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Microwaved Flux Matter- Char Sand Production of Waste Coal Char/Biochar/Gypsium Ash and Fly Ash Mixtures for Mortar- Fire Retardent Composite

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Yıldırım İsmail Tosun

Submitted: October 18th, 2021 Reviewed: November 9th, 2021 Published: January 25th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101559

Biochar - Productive Technologies, Properties and Application Edited by Mattia Bartoli

From the Edited Volume

Biochar - Productive Technologies, Properties and Application [Working Title]

Dr. Mattia Bartoli, Dr. Mauro Giorcelli and Prof. Alberto Tagliaferro

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Fire inhibiting materials as cement filler are used in mortar constructions especially using gypsium board, similar isolator mortars. The mortar covered char and ash sand mixtures insulate heat and reduce fire blazing activity. Ytong, or porous briquettes and clay is the world’s most popular insulating construction material retarding blaze due to its porous durability, processability, and cost. However, producing concrete or mortar with high isolation with HD styrene panels is insulating the structure, protecting the cement board against flammable fire risk. Slag-type masonry requires high heavier fire inhibiting matter in construction. Styrene type isolation provides fire inhibiting at lightweight masonry or mortar generation with the use of waste gypsium fines and waste coal slimes and high ash char “char sands” and ash fines. The growing environmental concerns motivated researchers to search for char waste slag-type inhibiting materials using gypsium fines and biomass waste char fines leading to alternative routes of fire-retardant mortar construction. In this way, several alternative materials of isolation mortar have prompted.


  • microwave
  • fire retardent
  • composite mortar
  • waste fire retardant
  • plaster
  • analysis of gradations
  • porous structure
  • light weight retardent
  • heat absorbance
  • composite plaster durability

1. Introduction

Molten plastic extruded belts or strips may easily be produced through the nozzle hole of pressed waste plastic fluids by microwave radiation till 300°C for recycling waste materials as granule compost [1, 2]. The use of waste concrete debris and broken glass or plastic slags cause an important cost decrease in masonry stone production. [3, 4] Even the use of waste materials as aggregate and sand size make them beneficial in concrete mixture evaluation in most light weight constructions [5, 6]. The melted plastics and bitumen asphalt may be replaced by cement in masonry brick and roof tile production as binder compound while providing impermeable and high resistive durability to thaw and freezing in cold climates. Plastic extrusion may need suitable fluidization quality and antifouling powders use such as clay at a certain amount. Presently, around 70% of the construction is produced through the conventional slag-type masonry as inhibiting masonry constructions. [3, 4]

In the region, the municipal bottom ash wastes of asphaltite combustion in boilers as wastes, containing the high porous content. 70–80% content of bottom ash is over 25 mm size suitable as lightweight aggregate discarded and collected. The villagers for heating house collect agricultural oak tree and bush waste, municipal waste and agricultural, manure waste products such as forest waste at 21% of total waste [5, 6]. The biomass waste collected in the region is combusted and bottom ash mixed with asphaltite bottom ash at the density of 0.7 kg/l is about 450 thousand tons for wet production [7, 8, 9]. The wood char fine in Siirt and Hakkari is evaluated for fire inhibitor. The waste plastics are collected as sludge waste and shredded wet and converted plastic pellet noodles. The plastic noddle products and belts both should be evaluated by pyrolysis oil content below 350°C and the other slag plastics is becoming hard porous slag such as, fine matters gradation of aggregate subjected to mixing and melted asphalt briquetting of the sludge waste and subsequently briquetted products for concrete compost aggregate below 25-50 mm [10, 11, 12].

In this study; the effect on the physical parameters of briquetting, shear model patterns making preliminary tests to determine the briquetting and processing conditions, indention and sawing shear rate were investigated for rock and waste plastic or asphalt compost aggregate concrete in comparison with cemented aggregate [13]. This assay has been determined to be advantageous in the plastic and asphalt bound aggregate briquette production from sludge content solution with the waste plastic and their mixture rate with porous local stone [14, 15, 16].

