Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

Post-Truth in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0 Shaping Children’s Morals in the Household

Written By

Asman

Submitted: January 10th, 2022 Reviewed: February 1st, 2022 Published: April 22nd, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.102988

IntechOpen
Sustainability, Ecology, and Religions of the World Edited by Levente Hufnagel

From the Edited Volume

Sustainability, Ecology, and Religions of the World [Working Title]

Dr. Levente Hufnagel

Chapter metrics overview

9 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

Abstract

The family is the most important informal institution in the formation of children’s morals with Islamic religious education. The position of the child as a mandate from God then formed a three-dimensional relationship with parents as the center. The relationship of children who still need guidance with God through parents and the relationship of children with parents under God’s guidance. But on the other hand, the family can also be a killing field for the development of a child’s soul if the parents wrongly educate them. The existence of this post truth in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 makes parents control a lot of children’s activities, especially in the use of social media. Because the family is the only educational institution that is able to carry out the way of religious education through good example and habituation from parents to their children.

Keywords

  • post-truth
  • Industrial Revolution 4.0
  • child morals

1. Introduction

Every human being must have the nature of the desire to produce an item on a large scale. Regardless of the surrounding environment. In this case, a radical nature often emerges to obtain large profits. This radically major change to produce goods was called the “Industrial Revolution”. Along with the times, the industrial revolution is classified into several phases, including: Industrial Revolution 1.0, Industrial Revolution 2.0, Industrial Revolution 3.0 and Industrial Revolution 4.0 [1].

The Industrial Revolution 1.0 was marked by the steam engine which was much stronger, more flexible, and more durable. This is because the power of humans and nature cannot produce an item on a large scale and tends to be expensive. The Industrial Revolution 2.0 was marked by the emergence of factories that use electric power. The Industrial Revolution 3.0 was marked by the emergence of computers and robots that replaced the role of humans in producing goods. The Industrial Revolution 4.0 was marked by the emergence of smartphones and the internet [2].

These two factors have a major influence on human behavior today, because humans today cannot be separated from the use of smartphones. In the industrial revolution 4.0, smartphones are the most important instrument because smartphones have become human hands in the current era. This is evidenced by the dependence of humans on smartphones [3]. This dependence has a negative impact on the physical and psychological aspects of humans. One example is introverted behavior (closed) to the outside world. In addition, using a smartphone for a long time can also interfere with health, one of which is eye health.

It is conceivable if this negative impact has occurred to children. Children are a golden phase in human life at this stage, children’s personalities begin to form. Children will follow what is seen and what is taught by the people around them [4]. For example, we can see one case where children tend to prefer playing online games rather than playing traditional games with their friends. The personality of the child in this case starts from the parenting pattern of parents who tend to give freedom to their children without being limited. Even though this personality has a negative impact on the child’s psyche [5]. Because it will form an introverted personality (closed). In the second case, we see that there are children who tend to be lazy, this is due to the parenting pattern of parents who do not care about their children, for example, a child who asks his parents for assignments, but his parents even give him a smartphone to use their children do the work, not teach their children. This makes the child lazy personality. Because children prioritize the instant way rather than the process.

In the third case, there is a child who tends to be violent. This is due to what children see when watching TV or playing online games. Basically, children will do or imitate something they see without understanding the meaning of what they see. Therefore, parental supervision is needed in accompanying the child. In the fourth case, we find many children who wear glasses [6]. This is caused by using a smartphone or watching television for a long time and at a distance that is too close. This is what causes children to tend to wear glasses.

From the four examples above, it can be concluded that the era of the industrial revolution 4.0, in this case smartphones, television, and the internet, has penetrated the world of children. If this continues, it is possible that children will have bad personalities, and declining health [7]. One of the causes of the negative impact of smartphones, television, and the internet is parenting. There are several types of parenting from parents Parenting patterns are divided into 4, namely authoritarian, permissive, situational and democratic. Below will be described as follows:

  1. Authoritarian parenting style

    Authoritarian parenting is a parenting style where parents have the right and authority to regulate their children strictly. The characteristics of this parenting pattern are emphasizing all the rules, parents must be obeyed by children, parents act arbitrarily, without being able to be controlled by children [8]. Children must obey and should not argue with what the parents ordered.

