Hands have a role in the transmission of pathogen of microbes such as virus, fungi, and bacteria. The transmission is often through the contact between hands and mouth. When money touches with sundries, there is a possibility of transfer of microorganisms from hands to money and vice versa, then the dirty money will be held by someone else. Contamination of money is vital for public health problems because it can be a source of easy transmission of pathogens between handlers. Literacy related to how important is the Escherichia coli transmission through currencies is needed and also the way to measure its contamination. This paper describes the possibilities the existence of E. coli found on the surface of two types of currencies for instance papers and coins, and the steps to measure the contamination are also given in the Methods section.
- Escherichia coli
- food safety
Both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as materials for various microorganisms . Fomites are inanimate objects capable of absorbing, storing, and transmitting infectious microorganisms . Whether in the form of coins or banknotes, money is probably the item most people handle daily worldwide. It may become contaminated with microorganisms from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts during counting using saliva, coughing and sneezing on hands followed by currency exchange, placement or storage on dirty surfaces, poor handwashing after toilet. The banknote then acts as a bacterial vehicle to the following user [5, 6]. Most pathogens such as
Currency notes could potentially function as a fomite in transmitting microorganisms such as
Another study showed that banknotes assessed through microbiological culture, microscopic visualization, and biochemical techniques identified
In Indonesia, it is quite difficult to find literacy that identifies
2. The existence of
Escherichia colion currencies
The presence of bacteria on banknotes is strongly influenced by the material made of banknotes . Banknotes are made from fibers that are coarse and provide an environment that is comfortable for the bacteria to survive. In addition, bacteria will have more surviving life in money paper that made fibers naturally dissolve in the mixed material plastic. Money paper does not give effect toxic on bacteria.
Research on Iranian currency also shows that
Research conducted by Gedik in 2013 concluded that the material that forms and composes money significantly affects the presence of microorganisms on the surface of money . Banknote paper is manufactured from cotton fiber, which gives the paper its strength, durability, and distinctive feel. The cotton is sometimes mixed with linen, abaca, or other textile fibers. Banknote paper is infused with polyvinyl alcohol or gelatin to give it extra strength. This study also proves that Romanian banknotes are currencies whose ingredients can support the survival of microorganisms. In the same study, a microorganism transfer test was carried out on three respondents; the results showed that three respondents holding Romanian money were contaminated by the same microorganism . The results of this study can be considered for countries that use money with the same materials and ingredients, especially for countries whose currencies are used globally, such as the US dollar and the euro.
Susanna, in 2019, researched banknotes and coins circulating at one of the universities in Depok, Indonesia. The communities taken are students and traders in the canteen. The sample money is money with large values such as 50,000 rupiahs to low-value banknotes, namely 1000 rupiahs. Based on the laboratory analysis results, there were no
The presence of bacteria on coins does not last as long as on banknotes due to the direct toxic effect of coins on bacteria . However, bacteria can adapt to the presence of coinage in their environment and increase their life span by the time they have adapted to the presence of coinage.
Like paper money, Susanna in 2019 also researched coins circulating at one of the universities in Depok, Indonesia. The sample money is money worth 1000 Indonesia Rupiah (IDR) to 100 IDR. Based on the laboratory analysis results, there were no
Escherichia colidetection on currencies
3.1 Materials and methods
The method used is total plate count (TPC) . The working principle of TPC analysis is the calculation of the number of bacterial colonies present in the sample by dilution as needed and carried out in duplicate. All work is carried out aseptically to prevent unwanted contamination, and multiple observations can improve accuracy. The number of bacterial colonies that can be counted is a petri dish that has bacterial colonies between 30 and 300 colonies .
3.2 Isolation and identification of
There are several media used to isolate microorganisms in agar, including potato dextrose agar (PDA) , mannitol salt agar (MSA), xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar, MacConkey agar (MAC), eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, bile salts citrate thiosulfate (TCBS) agar,
3.3 Total eligible count
The total viable count (TVC) is a simple way to dissect the microbial community’s composition. It is used to indicate the different types and numbers of bacteria in a given sample. It is possible to isolate various bacteria from a single environmental sample, whether a soil sample or a wound swab .
Total feasible amount serial dilutions were made from 1 mL sample and 9 mL standard saline solution, two drops surface plated on plate count agar (PCA) for TVC. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The number of different colonies on each plate was calculated using a colony counter, colony-forming units (CFU) per mL or cm2 of the sample were calculated using the respective dilution factors and converted to log10, CFU/cm, or mL values.
Whether in the form of paper or coins, money is one of the media that can be a source of
The existence of
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia for granting financial support in contract no. NKB-47/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2020.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.