1.1 Carbon source-biomass potential of Turkey

In the cement and retardant material consumption, use of waste materials as a carbon source from agricultural biomass waste and forest biomass waste depending on crop production in the market and waste straw used for various purposes, such as other waste cotton stalks, corn stalks, sunflower stalks, nut leafs are evaluated in production of retardend carbon source at finer sizes as filler material. The total amount of different wastes are given in the Table 1 [14]. The total waste field crops in Turkey and waste quantities are given in Table 2 [17, 18].

Waste TypeWaste Statistics
Heat Value,kJ/kgCountry, Actual million ton/yearEastern Anatolian Region Actual, 1000tons/year
Wood, Cardboard, Paper17,6002.41.6
Organic Municipal Waste13,5002.229
Animal Waste13,5001.921
Forestry and Agricultural Biomass18,5002.863

Table 1.

The total amount of municipal waste divided into actual values in Turkey and eastern Anatolian region in 2019 [17].

Waste TypeWaste Statistics
Heat Value,kJ/kgEastern Anatolian Region Actual 1000ton/yearŞırnak Actual, 1000ton/year
Agricultural waste17,6002.81.6
Cow, Sheep Poultry Wastes13,4002111
Forest Waste18,6006033

Table 2.

The total annual production of biomass waste in Şırnak and eastern Anatolian region [17].

Biomass wastes are evaluated in char carbon production as active carbon or fire-retardant carbon even in the low-quality high ash containing matter as waste source. The biochar carbon resources may be produced from country oil resources, or crop oil, oily wastes as composted sources as given in Table 2 in Turkey [17].

The asphaltite coal type is widely deposited in the Şırnak province with high amount of shale content. The shale ash content is illustrated in Figure 1. The combustion is retardent act over 45% ash content leaving about 20% unburned carbon in the ash [19, 20]. The ash content change of Şırnak asphaltite coal and char used as fire-retardant in this study in terms of density is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

The ash content change of Şırnak asphaltite coal and char in terms of density.

1.2 Gradation

Aggregate size distribution is changing by ASTM standards of soil classification over the foundation stability research in detailed [14] is given with Sieve analysis results as shown in Figure 2. The permeability of soil is also determined regarding the chart illustrated in Standard as Figure 3. Physical properties of the clay material [21, 22] Parameter Value Color Dark Brown Specific Weight 2.69 Sand Content (%) 17.33 Silt Content (%) 6.22 Clay Content (%) 76.44 Liquid Limit (%) 43.9 Plastic Limit (%) 21.8 Ground Class (USCS) CL 10%, 30%, 50% liquid limit values of the waste Şırnak asphaltite slime and clay material mixed into the clay sample were calculated. The liquid limit value of the clay sample containing 10% waste slime clay corresponding to the sinking of 20 mm was determined as 28%. The textural and strength properties of the Şırnak shale clay showed that the water absorption of the texture is high and the chlorite mineral is suitable for volume changes. Due to this structure of the clay, the plasticity and strength of the material changes and the swelling and shrinkage activities of the clay can lead to different behaviors and cause structural problems. For this reason, it is of great importance to perform volumetric shrinkage tests of asphaltite slime or ash slime.

Figure 2.

The soil -aggregate classification in ASTM standard [14].

Figure 3.

The soil permeability regarding void in soil classification in ASTM standard [13].

Figure 4.

(a) extruding ball die, (b) plastic waste and asphaltite slag and slime asphaltite char mixing briquetting [22].