  2. Permissive parenting

    Permissive parenting is a parenting pattern in which parents form a spoiled personality in children, because of the nature of this parenting, children centered, namely all family rules and regulations in the hands of the child. What the child does is allowed by the parents. Parents obey all the wishes of children [9] Children tend to act arbitrarily, without parental supervision. He is free to do whatever he wants.

  3. Situational parenting

    Situational parenting is a parenting pattern where parents have the right and authority to regulate their children in a moody manner, in the sense that often the parenting pattern is not applied rigidly, meaning that parents do not apply it flexibly, flexibly and adapted to the situation and situation conditions that existed at that time.

Of the three parenting patterns above tend to form a bad personality towards children. Where for authoritarian parenting, children will tend to have a hard personality and tend to apply what they have received to the people around them, especially their playmates. For the second parenting pattern, which is permissive, children will tend to have a spoiled, consumptive, and lazy personality [10]. The third parenting pattern is situational parenting, children will tend to have an apathetic personality because parenting patterns from parents tend to be undirected.

Therefore, the best parenting style is democratic parenting. Where in this parenting pattern, the position of parents and children is balanced. However, the rules from parents are obeyed by the children. This parenting also involves the child in making a decision, this is good for forming a critical and democratic child’s personality. In this parenting pattern, parents usually trust their children to do something with parental supervision. This is good for shaping the child’s personality who is responsible for something he does [11]. If the child makes a mistake, the parent allows the child to find the solution on their own, accompanied by input from the parent.

From the three points above, namely the era of the industrial revolution 4.0, children’s personalities, and parenting patterns have very close attachments. Where the industrial revolution era will not be limited. Therefore, parenting from parents is needed to sort out what is good and what is bad to give to their children. So that children have the personality expected by parents.

Advertisement

2. Discussion and results

The method is generally defined as a way of doing something, while in the letter lijk sense, the word “method” comes from the Greek language consisting of “Meta” which means through and “hodos” which means way [12]. So the method is the way to go. In Arabic, the method is called tariqah, which means the way, or involvement in doing something. According to the term, the method is a way that regulates an ideal [13]. So it can be understood that the method means a path that must be passed to present learning materials in order to achieve teaching goals.

Educating children in the family through Islamic education is a conscious guidance from education (adults) to children who are still in the process of growing based on Islamic norms so that their personality is formed into a Muslim personality. Then what is meant by the method of educating children in Islam is the way or way that can be taken to convey educational materials or materials through Islamic education to children in the family in order to realize a Muslim personality.

In this case the author means that the method of educating children’s religion in the family is the path that parents take in educating their children in the field of religious education carried out in the family environment. Among the methods in educating children in the family through Islamic education are:

2.1 Exemplary

Exemplary is the main tool in educating, because the role of parents or family is very strategic in determining the diversity of their children. Parents are required to provide role models for their children. Because parents need to develop role models from an early age, remembering that in each child will grow a certain attitude towards religion, in accordance with the attitudes of their respective parents. The exemplary method is a method used to educate by giving examples of good behavior in everyday life, so that children in the family can imitate them [14]. These examples can be from the parents concerned and can also be from the examples exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet’s companions, as well as the examples of prominent figures.

This exemplary method is very important for children, so that they can imitate and identify with others. Therefore, good role models from both parents or the environment greatly affect the child’s personality [15]. If the role model from parents is good, then it is likely that the behavior produced by the child is also good, and vice versa.

From the explanation above, it states that we must do the following points [16]:

  1. Provide understanding to children that our condition is not as expected and therefore everyone in the house must change their behavior.

