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Optimization of the Road for Effective Management Traffic and Transport with GIS-GPS, Case Study: Pristina Capital

Written By

Arbnor Pajaziti and Orlat Tafilaj

Submitted: March 7th, 2022 Reviewed: March 18th, 2022 Published: April 27th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.104555

Geographic Information System Edited by Yuanzhi Zhang

From the Edited Volume

Geographic Information System [Working Title]

Prof. Yuanzhi Zhang and Dr. Qiuming Cheng

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This chapter describes an integrated telegraphically GIS/GPS for an Urban Intelligent System and Traffic and Environmental Operations, where a telecommunications system enables the real-time reception of traffic data. We will focus on the improvement of bus services in Pristine capital including the implementation of more measures to improve travel time and reliability, providing new locations for “Park and Travel” and upgrade points were crossed from one form of transport to another, improving vehicle quality, providing better information and ticketing arrangement. Based on traffic surveys conducted of the Pristina Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (PSUMP), new public transport bus routes have been designed to improve overall access/delivery services throughout the Pristine capital city. A new central infrastructure system traffic has also been proposed, aimed at improving the reliability and regularity of busses operating on these new lines. The new road configuration reflects current and future destinations, as well as passenger data obtained from public transport surveys, to help determine service frequencies and routes covered. The new bus network scheme is structured as the main and secondary/supplementary networks.


  • GIS
  • GPS
  • integrated public transport system
  • mobility plan
  • bus routes
  • bus service line

1. Introduction

Geographic Information System is a data framework that has some expertise in the presentation, the board, investigation, and announcing of geographic data. GIS has changed and extended geology with your capacity to store a lot of information, break down them, and particularly present the consequences of customized map making. Among the wide scope of potential applications that GIS can utilize, transportation issues stand out enough to be noticed, Figure 1. One of the pieces of GIS that we are centered around the most is transport issues known as GIS-T.

Figure 1.

Geographic information systems and transportation.

The four fundamental parts of a GIS, coding, the board, investigation, and announcing, have explicit transport considerations [1].

1.1 Coding

Coding means that a transport system to be used in GIS in the city of Prishtina must be coded. As an example of such coding in a road segment, we can take the number of lanes that segment has.

1.2 Management

Once the data is encrypted (e.g. the number of lanes in a road segment in the city of Prishtina) in this phase the storage of information in the database depends on the criteria of when it happened, where it happened, etc.

1.3 Analysis

Uses all available tools to analyze the situation in transport (e.g. the situation at peak hours on a road segment in Prishtina) and how much this situation will change in the case of new designs (e.g. the addition of another lane new, change of bus lines, etc.)

1.4 Reporting

GIS is completed with the ability to report the analyzed data. All information gathered from before stages are accounted for at this stage in visual structure (showed or printed) [2, 3].

Therefore, the data collected in this case by GIS-T will be understood much more simply in visual displayed forms (e.g. presentation of the largest number of accidents in an area of the city of Prishtina).

In the figure over, a vehicle framework is addressed as three layers connected with land use, releases (spatial cooperations), and organizations. Each has its attributes and related information It can be utilized freely or in the mix with different layers. Data System (GIS) is being utilized all the more generally in transport arranging offices, particularly among metropolitan vehicle associations. A lot more specialists are currently ready to involve GIS for thruways and transport the executives, because of falling expenses and expanded utilization of GIS. GIS gives transport a mechanism for putting away and breaking down information on land use, and travel conduct. The main targets for GIS utilization are planning/show and information integration.

Organizations need to distinguish potential issues that can be tended to through a GIS application all the more proficiently and actually, and more monetarily than with winning strategies [4, 5].


2. Optimization of the road for effective traffic management and transportation by GPS-GIS in the municipality of Pristina

Today we are generally seeing tremendous improvement in course and transport, both actually and mechanically. The entire advancement of these circles of public activity surprisingly is progressively coordinated towards the productive and viable utilization of restricted assets, whether material or monetary. To make the most of the transport branches so that they are efficient and effective, it is necessary to optimize the transport routes. To dig into the transport branches so they are proficient and viable, it is important to enhance the transport courses.

We will focus on improving bus services in Pristina including the implementation of more measures to improve travel time and reliability, the provision of new “Park and Travel” places (see the section on parking), and the improvement of points was switching from one form of transport to another, improving the quality of vehicles, providing better information and arranging to the ticket.

It is suggested that the degree of the purpose of public transport can be expanded through the new “main” organization of transports that will give quicker and more regular help. Then again, this will attract a larger number of users, coupled with a new design approach to the main locations where modes of transport can be changed (“Transfer points” - “Hubs”) to create additional capacity and ease of movement for passengers, with minimal delay between services. The so-called “secondary” services are recommended, which will operate at a lower frequency than the main services but will provide important connections to residential areas, suburbs, and villages [6].

2.1 Summary of problems in Pristina

2.1.1 Fragmented bus service network

In the city, many bus services operate on the same roads as long as there are areas where the services do not work. Currently, local bus services are not coordinated in terms of fares or timetables, and passengers who need to travel to their destination pay more, spend more time traveling, and/or have to walk part of the way. A more cohesive system would bring benefits to both operators if implemented systematically.