1.3 Fire retardent slags

The recycling needs of waste plastics in housing in cities forced to energy use and construction use of polymer wastes and many other filler areas such as fly ash composted ornaments and masonry areas are increasing. The large-scale reconstruction projects offer the use of demolished buildings concrete, transportation of those debris materials and crushing and compacted with water and cement cause a high amount of cement and water even increase cost elements. The dams, factories and the construction sector, which aims to protect the stability of concretre structures, gradually need much cheap aggregate production. To meet the cost reductions of all masonry and mortar construction, waste materials are evaluated similarly to masonry bricks regarding strength and durability [23, 24]. Although, the aggregate materials obtained from the quarries can be widely used in the construction industry. Lightweight materials are waiting in high house constructions as surplus stock. Crusher residue fine-grained materials are scattered around by 10–15% at depending on the crusher type. As a result, the waste plastic nodules or belts may compost as slag waste sand, fine material that remain in the dust collectors. Therefore, the general standard provisions stated in the construction materials fire resistivity for plastic contents not over 30% volume regarding bitumen asphalt or other masonry mixing fines [25, 26, 27, 28]. In the mortar tests, the mixed waste briquettes are aimed to prevent fire reaction that occurs as a result in the blazing fire contact, degradation of stability of residents. The importance of fire inhibiting or control practices in the evaluation, the regulation was emphasized on that way. Disposal of plastic waste heaps is in the form of shredded waste and can be used by extruding.

Many plastic waste recycling articles dealing with many issues such as such are included in the literature [29, 30, 31, 32]. As an industrial raw material, lightweight volcanic cinder instead of broken glass is used as the main raw material and additive material in lightweight brick sectors depending on the masonry use. The aggregates obtained by crushing, sieving and sizing according to the sector in which porous stone will be used are evaluated in appropriate gradation sizes according to the geotechnical strength purpose in briquetted brick use. However, the fine-grained material remaining under the sieve during the sizing process is awaiting stock surplus in the local dumps’ areas. Şırnak asphaltite bottom ash slag with high porosity is in search of new areas of use to utilize the organic soils they obtain as waste other than dumping activities. In this respect, the light weight mixture with the recycled waste plastic product that occurs in retort furnace is searched detailed for lightweight briquette production without causing environmental pollution. In addition, shale fine in soil environments, which are quite commonly layered in certain regions of Şırnak is used for gradation mixing encountered for high strength. In this study, it was aimed to examine the behavior of these two different types of materials by mixing them in variable ratios because of the optimum gradation amount of these materials in the region and the specific characteristics of briquetted materials without cement are evaluated. It is stated that pumice is a suitable additive for the stabilization of high plasticity clay. It is emphasized the usability of plastic waste materials in improving the engineering properties of briquette with shale powder and porous limestone added to briquette blocks cemented in certain proportions. It was also determined that in the asphalt-based mixtures prepared by using fly ash and limestone fine in the improvement of the fine-grained ground sample, the limestone aggregate decreased the shrear strength by 35% and the volcanic cinder increased by 22% [33, 34, 35, 36]. Indentation and shear properties of the briquetted materials by plastic waste melted and asphalt melted to be used in the experiment were carried out in the Şırnak University.

1.4 Fire retardant chemical materials

Fire retardent salts such as the construction materials used in the environments we live, the building materials are non-combustible and are produced from salt hydrates, chlorides as chemical materials. Since slag chars or melted/foam salts ignite and shine more quickly than natural materials, a possible fire spreads quickly. The heat from the flame source destroys the oxygen in the environment very quickly and starts to pose life risks in 90 seconds. It is not possible to prevent a fire in a closed environment after 3 minutes without external intervention. In a fire, blazing hazard and toxic gases hazard, chemical gas hazards, explosion and sustainable fire hazard, structure collapse occur. Again, in a possible fire, the temperature rises to 550°C in the first 5 minutes and to 720°C after half an hour. The temperature can reach 950°C degrees after 90 minutes and 1100°C degrees after 3 hours. In some large fires, it is claimed that a temperature of 1500–1700°C occurs [35]. From dripping bricks in buildings fire, which is an exothermic chemical reaction, continuously generates heat and enlarges and spreads the adjacent materials in a chain way by reaching their ignition temperature. In order to eliminate the devastating effects of risk factors in an indoor fire prompt the use of fire retardent construction materials that slow down and stop the progression and spread of fire; Various substances were Flame Retarder. The commonly used salt materials are

  • Calcium Potassium salts,

  • Phosphoric Acid,

  • Hydro Chloric acid-based substances,

  • Nitrogen systems containing Phenol and Formaldehyde,

  • Products containing Ammonia and Antimony tri oxide,

  • Strong basic products, Boron and Derivatives regarding the EU provisions [36].