  2. Want to criticize ourselves and admit our mistakes, while to children, we must talk about the importance of repentance.

  3. We always say that every Bani Adam must be guilty, and the best of people who are guilty are those who repent. Meanwhile, our Prophet Muhammad SAW is a perfect example as Allah has honored him by giving him ishmah(protection from sin). A good example is to harmonize words and deeds.

A father is not enough just to have good Islamic insight to direct his children. Parents also cannot just order their children to realize what they have been ordered to do. To be a direct role model, parents must have an attitude or character that is uswatun hasanah. Among them are parents who have uswatun hasanahcharacteristics, namely being honest, trustworthy, having noble character, being brave, not immoral, and so on.

In the process of child development, there is a phase known as the imitation phase. In this phase, a child always imitates and imitates the adults around him, especially his parents or teachers. This exemplary method is very suitable to be applied in this phase. In educating, educators (parents and teachers) are not enough just to give advice in the sense of ordering, but should set an example, for example sending children to the mosque, while he has never been to the mosque. The absence of words and actions, makes parents or teachers not have authority as educators, and makes children confused, because what they see does not match what they hear so that children cannot obey their parents or teachers.

2.2 Habituation

Habituation is a way to get children to think, behave, and act in accordance with the guidance of Islamic teachings. Habituation is an educational approach that requires supervision. Habituation begins by setting a religious attitude or behavior then being trained and accustomed to the child [17]. Habituation is very effective in its application to children, because they have strong memory records and immature personality conditions, so that children are easily dissolved by the habits they do everyday. The habituation method is a method used by providing good experiences to get used to and at the same time instilling the experiences experienced by the characters to be imitated and accustomed to by children in everyday life.

This method of refraction is to instill a sense in children to be done repeatedly with the aim that the experience that is done can become a part of the child, so that the child will feel accustomed to doing it. Habituation in the family, for example, children who are accustomed to getting up early to pray at dawn and living clean will become a habit [18], children are asked to get used to reading basmalah before eating or before doing other activities, and reading hamdalah after eating or after doing other activities.

There is no denying that children will grow up with the right faith, decorated with Islamic ethics, even to the peak of high spiritual values, and the main personality, if he lives and is equipped with two factors, namely the main Islamic education and a good environment. Something accustomed to since childhood, will eventually become a person’s personality. It will be seen in his behavior, speech, way of thinking, even in his philosophy of life.

In addition, children can get used to saying greetings and kissing hands to their parents before leaving for school. Obviously, an action that is often repeated will certainly become a habit, and if the habit is repeated continuously it will eventually become part of one’s personality [19]. Which can then be applied in the household of good daily behavior.

Therefore, educating through habituation is an effective way to instill moral values into children’s souls. And the values that are embedded in him will then be manifested (real form) in his life since he started stepping into adolescence and adulthood. So that habits must be preserved so that they are personal and integrated in children’s lives which are carried out in various aspects of religious life.

2.3 Advice

In the human soul there is a disposition to influence the words heard. Innateness is usually not fixed, therefore words must always be repeated. In addition to words that must be repeated, humans can also be affected by the words or speech they hear as long as they are interesting and in the center of their attention.

Influential advice opens its way into the human psyche directly through feelings. Advice with gentle words conveyed sincerely will be able to have an influence on the feelings and personality of the child. Religion is advice which means that both parents should always provide religious advice to their children every day [20], as Lukman al-Hakim did for his children about the importance of giving a religious understanding to children by giving advice in the family.

According to An-Nahlawi, what is included in mau’izah is advice and tazkir (giving a warning or reprimand). Both are ways to invite people to the path of Allah. As for giving advice from parents to their children [21] it can be done in the following ways:

  1. Giving advice in the form of an explanation of the truth and interests in accordance with the aim that the person being advised stays away from disobedience so that it is directed to something that can bring happiness and luck, advice should be done with pure intentions, and sincerely

  2. Giving advice in the form of warnings, namely the adviser must retell concepts and warnings into the child’s memory so that the concepts and warnings can arouse feelings, affection (affection) and emotions that encourage them to do good deeds and immediately lead to obedience to Allah and the execution of His commands.

