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Dizziness, liver, kidney disorder|
|25.||Khaa shattot||Moraceae||Tree||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Cough, bronchitis|
|27.||Jungli piazz||Asparagaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Cooked||Internal||Diuretic, cough, asthma|
|28.||Pahunay/black berry||Rosaceae||Herb||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Anticancer, dysentery, diarrhea, whopping cough, toothache, sore throat, mouth ulcer, mouthwash|
|30||Jungli lashun||Amaryllidaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Cooked||Internal||Diabetes, fever, intestinal worms, dysentery, high blood pressure|
|31.||Chal||Rosaceae||Shrub||Flowers||Cooked||Internal||Headaches, dizziness, blood purifier|
|32.||Aheer||Acanthaceae||Climber||Fruit||Extract||Internal||Hypertension, asthma, fever, epilepsy, stomach, heart pain, urethral discharge, nose bleeding, dry cough, irritated throat, chest infection|
|33.||Kankoli||Elaeagnaceae||Shrub||Seed||Raw||Internal||Respiratory diseases, cough, pulmonary infection|
|34.||Kiker||Leguminosae||Tree||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Calms stomach, burns, eye aliment|
|35.||Rata ganayar||Amaranthaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Eyes diseases, diuretic, diabetes, Malaria, ulcer,|
|Seed||Diarrhea, swelling of the mouth, high cholesterol|
|36.||Chetta ganayar||Amaranthaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Ulcer, Throats, headaches, tumors|
|37.||Kengi||Urticaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Diabetes, urinary, tract infection,|
|39.||Kala amlook||Ebenaceae||Tree||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Fever, diarrhea, constipation, dysentery|
|40.||Timber||Rutaceacae||Shrub||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Asthma, bronchitis, indigestion, diarrhea, cholera|
|41.||Tara mera||Brassicaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Cooked||Internal||Urinary, tract infection, cough, bronchitis, muscular pain|
|42.||Bang||Cannabaceae||Herb||Leaves||Extract||Internal||Control nausea, vomiting, Cancer, muscles spasms|
|43.||Bhikar||Acanthaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Bronchitis, asthma, TB, control bleeding from gums|
|Flowers||Cough, diarrhea, dysentery, chest infection|
|44.||Berg e bansa, bakar||Brassicaceae||Herb||Whole plant||Cooked||Internal||Nose bleeding, menstrual cycle, headache, heart problems, Diarrhea, urinary problems|
|45.||Sag||Leguminosae||Herb||Leaves||—||Internal||Inflammation joint pain, fever, cold, diuretic, wound healing|
|46.||Honey colve||Plantaginaceae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Skin infection, blood purifier|
|47.||—||Leguminosae||Herb||Leaves||Cooked||Internal||Kidney pain, eye infection|
|50.||Budi meva||Rhamnaceae||Herb||Fruit||Raw||Internal||Skin problems, liver disease, ulcer, weight loss|
Ali H, Qaiser M. The ethnobotany of Chitral valley, Pakistan with particular reference to medicinal plants. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009; 41(4):2009-2041
Amjad MS, Qaeem MF, Ahmad I, Khan SU, Chaudhari SK, Zahid Malik N, et al. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171896
Hussain W, Badshah L, Ullah M, Ali M, Ali A, Hussain F. Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2018; 14(1):1-18
Campbell EA, Masuda S, Sun JL, Muzzin O, Olson CA, Wang S, et al. Crystal structure of the Bacillus stearothermophilus anti-σ factor SpoIIAB with the sporulation σ factor σF. Cell. 2002; 108(6):795-807
Asch DL, Asch NB. The economic potential of Iva annua and its prehistoric importance in the lower Illinois Valley. The Nature and Status of Ethnobotany. 1978:300-341
Cox PA. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science. 2000; 287(5450):44-45
Bibi T, Ahmad M, Tareen RB, Tareen NM, Jabeen R, Rehman SU, et al. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014; 157:79-89
Heinrich M, Kufer J, Leonti M, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology—Interdisciplinary links with the historical sciences. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 107(2):157-160
Kassaye KD, Amberbir A, Getachew B, Mussema Y. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2006; 20(2):127-134
Heywood V, Skoula M. The MEDUSA network: Conservation and sustainable use of wild plants of the Mediterranean region. In: Janick J, editor. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press; 1999. pp. 148-151
Alam MJ, Ahmed KS, Nahar MK, Akter S, Uddin MA. Effect of different sowing dates on the performance of maize. Journal of Krishi Vigyan. 2020; 8(2):75-81
Ladio AH, Lozada M. Patterns of use and knowledge of wild edible plants in distinct ecological environments: A case study of a Mapuche community from northwestern Patagonia. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2004; 13(6):1153-1173