Regarded the fires encountered the retardant material need have revealed the importance. The necessity of fire-proof materials in the world, especially the wood industry, cable (plastic) industry, and the textile industry have started to produce fire-resistant materials [36, 37, 38].

Fire retardant coating and mortars are needed for insulater’s coverings and construction boards and plates. The gypsium is providing a good retardant protection however the strength and heat insulation change the strength stability of boards as given in Table 3 [38].

Organic compostInorganic salts
Fire retardant wire coating polymeric saltsPhosphoric acid and boric acid salts
Char, Carbon compoundsCalcium Potassium salts
Ammonium Poly Phosphate Resin bindersGypsium, Anhydrite
Ferric oxide
Fly Ash

Table 3.

Fire retardent chemical materials classification.

1.5 Şırnak fly ash, waste ash slag and Şırnak asphaltite char with ash materials

The geological petrographic, geochemical and physical properties of the fine-grained slag and cinder material are found in the local quarry in Tatvan and Şırnak region. The volcanic cinder such as pumice stone, iso foam stone, ash slag stone, are two types of porous texture and contain at least 70–80% porous formation as a result of basic volcanic gaseous activities. The Tatvan basic volcanic cinder is similar to acidic pumice, which is the most widely found and used in the world, has a white dirty appearance and a grayish-white color. The silica ratio is higher in acidic pumices, and it can be widely used in the construction industry [12, 13, 14, 15]. A volcanic cinder is a browny reddish porous, glassy volcanic rock that is formed as a result of volcanic gaseous eruptions highly sponge and resistant to chemical reactions at high abrasion strength. It contains pores from macro to micro scale due to the sudden release of the gases in the body during its formation and its sudden cooling. Volcanic cinders have high permeability and high heat and sound insulation. Its hardness is 5–6 according to the Mohs scale. In Eastern Anatolia, severe volcanic events have occurred in very wide areas since the Middle Miocene. Tectonic activity is covering wide areas near Van Lake as volcanic craters lake, craters heel, disseminated tuff covers and tuff debris lava remnants carried by waterfloods. It has been active starting from the Mid Miocene period until the end of the Quaternary [36]. Tatvan unit consists of volcanic cinders with 78–83% porous cinders as block flows, debris of flow tuffs, and andesitic, basaltic and rhyolitic lavas [37]. Pumices are light browny macroscopically and dark gray colored in certain places. It has a vesicular texture formed by the cavities left by the gases that expand as a result of sudden pressure decrease under atmospheric conditions. The gray acidic cinder contains coarse plagioclase minerals showing feldspat, biotite minerals and chlorite minerals as accessories are observed in the rock [38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44].


2. Method

The method of compaction for retardant wet material at 15% optimum fluid weight rate as water muddy content pushed to nozzles of the extruder for board plaque production as illustrated in Figure 4a. The aggregate mixing the retort mixer is used in laboratory-scale a meter and 30 cm diameter retort used in 10 minutes for mortar homogenized wetting at optimum retardant compositions as showed in flowsheet procedure followed in Figure 4b.

In the fire-retardant mixture, preparation used volcanic cinder prepared as slag based on the main element iron, manganese oxide and trace elements given in Table 4, the analysis results of the waste Şırnak Asphaltite bottom ash slag material of ultrabasic magma (Table 5).

ElementTatvan volcanic cinder %Asphaltite ash slag
Loss in Fire31, 71, 7

Table 4.

Composition of the waste cinder and Şırnak bottom ash slag material.