Another important method in educating children, forming faith, preparing children’s moral, spiritual and social values is education by giving exemplary advice. Because this advice can open children’s eyes to the essence of things, encourage them to lead to noble situations, decorate them with noble character, and equip them with Islamic principles.

Al-Quran also uses sentences that touch the heart to direct people to the ideas they want. This is what came to be known as advice. But the advice he conveys is always accompanied by a role model or example from the giver or conveyer of that advice. This shows that between one method, namely advice, with other methods, in this case example, are complementary [22]. Good advice is advice that is in accordance with the development of the child’s soul, and with good words the child hears, so that what the child hears enters the child’s soul, and is then moved to put it into practice.

An example of good advice can be seen in Luqmanul Hakim’s advice to his son [23], namely:

  1. Advice for monotheism and not committing shirk.

  2. Advice on the supervision of Allah.

  3. Advice to establish prayer, carry out amar ma’ruf nahi munkarand be patient with all calamities.

  4. Advice do not insult and act arrogantly.

  5. Advice to speak gently and simply in walking.

As stated in the discussion above, it is clear that parents in giving this advice must use soft words, which can touch feelings, so that children are moved to practice it in everyday life. And also this advice is conveyed through stories, stories, or parables. In addition, in advising children in the family, parents should also set a good example, because if the actions of the parents are not good, then the advice will not be obeyed by the child. Therefore, before advising children, parents must set a good example.

2.4 Attention

Educating with attention is to devote, pay attention to and always follow the development of children in creed and moral development, spiritual and social preparation, in addition to always asking questions about the situation of physical education and the power of scientific results. The lack of attention and supervision given by parents will make a child go wild from his environment. This attention cannot be measured and replaced with material gifts, because material is a physical need, while attention is a spiritual need [24]. The failure of education at an early age will cause humans to burn their emotions by themselves which are not directed at their early age.

A child’s instinctive need for love will continue to accompany him at any time, especially at an early age. This love is in the form of parental attention to their children. So that with the attachment of love from parents, children will easily accept what their parents teach in the household. The child will do it because of his concern. To both parents at any level and position should make caring for their children a basic part of the job, and make time every day for them.

Thus, parents should always pay attention and direct their children so that they are accustomed to carrying out religious teachings, and provide instructions and answers if children experience difficulties in carrying out religious teachings.

2.5 Lecture

The lecture method cannot be separated from weaknesses in its use, including interactions that tend to be centered (centered on the speaker) and do not provide opportunities for others to actively express their opinions. To overcome these shortcomings, the speaker needs to provide adequate explanations and explanations, movements and examples and use representative (clear) media to eliminate other misunderstandings about the material provided, for example materials related to aqidah or belief issues, for example, faith in angels, faith in the last day [25].

Educating through the lecture method is a way of conveying a subject matter by way of oral narrative to children or the general public. The method of educating with lectures is a form of educative interaction through information and verbal narration by teachers or parents and educators to a group of listeners (students, children) [26]. This understanding can be understood that basically this lecture method is carried out for children to provide subject matter by way of oral narrative. This method is very much done by educators that can be applied in households in educating children, because this method is considered easy to do, also cheap and does not require equipment.

In general, in society, children who reach adulthood will develop with their physical, mental and social conditions. They hang out with their friends in that association they find a partner that they feel is suitable for themselves. The change in intimate relationships then fosters a sense of love, which in the end both want marriage. This is what makes them fall into the promiscuity of a child, especially a girl, which results in forbidden love resulting in pregnancy outside marriage, dropouts occur. In fact, today’s teenagers have free sex that has exceeded the limit called free sex, resulting in underage marriages that should not be wanted by their parents [27]. Underage marriages generally do not have the maturity of the soul in carrying out marriages, so that if they marry, then the husband and wife cannot carry out their rights and obligations properly as husband and wife in married life, and will cause shock because this has deviated from the existing provisions.

