Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Potential Utilization of Insect Meal as Livestock Feed

Written By

Sipho Moyo and Busani Moyo

Reviewed: 25 November 2021 Published: 18 February 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101766

From the Edited Volume

Animal Feed Science and Nutrition - Production, Health and Environment

Edited by Amlan Kumar Patra

Chapter metrics overview

528 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Globally, the utilization of alternative protein sources in livestock feed has been extensively deliberated and established to be the best novel approach. Extensive research indicated that insects provide good opportunities as a sustainable, high quality, and low-cost component of animal feed. The use of insects in animal diet sounds to be the prospective opportunity leading to sustainability of animal feeds and meet the intensifying worldwide plea for livestock products. The value of these protein sources has, however, increased due to limited production, competition between humans and animals. The use of insects for feeding farmed animals represents a promising alternative because of the nutritional properties of insects and the possible environmental benefits, given the sustainability of this type of farming. Yet little has been documented about the nutrient composition of various insect meals, the impact of insect meal in the animal feed industry, safety, and attitude and willingness of farmers to accept insect-based animal feed and food. Therefore, this chapter seeks to document the potential utilization of insect meal as livestock feed.


  • insect meal
  • safety
  • acceptance
  • chitin
  • benefits

1. Introduction

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) emphasized the importance of alternatives to conventional animal feed due to limited amounts [1]. Currently, the core protein sources in monogastric animal diets are fishmeal, processed animal protein, milk by-product, soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal, and canola meal. The value of these protein sources has, however, increased due to limited production, competition between humans and animals [2]. In addition, Makkar et al. [3] stated that insects are good novel protein sources at a low-cost, with regard to their high nutritional value and low breeding space requirements. They are recommended as high quality, effective, ecological substitute sources of protein. More so, protein-enriched insects are another alternative reckoned to reduce the price of protein supplements in poultry diets. In addition, according to [4] insect components such as chitin, lauric acid, and antimicrobial peptides promote chicken health. Also, take into consideration that these insects can be utilized as a dried or fresh state in poultry diets [5]. Recently, scientists have started to study insects as state-of-the-art feed constituents for aquaculture [6, 7] and poultry [8, 9]. However, this chapter focuses on the documentation of the proximate nutrient composition, impact on the animal feed industry, consumer acceptance, and safety of insect meal as animal feed.


2. Chemical composition of different insect meals

Insects at all stages of their lives are potentially rich in protein [8]. Frantic efforts by researchers have dealt with different insect species, as indicated in Table 1. The protein content of insect meals varies considerably, from around 39% up to 64.4% even when the meals are based on the same insect species. The nutrient concentration of insects depends on their life stage as well as the rearing conditions and the composition of the growth media used for insect production [3, 20].

Insect spp.DMCPEEAshCFCitation
Tenebrio molitor L.94.5652.1832.19[10]
Gryllus assimilis90.1558.1429.52[10]
T. molitor99.2058.8017.1[11]
Hermetia illucens98.958.411.6[11]
Periplaneta americana94.664.423.63.984.36[12]
Hydrous cavistanum86.341.938.31.8814.7[12]
Zophobas morio96.842.041.75.536.28[12]
Locusta migratoria91.958.512.74.5612.7[12]
Gryllus testaceus92.253.322.65.058.98[12]
Musca domesticus93.854.821.76.789.65[12]
Brachytrupes spp.62.612.24.913.3[13]
G. assimilis56.032.07.6[14]
Ruspolia nitidula40.846.33.35.9[15]
Macrotermes nigeriensis37.548.03.25.0[16]
Allomyrina dichotoma54.[17]
H. illucens39.032.614.612.4[18]
Musa domestica96.7740.126.8815.8810.97[19]

Table 1.

Summarized major chemical composition of different insect meals.