Component and parametersTatvan volcanic cinder %Asphaltite bottom ash slag
Gravel (%) 0
Sand content (%)9494
Clay and silt content (%)4.84.8
Effective diameter (d67,mm)0.120.12
Specific gravity0.810.93
Uniformity coefficient (u)3.13.1
Curvature coefficient (n)0.720.72
Classification (USCS)SPSP
Plastic limitNPNP

Table 5.

Physical properties of waste volcanic cinder.

2.1 Porous char slag asphalt sand production

Material is located in Şırnak Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region, are located in the south part of Tatvan and chlorite shale formations limestone formations contained quartz, feldspar, calcite, dolomite and limonite, hematite minerals and asphaltite slag is red color due to the hematite mineral in its composition at 17%. It can be found in light yellow colors depending on the ratio of limonite in the gray shale ground [21, 22, 23]. The porous limestones shale texture, marl shows a heterogeneous texture (Figure 2).

2.2 Particle size distribution- gradation

M mass of aggregate is, the void is affected by compaction of briquetting and binder distribution. Especially melted asphalt and ash distribution are controlled by volume % of compaction. The bulk sand eating by microwave will also be controlled by the amount of little as 1% binder ash bound as a volume.

where, γg = _density of aggregate, g/cm3; V(r)and dN(r)are the volume and particle amount of aggregate in the size region of integration of cumulative pile from r, to r + dr), respectively. Ve volumetric equation is calculated as,


where, kis the shape factor. Substitute Eqs. (1) and (2) using.

2.2.1 Aggregate particle size distribution

Particle size distribution is defined by aggregate crushing matter, the type of milling affects the size distribution and the fineness matter ranged below 20 microns determined as given the Eq. (3) below; and RRS logarithmic size distribution is defined as given I Eq. (4) below [24].


The weight of fineness below 100 microns is determined by hydrolic settling analysis. The rate of material used in the experimentation is illustrated in Figure 5. The d60 values of the particle distribution of Şırnak Fly ash, Şırnak char slime and waste slime are below 100-micron fine size.

Figure 5.

The Şırnak Fly ash and Şırnak asphaltite slime particle size distribution in gradation in ASTM standard.

2.3 Fire tests

Flame gas brulor is blazed on the thick 10 mm board and the resistance to fracture and bubbling on a 5 minutes time flash burning at a distance far from 10 mm. The depth of disturbed face of board in the fire resistivity test is determined as an opened hole or as weight rate of burning natter weight. The time of burning of fire contact according to ASTM D-635 was investigated over the extent of depth measured by extensometer of mortar boards reported if the specimen does not burn on the board of 10 mm thickness. An average burning depth rate was also determined.


3. Results and discussion

3.1 Gradation of retardent mixture- asphalt ash/char amount and briquette porosity

3.1.1 Particle İndex

The coarse particle distribution avoids the heat conduction so that fineness of particle size distribution in the construction gradation provides optimum fire retardent heat activity on the surface without breaking the mortar face.


where Ia is particle index, V10 is voided in aggregate compacted at 10 drops per layer, V50 is voided in aggregate compacted at 50 drops per layer. Especially fly ash content in the retardent mixture was decreasing compaction ability. The amount of reaching 30% fly ash addition reduced the permeability of texture compacted in the mortar briquettes at 27% volume rate decrease.

The sand matters are thought as rounded and smooth particles as an ideal form. This may have a low particle index of around 6 or 7, while silty sands composed of angular, rough particles may have a high particle index of between 15 and 20 or more.

3.1.2 Fineness modulus

The fire retardent mortar sands may contain optimum gradation with very fine clays or fly ash on standard content description as happening in ASTM C 125 with a gradation curve as illustrated in Figure 2. In this study, the fly ash fineness is determined by the RRS diagram and n distribution coefficient as in Eq. (6) below and illustrated in Figure 6 for the samples studied as fire retardent.

Figure 6.

The fineness of Şırnak fly ash and Şırnak asphaltite slime and char slime regarding gradation, RRS distribution factor of 0.45.