Marriage that is still too young invites many unexpected problems because the psychological aspects are immature such as anxiety and stress. Therefore, underage marriage can have an impact on children’s anxiety, stress and depression. Early marriage is usually carried out at the age of under 19 years for women and men, they usually do not have a permanent job which in the end will be a burden on both parents [28]. If you already have children, this will add to the burden on your parents.

From the explanation of the verse above, parents must follow the changing times by giving gadgets to their children, but parents must control, protect, guide and educate children so that they can provide direction to use it in a positive way so that they can maintain their children’s religious education in the household. Therefore, parents should actualize in the family their rights and obligations as a responsibility for maintaining honor, religion, soul, mind and property to their children in the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0 [29]. Nurturing and raising children. This is a spontaneous urge for parents to implement. Because children really need attention from parents. Parents must always pay attention to what children are doing in this digital technology era, namely controlling what children access and do through their gadgets. Parents need to provide learning related to technological developments and become a fortress against children so they do not access negative content in the mass media through gadgets.

Protect and ensure health, both physically and spiritually from various diseases or environmental hazards that can harm children. This must also always be held by parents in the family towards their children, which cannot be denied in the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0. Many children are seen from the facts on the ground that cannot be separated from their gadgets, even though if this is done by children continuously, it has an impact on damaging and disrupting children’s health [30]. That way, this is the right and obligation of parents as a responsibility that parents should not allow in educating their children. Educate with various knowledge and skills that are beneficial for children’s lives. Parents should not prohibit children from getting to know digital technology but must accompany them in recognizing the development of science in this digital technology era [31]. Knowing the development of technology can make children creative and think well. Therefore, parents still have the responsibility to educate their children in accordance with the development of science and innovation in the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0, but also pay attention and filter what children need to do in family social life.

To make children happy for the world and the hereafter by teaching religious education in accordance with the provisions of Allah SWT as the ultimate goal of life for every Muslim family. Parents must be fully aware of their rights and obligations as a responsibility in educating and fostering children continuously for each parent in accordance with current developments. This responsibility is an aspect of interest in educating children in the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0 [32]. However, parents must still be obliged to provide spiritual education in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic religion taught by the Prophet Muhammad to his people. Therefore, the responsibility of parents for the religious development of their children in the family becomes a life goal that parents must be held accountable for in the hereafter.

Paying attention and supervising what parents give to children, for example in the form of assets. This requires parents to always control what children want, because not all children’s desires are their needs. Parents are also responsible for their rights and obligations towards children for the assets given to children considering that in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0, it is possible for children to tend to choose digital technology in the form of gadgets as social media that is easy to obtain and use. In the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0, where humans can access all information anywhere and anytime that can bring positive changes or lead to negative things. But it is religion that is the main fortress that guides a person to be a good person in the community and in the family, especially in educating children.

Thus parents must be sensitive to the lives of children at an early age, so that they can prevent children from promiscuity. Because when a child is trapped in promiscuity, it is difficult for parents to shape the character of a child to be good, it needs to be processed again. For example, if a child has entered a vicious circle or promiscuity, it is the parents themselves who are blamed, not someone else. So be a parent who cares about the future of the child. Because “Children are Parents’ Most Valuable Assets”.

Advertisement

3. Conclusion

Based on the theory and the results of interview research, it is clear that parents’ attention to their children is not optimal because they have to divide their time by working to increase and support life so that the education that their children receive from their parents is not carried out properly, especially when parents lack knowledge of religious knowledge, Therefore, the education that their children get is only from school.

Talking about education Law number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System in Indonesia also clearly states that education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence and noble character, and must have the skills needed by himself, society, nation and state.