2.1.2 Reliability of bus services

The increase in congestion levels in traffic, especially during peak periods of morning and evening travel, creates problems for bus services in terms of the ability to travel on time according to the planned schedule. This uncertainty makes it difficult for travelers to plan their trips to school, work, or shopping, and sometimes people waiting at bus stops are unsure of when the next bus will arrive.

2.1.3 The need for better information on bus services

For many locals, employees, and visitors to Pristina, it is difficult to understand the current network of busses and timetables, with different services and different destinations.

Similarly, people waiting in place for bus stops are unsure when the busses will arrive. Improving information will increase people’s confidence in using the services.

2.1.4 Request for regulation of taxi services

Although several good quality taxi operators are operating in Pristina, there are also a large number of illegal taxis, which cause problems in terms of competition with other local operators as well as bus operators. It is important to regulate, monitor, and control taxi services effectively to ensure high quality and safe passenger service.

Based on the research undertaken to develop the SMUPP (Sustainable Mobility Urban Plan of Pristina), several important issues and problems related to public transport in the city have been identified, including those listed below:

  • Many busses are old and do not meet the specific essentials and guidelines expected for present-day traveler transport as far as access and outflow levels (motor principles), and standards required for modern passenger transport in terms of access and emission levels (engine standards);

  • Some areas do not have transport lines (or have a limited level of service), with some roads too narrow to accommodate standard busses;

  • Uncoordinated timetables and non-integration of bus services and lines throughout the city, reduce opportunities for connecting services for passengers;

  • The ticketing system is unattractive and not well integrated, where for each route/service a separate ticket is required;

  • Missing data and information regarding bus service/stopping details including name, signs, and information (mainly timetables) at bus stops;

  • Many public transport documents and data provide different and contradictory information;

  • There is no complete overview of routes and bus operators, number of bus lines, bus route itineraries, with incomplete public transport data available;

  • There is also a lack of data on public transport operators regarding the use of busses/services, as well as equipment at the stop, etc.; and,

  • Many services operate in similar ways and there is evidence of service duplication that requires special attention in the context of the overall review and restructuring of the city network.

2.2 Proposed strategy: new bus network throughout the city

Based on traffic surveys conducted by the SMUPP, new public transport bus routes have been designed to improve access/overall service delivery throughout the city. A new central traffic infrastructure system has also been proposed that aims improve the reliability and regularity of busses operating on these new routes. The new network approach is designed to respond to changing demands for public transport in the city, ensuring good coverage, and reducing overlap and duplication of some current lines. The new road configuration reflects current and future surface destinations, as well as passenger data taken from public transport surveys, to help determine service frequencies and roads covered. The new transport network plot is organized as follows:

Main network:based on the desire to increase the coverage and frequency of bus services as an attractive alternative to the use of vehicles for downtown travel. One of the principal goals of these administrations is to provide the most reliable speeds and operating schedules to assist in attracting new passengers. The main network includes the current bus service lines 1–7, Figures 26.

Figure 2.

Line 1 (Technical Faculty—Fushë Kosovë) [6].

Figure 3.

Line 3 (Mati District—Bardhosh Village).

Figure 4.

Line 3C (Sinidoll—Street “B”).

Figure 5.

Line 15 (Keqekollë Village).

Figure 6.

Line 7C (Kalabri - economic Center - Bus Station - Kalabri).

Secondary/supplementary network:In support of the main network, several secondary or supplementary roads have been designed that would connect the main urban center with the peripheral (residential) areas, as well as beyond. These secondary services would also connect more rural and suburban areas to the main urban center. The supplementary network includes bus service lines number 10–21 and 2A, 2B, and 2C.

2.3 Local monitoring with GPS-GIS in the municipality of Pristina

In urban traffic, local monitoring is done, tracking busses through GPS and GIS systems where at any time and any moment are given real data on the condition of busses.

These centers monitored various data such as:

  • Location of busses;

  • Speed;

  • Fuel level;

  • Condition of busses (stopped - on);

  • The trajectory of the last road;

  • History of busses (data stored for a longer period, if necessary, date search), etc.

The monitoring center presents the current condition of all busses as shown in Figures 7 and 8.

Figure 7.

Management by urban traffic software.

Figure 8.

Cartographic representation of bus location.

The program also realizes the demand for our needs depending on what and when we want to monitor. We can get different settings such as:

  • Driver details;

  • Data for the bus (make, model, daily distance, speed, GPS number of the GPS device; license plates, the fuel level in liters and in percentage, the period when the vehicle was turned on or stopped), etc.

The introduction of information should be possible through the different diagrams given by the product as displayed in Figure 9.

Figure 9.

Show information through charts.

The following case shows the monitoring of fuel condition and speed where the presentation can be made for one bus or all available busses, Figure 10.

Figure 10.

Monitoring the fuel condition of a bus.

In many cases, the company needs to search the history of busses where this data is stored with great accuracy. In the following case, the search for the history of a bus is explained, as well as the presentation of these data, as well as the possibility of viewing the route, traveled for the mentioned date through animation.