Schaal B. Plants and people: Our shared history and future. Plants, People, Planet. 2019; 1(1):14-19
Grivetti LE, Ogle BM. Value of traditional foods in meeting macro-and micronutrient needs: The wild plant connection. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2000; 13(1):31-46
Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Zafar M. Ethno-medicinal assessment of some selected wild edible fruits and vegetables of Lesser-Himalayas, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2013; 45(SI):215-222
Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Shah MH, Shah MM, Pervez A, Ahmad M. Ethnobotanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2013; 9(1):1-13
Majeed M, Bhatti KH, Pieroni A, Sõukand R, Bussmann RW, Khan AM, et al. Gathered wild food plants among diverse religious groups in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan. Foods. 2021; 10(3):594
Pimentel D, Nair MM, Buck L, Pimentel M, Kami J. The value of forests to world food security. Human Ecology. 1997; 25:91-120
Ansari D, Garcia N, Lucas E, Hamon K, Dhital B. Neural correlates of symbolic number processing in children and adults. Neuroreport. 2005; 16(16):1769-1773
Ahmad K, Pieroni A. Folk knowledge of wild food plants among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman Hills, North-West Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2016; 12(1):1-15
Msuya TS, Kideghesho JR, Mosha TC. Availability, preference, and consumption of indigenous forest foods in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2010; 49(3):208-227
Vijayakumar S, Yabesh JM, Prabhu S, Manikandan R, Muralidharan B. Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of plants used in the Nelliyampathy hills of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015; 161:238-254
Khan MPZ, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ali MI, Sun H. Ethnomedicinal uses of edible wild fruits (EWFs) in Swat Valley, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015; 173:191-203
Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine. 1998; 47(11):1859-1871
Alexiades MN, Sheldon JW.. Selected guidelines for ethnobotanical research: A field manual (No. Sirsi i9780893274047). 1996
Umair M, Altaf M, Abbasi AM. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. PloS One. 2017; 12(6):e0177912
Arnold BC. Pareto Distribution. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online; 2014. pp. 1-10
Lulekal E, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E, Van Damme P. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used for human ailments in Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2013; 9(1):1-13
Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S, Ben Hadda T, Rashid S, Zafar M, et al. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (district Swat-Pakistan). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2014; 10(1):1-18
Inta A, Trisonthi P, Trisonthi C. Analysis of traditional knowledge in medicinal plants used by Yuan in Thailand. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013; 149(1):344-351
Kadir MF, Sayeed MSB, Setu NI, Mostafa A, Mia MMK. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners in Thanchi, Bandarban Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014; 155(1):495-508
Kayani S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Khan MPZ, Ashraf MA, et al. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants for respiratory disorders among the inhabitants of Gallies–Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014; 156:47-60
Trotter RT, Logan MH. Informant consensus: A new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Plants in Indigenous Medicine & Diet. Routledge; 2019. pp. 91-112
Faruque MO et al. Quantitative ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by indigenous communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2018; 9:40
Albuquerque UP, Lucena RF, Monteiro JM, Florentino AT, Cecília de Fátima CBR. Evaluating two quantitative ethnobotanical techniques. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 2006; 4:051-060
Ahmad KS, Hamid A, Nawaz F, Hameed M, Ahmad F, Deng J, et al. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2017; 13(1):1-16
Schlage C, Mabula C, Mahunnah RLA, Heinrich AM. Medicinal plants of the Washambaa (Tanzania): Documentation and ethnopharmacological evaluation. Plant Biology. 2000; 2(1):83-92
Umair M, Altaf M, Bussmann RW, Abbasi AM. Ethnomedicinal uses of the local flora in Chenab riverine area, Punjab province Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2019; 15(1):1-31
Yineger H, Yewhalaw D, Teketay D. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2008; 4(1):1-10
Srithi K, Balslev H, Wangpakapattanawong P, Srisanga P, Trisonthi C. Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009; 123(2):335-342