Therefore we as parents must be aware of the education of children to increase the potential that exists in our children, especially and the main thing is to educate through Islamic religious education in the family to increase their faith and piety to Allah so that they become children who are devoted to their parents and become pious and pious children in domestic life.

However, to improve the quality and quantity, the writer considers it necessary to submit the following suggestions:

  1. The importance of Islamic education for parents to educate children in the family in an effort to increase the religious (spiritual) intelligence of children, parents should prepare carefully what is taught to children in the family. Because the Islamic religious education provided by parents will determine the development and shape of the child’s personality. For this reason, parents must be optimal in transferring their knowledge as the first and foremost educators for their children.

  2. Parents are expected to always supervise and pay attention to religious education in educating their children, because if parents wrongly educate their children, there will be a field of killing children in the family children’s aqeedah and killing the future and ideals of children

  3. It is expected that all rural communities pay attention to each other and remind each other to parents to carry out their obligations in educating children and creating a healthy and good environment in order to avoid actions that harm the future of children and the noble hopes of parents for their children.

  4. The village head should provide counseling to the community on the importance of religious education for children, while also providing adequate and supportive learning facilities, especially for early childhood education. One more thing, the village head must tell the community to control their children going out at night or wandering so that they ignore the compulsory school hours for children who should be at home, to protect the good name of their family and village.

Notes/thanks/other declarations

The author expresses his gratitude to the big family of the Sultan Muhammad Syafiuddin Samba Islamic Institute who has fully supported this research through information about research cases, and the local community of Sambas West Kalimantan and especially the Sharia Faculty and individuals who have provided moral and material support during the implementation of this research.