3.2 Compressive strength test

It is based on the determination of the compressive strength from the indenting of the briquette sample in seconds as drilling bit penetration on rock sample [21]. Then, the indenting depth is determined using the extensometer dipping measure by the pattern is obtained for rock samples used in Şırnak. The fire retardent additives show stable porosity and strength suitable for mortar mixture while cement is locking the fixed coverage over wood in the fire flame tests (Figures 6 and 7).

Figure 7.

The Şırnak Fly ash and Şırnak asphaltite slime compost compaction regarding gradation factor below 100 microns solid.

3.2.1 Mortarcompost - porous texture strength

The massive mortar mixture of rock sands show different porous structures and strengths. The compaction indentation depth for porous rock stones and fire retardent materials are depended on particle size and fines amount as given below Equations;


After this process, the sinking amount of the cone was determined from the electronic measuring stick on the device. Some samples taken from the submerged part of the cone were dried in the oven and the water content corresponding to the determined sinking was found.

Samples with volume 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% waste phospahate salt and char/ salt flux composts blazed on the depth-averaged from three different points for fire retardent manner. The sample used is thick at 5.425 mm for 10 mm wood. The advantage of this experiment is that it minimizes the errors of the candle fire flame over 50 mm experiment according to the standard gradation.

Considering inferences, extreme deformations can be observed under fire load on wood-covered fire retardent mortar that is saturated with a dried binder depending on firing time. Due to these negative weight effects, various chemical burning weight changes on the wood are required for the unflammable ground environment to reduce fire weight decrease, reduce cracking and prevent the negative consequences of bubbling melting in the ground structure. The plastic slag and char regulate the air mixing and permeability on the wood substrates where it is criticized in Figure 8, while Şırnak asphaltite char addition reduces air diffusion and reduces heat conduction to wood (Figure 9).

Figure 8.

The char/ ash and phosphate salt slime with retardation to board depth.

Figure 9.

The Şırnak fire-retardant mortar sand types regarding strength vs. porosity change.

The optimum mixing fineness content of the ash sample containing 3% plastic was determined as 30.5% and the maximum dry unit volume weight was 17.52 kN /m3. The dry unit weight graph of the plastic slag sample containing 50% waste plastic, the optimum mixing binder content of 25.25% and the maximum dry unit weight of 16.13 kN /m3 for Şırnak asphaltite char.

Accordingly, the results revealed that the asphalt mixing values decrease with the increase of the ratio of plastic slag chars because plastic char slag is a binding material. As a result of the indentation experiments, the optimum Optimum mixing fineness content as below 5-micron content and dry unit weight reduction in fire tests as given in Figure 10.

Figure 10.

Optimum mixing fineness content – Effect of dry unit −5 micron weight values on fire resistance.


4. Conclusions

All materials undergo deformation when the load is applied. It is predicted that soils are also compact without shear deformation together with the decrease in volume under stress. However, this decreases in the volume of the soil mass, the compression of the plastergrains, the type of voids, the structure and its continuity reveal different types of behavior depending on the way and duration of removal of mixing light weight plaster and air in the cavities. In this context, the study emphasizes the importance of positively improving engineering properties such as compaction and fire inhibiting mortar mixing, char, plastic slag binder content by using different types of materials together.

Salt content over 20% with char and fly ash fire retardent sands the depth of deterioration decreased 200%.

As the amount of Şırnak asphaltite char and plastic slag in the briquette sample increases fineness weight rate with fire weight rate reduction rate, the optimum mixing binder content increases and the maximum dry unit volume weight decreases. This behavior is an expected situation by adding certain proportions of aggregate high- sand rate mixtures because of the plastic unit weight value of the used sand to low ash. The unit weight value of briquette with cinder decreased the bulk density of the mixture. The utility of briquette as lightweight concrete takes attention to the low cost of the material. In this text, the gradation of the much finer potential of fly ash is reducing density with char being critical in fire retardation for oxygen uptake as construction materials.


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Written By

Yıldırım İsmail Tosun

Submitted: October 18th, 2021 Reviewed: November 9th, 2021 Published: January 25th, 2022