3. ARCGIS support package and platform

ArcGIS is a framework that empowers the formation of information, guides, and models to be utilized by clients in a work area, program, or through gadgets like cell phones, GPS, and so forth, contingent upon the requirements of the association.

People use ArcGIS in all types of organizations, to improve their workflow and resolve critical situations that arise. ArcGIS helps to:

  • Data and value management (including management of the territory, services, customers, etc.).

  • Planning and analysis (includes forecasts and risk analysis in the organization). Business operations (distribution, monitoring, tracking, inspection, maintenance, etc.).

3.1 Decision-making

Below (Figure 11) is the complete scheme of an ArcGIS platform. The presentation is made according to two levels, the functional one and the application one. ArcGIS components and their component applications are presented.

Figure 11.

ArcGIS helper platform.

ArcGIS is a set of software products integrated that serve to set up a complete ArcGIS system. It consists of 4 basic structures [7]:

  1. ArcGIS Desktop—It is a gathering of GIS applications comprising 3 primary items ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo.

  2. GIS Server—ArcIMS, ArcGIS Server, and ArcGIS Image Server. They are all products that support their online functionalities. Used in the distribution of dynamic maps and various GIS services through the Internet.

  3. Mobile GIS—Mobile GIS devices, such as GPS, assist staff members who do not have extensive experience in using GIS applications.

  4. ESRI Developer(EDN)—This contains integrated software components for GIS developers (programmers) that help build GIS applications and provide optimal solutions to various problems. Provides online code resources, reference libraries, object diagram models, and technical support.

3.2 GIS web platform logic

To better understand what the platform is based on, we need to follow step by step the logic on which it is built.

In the beginning, we will present concisely the general scheme in which the data circulate as well as the environment in which it works, Figure 12. As should be visible from the figure, the framework executives supply the application interface in two equal structures to one another. On the one hand, we have geographical data which directly affects the appearance on the map, while on the other hand, we have maps dynamics generated through utility packages such as ArcMap, ArcCatalog, etc. which generate maps and statistics which are structured according to the respective categories and are required based on filtering [7, 8].

Figure 12.

The logic of the GIS web platform.

3.3 Practical case - data processing from GPS device and arc map software

GPS device enables us to obtain data respectively locations, one of them is also receiving in Excel and Gpx format. In the following case, we will present the processing of GPS data from gpx format via Arc Map. Data storage from GPS equipment is done directly in Gpx format where data insertion and processing are done automatically by Arc Map software. In case of data entry (location points the past route of the vehicle will be displayed). Figures 1315 show the case of gpx data insertion.

Figure 13.

Creating the route from GPS data points in arc map [8].

Figure 14.

Inserting the map [8].

Figure 15.

GPS data display, attribute table [8].


4. Conclusion

In this chapter, we described the optimization of transport routes through GPS / GIS technology. Today we are increasingly living in a society where most decision-making is based on geographic information. Maps are turning into a defining element by translating numbers and figures into visuals many times easier to interpret and analyze. As in many other countries of the world, in Kosovo, web GIS applications are slowly finding their space in competitive, educational, informational, environments, etc. However, this process requires greater support from state and private entities through funding and incentives for economic and formative aspects. Experience shows that many countries already have integral and inseparable parts of GIS systems in almost all information and communication sectors. Based on the events of recent years that have occurred in Kosovo, such as tragic traffic accidents, major traffic jams, illegal construction, educational elements and science, poorly managed projects and platforms, it is intended to study the possibility and potential of integrating this technology as the optimal solution for addressing these issues so delicate to the environment.

As a conclusion of the above quotations, it is intended to build a multifunctional platform with open access for all people (open-access). In this platform, there will be several state and independent institutions and organizations, but which will be open to any entity that provides information is checked and verified for their consistency and accuracy, allowed to be integrated as part (product) of questions for the GIS platform.

The proposed system offers opportunities for cost-effective expansion of traffic and environmental data coverage, being a promising tool for the municipality, usually characterized by large budget constraints. To improve system analysis skills and provide more relevant information to citizens, traffic simulations and environmental impact should be included. GPS/GIS combination is perhaps the most conspicuous area of examination in its field.

A GIS-based application was selected as the best alternative to improve accuracy and timeliness in the priorities of traffic delays, faster roads, accident location, etc. In terms of future work, the system can be upgraded to provide more features by following these ways:

  • Add multimedia capabilities such as the ability to store digital photos.

  • Addition of printing function that can print accident information.

  • Addition of a function that can capture the accident scheme.

  • Changing the database from text format to tabular format.

  • Collaboration by the person who is directly or indirectly involved.

  • Cooperation from Urban Traffic and Accident Registration Center (Kosovo Police).


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  8. 8. Tafilaj O. Advanced Vehicle Driver Support Systems. Prishtina: University of Prishtina; 2013

Written By

Arbnor Pajaziti and Orlat Tafilaj

Submitted: March 7th, 2022 Reviewed: March 18th, 2022 Published: April 27th, 2022