References

  1. 1. Kumar K, Zindani D, Paulo Davim J. Industry 4.0: Developments towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Switzerland: Springer; 2019. pp. 19-26
  2. 2. Syahputra AB, Supardi S, Noviansyah W. The phenomenology approach and its relevance to historical learning at the high school level in the revolutionary era 4.0. Jurnal Iqra’: Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan. 2021;6(2):225-238
  3. 3. Yahaya NIS et al. Impact of technology progress on human development in the era of industrial revolution 4.0. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH). 2021;6(2):266-274
  4. 4. Singal N. Addressing dilemmas of difference: Teachers’ strategies to include children with disabilities in rural primary schools in India. In: Reforming Education and Challenging Inequalities in Southern Contexts. London: Routledge; 2021. pp. 206-223
  5. 5. Nachoum R, Moed A, Madjar N, Kanat-Maymon Y. Prenatal childbearing motivations, parenting styles, and child adjustment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology. 2021;35(6):715-724
  6. 6. James A. Imaging children ‘at home ‘in the family’and ‘at school’: Movement between the spatial and temporal markers of childhood identity in Britain. In: Migrants of Identity. London: Routledge; 2021. pp. 139-160
  7. 7. Lehman-Wilzig SN. Virtuality’s expansion in the modern era: Media and society. In: Virtuality and Humanity. Singapore: Springer; 2021. pp. 191-225
  8. 8. Sarono M. The influence of parenting styles and thematic learning on the ethical relationship of Buddhist Sunday School students. Smaratungga: Journal of Education and Buddhist Studies. 2021;11(1):12-28
  9. 9. Clemente M, Padilla-Racero D. Obey the justice system or protect children? The moral dilemma posed by false parental alienation syndrome. Children and Youth Services Review. 2021;120:105728
  10. 10. Bensaid B. An overview of Muslim spiritual parenting. Religions. 2021;12(12):1057
  11. 11. Ratningsih O et al. Father parenting role in the child’s social-emotional development. Empowerment: Jurnal Ilmiah Program Studi Pendidikan Luar Sekolah. 2021;10(1):47-53
  12. 12. Eldridge AF. Movement in repose: Notes on form of life. Qui Parle. 2021;30(1):19-49
  13. 13. Abdurahman D. Islam, Sufism, and Character Education in Indonesia History. Tawarikh. 2018;9(2):159-176
  14. 14. Daratista I, Yusuf M. Moral education in early childhood in the era of the covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Research in Islamic Education. 2021;3(1):51-60
  15. 15. Sameroff, Arnold J., and Ronald Seifer. "Accumulation of environmental risk and child mental healthChildren of Poverty. New York: Routledge. 2021233-258
  16. 16. Shepherd DA, Parida V, Wincent J. Entrepreneurship and poverty alleviation: The importance of health and children’s education for slum entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2021;45(2):350-385
  17. 17. Sari K, Akhwani A. Implementation of character education based on anti-corruption values through extracurricular and habituation in elementary school. International Conference on Elementary Education. 2021;3(1):153-162
  18. 18. Manshuruddin M, Tumiran T, Yunan M. Application Values of Character Education in the Modern Pesantren System and Culture (Study at Pondok Pesantren Modern Ar-Raudlatul Hasanah Medan). International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. 2021;12:295-307
  19. 19. Pacherie E, Mylopoulos M. Beyond automaticity: The psychological complexity of skill. Topoi. 2021;40:649-662
  20. 20. Kusuma AP. Child Religious Protection for the Muallaf Family in Sibolangit District, Deli Serdang Regency (Analysis of Child Protection Law No. 35 of 2014 and the Concept of Hadhonah). Britain International of Humanities and Social Sciences (BIoHS) Journal. 2021;3(1):8-20
  21. 21. Hutchings M. Inequality, social mobility and the ‘glass floor’: How more affluent parents secure educational advantage for their children. In: Educational Research for Social Justice. Cham: Springer; 2021. pp. 137-169
  22. 22. Sabates R, Carter E, Stern JMB. Using educational transitions to estimate learning loss due to COVID-19 school closures: The case of Complementary Basic Education in Ghana. International Journal of Educational Development. 2021;8(2):102377
  23. 23. Meerangani KA et al. Children’s character building method in Islam: Analysis of Surah Luqman. Jurnal Kesidang. 2021;5(1):40-47
  24. 24. Hasanah M. The role of parents in children memorizing the Qur’an in middle school based on the Amanatul Ummah Islamic Boarding School. Tafkir: Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Education. 2021;2(2):139-156
  25. 25. Qatawneh MAS, Rababah YAS. Reflections of faith (‘Aqidah) on arts: A comparative analytical study on Islamic and Western Arts. Afkar-Jurnal Akidah & Pemikiran Islam. 2021;23(1):251-278
  26. 26. Ewing L-A, Cooper HB. Technology-enabled remote learning during COVID-19: Perspectives of Australian teachers, students and parents. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 2021;30(1):41-57
  27. 27. Susilo S, Istiawati NF, Aliman M, Alghani MZ. Investigation of early marriage: A phenomenology study in the Society of Bawean Island, Indonesia. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS]. 2021;29(7):544-562
  28. 28. Melesse DY, Cane RM, Mangombe A, et al. Inequalities in early marriage, childbearing and sexual debut among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Reproduction Health. 2021;18(117):1-15
  29. 29. Hosseinzadeh Cham Gordani L. A comparative study of religious and Quranic education from the Islam and the West viewpoint. International Journal of Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Science. 2021;10(2):55-67
  30. 30. Kiess W, Häussler G, Vogel M. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and child health. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2021:101-516
  31. 31. William MPK, O’Connell ME, Bloch MH, Czajkowski SM, Green PA, Han PKJ, et al. Behavioral research in cancer prevention and control: Emerging challenges and opportunities. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2021:139
  32. 32. Miranda J et al. The core components of education 4.0 in higher education: Three case studies in engineering education. Computers & Electrical Engineering. 2021;93:107-278

Written By

Asman

Submitted: January 10th, 2022 Reviewed: February 1st, 2022 Published: April 22nd, 2022