3. Impact of insect meal in the animal feed industry

In general, insects can be utilized for human and animal feed because of their high nutritive value [21]. Several studies have indicated that insect meal can be utilized to substitute soybean and fish meal in animal diets [22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. This is because these are rich sources of macro and micronutrients [27]. For instance, the black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens larvae has a protein content of 37–63 g/100 g and fat levels of 20–40 g/100 g with balanced fatty acids and amino acids profiles [9, 28]. Furthermore, grasshoppers (Ruspolia nitidula Linnaeus) family Tettigoniidae contains 36–40 g/100 g crude protein, 41–43 g/100 g fat, 10–13 g/100 g dietary fiber, and 2.6–3.9 g/100 g ash on a dry matter basis [29]. In addition, insects are excellent sources of minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorous, zinc, and magnesium and also vitamins covering riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, and vitamin B12 [30, 31, 32].

Furthermore, Onsongo et al. [24] reported that broiler chickens and quails fed on BSF larvae meal had a satisfactory taste, aroma, and nutritional composition of the meat. This denotes that BSF larval meal can be suitable to be incorporated in poultry diets. Also, insects have been fed to fish yielding good growth performance and feed conversion [33]. In addition, piglets fed with BSF larval meal exhibited good results on growth performance, with insignificant effects on blood profiles [26]. However, generally, the use of BSF larval meal has been proven to be an excellent constituent of animal feed [23, 24, 25, 26].

High nutritional value, minimal space requirements, and low environmental impact combine to make insects an appealing option for animal feed [34]. Another major advantage is that insects are already used for the natural part of many animal diets [35]. Insect-based animal feeds are particularly attractive when considering the cost of standard feeds, currently accounting for 70% of livestock-production expenses [36].

The most promising, well-studied candidates for industrial feed production are black soldier flies, larvae, yellow mealworms, silkworms, grasshoppers, and termites [37]. Such previous research has revealed that insect meal can partially replace commercial soybean or fish meal in broiler feed, particularly as protein sources. In addition, Pretorius [38] reported that broiler chicken fed with housefly larvae increased their average daily gain, carcass weight, and total feed intake. More so, a recent study by [9] asserted that broilers fed on BSF meal improved their growth performance. With regards to nutritional value, insect diets improved meat products’ taste. Also, Marono et al. [39] reported that laying hens fed on insect larvae meal exhibited no negative effect on feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, immune status, egg production, and health. Smallholder farmers in Asia and Africa frequently utilize insect diets on fish production [37]. Mealworms and housefly-larvae meal can substitute up to 40–80% and 75% of fishmeal in Nile tilapia/standard catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.) diets without any detrimental effects, respectively [40, 41]. Replacing a fish meal with black-soldier-fly larvae meal in diets does not alter the odor, flavor, or texture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) [42]. Another viable alternative to a fish meal is silkworm pupa, which was tested successfully for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerling diets [43]. More so, some other outcomes on insects to benefit the industry are presented in Table 2.

Pig ageInsect speciesFeed inclusion levelsResultsCitation
Weaned pigsTenebrio molitor0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% replacement of soybean mealLinear increase in BW, ADG, ADFI, DM, and CP digestibility[44]
Weaned female pigsHermetia illucens0, 30, and 60% replacement of soybean mealLinear increase in ADFI no effect on growth[26]
BarrowsH. illucens50, 75, and 100% replacement of soybean mealNo effect on base meat quality measures, increased juiciness (P < 0.05); higher back fat PUFA contents (P < 0.05)[45]
Weaned pigsT. molitor0, 5, and 10% replacement of soybeanAID of all AAs, except aspartic acid, was lower at 10% inclusion than at the control diet[46]
Growing pigDried BSF larvae meal0, 9, 12, 14.5, and 18.5% replacing fish mealGrowth performance was not affected[47]
Finishing pigsDried H. illucens larvae powder0, 4, and 8% replacing soybean mealBW and BWG at 4% inclusion was higher and FCR was lower than at 0 and 8% inclusion[48]
Weaned pigletsH. illucens larvae oil0, 2, 4, and 6% replacing corn oilEvaluated biochemical parameters were not affected, except cholesterol that increased linearly at higher inclusion levels. Hematological parameters were not affected, but platelet count tended to linearly increase at higher inclusion levels[49]
Nursing pigletsH. illucens larva0 and 3.5% replacing fishmealEvaluated hematological and biochemical parameters were not affected[50]
Growing quailsDefatted H. illucens mealReported no difference in average daily feed intake[51]
Broiler chickensMopane worn (Imbrasia belina meal)0, 4, 8, and 12% replacing soybean oilDietary inclusion levels of I. belina meal up to 12% had a positive effect on growth performance, meat quality, and sensory attributes[52]
Broiler chickensMusca domestica0, 75, 50, and 25% replacing fish mealNo significant effect (P > 0.05) to the feed intake[19]
QuailsH. illucens0, 10, and 15% substituting soybean oilNo significant difference in daily gains to control[52]
Broiler chickensT. molitor0, 50, 100, and 150%Live weight and feed intake of broiler chickens improved with increasing levels of T. molitor[53]
Broiler chickensH. illucens and Arthrospira platensis50%Increased live weight of broiler chickens[54]
Broilers chickensH. illucens0, 5, 10, and 15%Live weight showed linear and quadratic responses to increasing levels of H. illucens[55]
Muscovy duckH. Illucens0, 3, 6, and 9%Live weight and average daily gain showed quadratic response to increasing H. illucens[56]

Table 2.

Summary of effect of insect diet on growth performance of different animal species.

DM, dry matter; CP, crude protein; BW, body weight; BWG, body weight gain; FCR, food conversion ratio; ADG, average daily gain; ADFI, average daily feed intake; AA, amino acids; AIA, apparent ileal digestibility; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.


4. Consumer’s acceptance of insect-based animal feeds

The utilization of insect meal to replace unaffordable fish, animal, or plant protein ingredients in feeds is socially acceptable. This is because, naturally, fish and poultry are usually seen feeding on insects, for example, in the case of our free-range poultry production systems [53, 57], which roam around in search of feed. More so, various insects have higher protein levels than conventional fish and soybean meals [58] and are comparable in performance with conventional protein sources when completely or partially replaced with fish protein in poultry diets [59]. With the fact that protein is the most costly ingredient in livestock diets, the use of insects sounds like a positive novel idea [60, 61].

The consumer’s acceptance of meat products derived from animals-fed insects ought to be put into account. Before introducing insects as a new ingredient, it is necessary to establish the current perceptions of the targeted processors, traders, and poultry farmers. This is because farmers’ perceptions of technology characteristics significantly affect their adoption decisions [62]. A few studies surveyed the consumer’s readiness to buy animal products that originated from animals fed with insect meal [63, 64].


5. Chitin content

Chitin is a polysaccharide (linear polymer of β-(1–4)N-acetyl-glucosamine units) of the exoskeleton of arthropods [65]. However, chitin negatively affects the digestibility and nutritional traits of insects. In addition, it has been considered as indigestible fiber for the time in memorial. Chitin is the utmost form of fiber in insects [66], however, the nitrogen absence is also analyzed by the Kjeldahl method as a crude protein. It is, however, included in the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6.25, which overvalued protein content. For this reason, Janssen et al. [67] suggested a conversion factor of 5.60 ± 0.39. However, in some birds like chickens, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) excretes the enzyme chitinase [68] which degrades chitin into its derivatives chitosan, chitooligosaccharides, and chitooligomers that are assimilated with easy into bloodstreams [68, 69]. Average chitin yields were 18.01 and 4.92% of dry weight from the exuvium and whole body of the Tenebrio molitor larvae [70]. The chitin composition depends on species and development stadium of the insect [66].

However, chitin has a positive effect on the operation of the immune system of poultry, which could reduce the use of antibiotics [1]. The prebiotic effect of chitin was observed by [71, 72] in increasing caecal production of butyric acid and [73] in improving the immune response of birds or due to reduction of albumin to globulin ratio [74]. In addition, chitin and its derivatives can aid to sustain a balanced and healthy GIT microbiota that keeps the amounts of potentially pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) low [75] and decreases the risk of intestinal diseases. By reducing the number of pathogenic microbiota, chitin encourages the proliferation of commensal bacteria. A positive effect of chitin was reported by [36] who also stated that a diet containing 3% of chitin decreased E. coli and Salmonella spp. in the 380 intestines. Chitin also has antifungal and antimicrobial properties [76].


6. Nutrient digestibility

Evaluating digestibility is a means to come up with an approximation of nutrient availability in a feed. In this regards, Woods et al. [77] reported that H. illucens larvae fed to quails have higher apparent digestibility for dry matter and organic matter to the control fed group. However, Bovera et al. [78] showed that the ileal digestibility coefficient of dry matter and organic matter in broiler fed T. molitor was lower by 2% than fed soybean diet. In addition, Cutrignelli et al. [79] reported reduced coefficients of the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry and organic matter on laying hens fed H. illucens meal diet. These reductions were due to the strong decrease of the crude protein digestibility linked to the availability of chitin in the insect meals, which deleteriously influences the crude protein digestibility. However, no difference was observed between digestibility coefficients of the dry matter of T. molitor meal and H. illucens meal [80]. More so, Woods et al. [77] observed a higher apparent metabolizable energy for H. illucens larvae fed quail compared well to the control fed group. On similar results [81] did not find the differences among T. molitor oil and palm oil on AID of crude fat, and metabolizable energy. Furthermore, the apparent metabolizable energy of the T. molitor meal and H. illucens meal [80] was higher than all the ingredients mainly utilized in the poultry diet [39], substituted 500 g kg−1 of a maize meal-based diet with M. domestica larvae meal for 3-week old broiler chickens and detected a crude protein digestibility coefficient of 0.69. However, De-Marco et al. [80] detected no difference in the digestibility coefficient of the crude protein between T. molitor and H. illucens. In their study, Schiavone et al. [82] observed that there was no effect on apparent crude protein digestibility in chickens fed T. molitor oil as a total replacement for palm oil. Whilst, Bovera et al. [78] and Schiavone et al. [82] reported 8.2% and lower crude protein digestibility on chickens fed T. molitor larvae respectively, compared to soybean diet. De-Marco et al. [80], found that the (AID) of amino acids in the T. molitor meal was higher and showed less variation than in the H. illucens meal. According to the afore-mentioned results, insect meals can be an alternative crude protein source for soybean meals or fishmeal.


7. Safety in utilization of insect meals

Utilization of insects as constituents in livestock feed should consider safe due to the fact that they contain toxic substances secreted by the exocrine gland [83]. Just as in plants and animal feed, some insects are not safe to eat, they trigger allergic reactions. For instance, African silkworm (Anaphe venata) pupae have a thiaminase which causes thiamine deficiency [84]. In addition, T. molitor contains toxic benzoquinone compounds secreted by the defensive gland [85]. This benzoquinone is toxic to humans and animals, hence affecting cellular respiration resulting in kidney destruction, and has a carcinogenic effect [85]. However, insects may have antibiotic resistance genes [86] indicating that they can be filled with disease-causing organisms or mycotoxin from adulterated diets. More so, Wynants et al. [87] affirmed the contamination of wheat bran by the Salmonella spp. in T. molitor larvae. However, it is imperative to consistently monitor microbial pathogens of the substrate and the larvae in order to reduce pathogens in the T. molitor. Interestingly, Van Broekhoven et al. [88] reported that T. molitor larvae fed with diets contaminated with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol were not affected in their growth and degraded the mycotoxin.

Besides, mycotoxins, insect feed can be contaminated with heavy metals, pesticides [89]. Mycotoxins from feed or substrate for insects rearing can negatively affect the growth, inhibit larval development or increase mortality of insects. More so, consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated insects can present a risk to animals. However, Schrogel et al. [90], reported no accumulation of mycotoxin in experiments fed with various insect species. Furthermore, Charlton et al. [91] reported that heavy metals accumulate in resultant insects. However, of the 1140 compounds measured, only seven were detected in the larvae, with Cd posing the greatest risk [91]. The T. molitor and H. illucens larvae consume feeds containing mycotoxins and pesticides, the removal of these would render the resultant larvae free from toxins [92, 93]. More so, Purschke et al. [94] affirmed that there was no build-up of pesticides in BSF larvae raised on substrates spiked with pesticides. As a result, this renders it safe to be used in animal feed diets.

Some insects contain repellent or toxic chemicals, which they use as their defense mechanism. Grasshoppers spit brown juice as a means of defense while laybugs protect themselves from predators by releasing toxic fluid hemolymph. This yellowish fluid released from the leg joints is toxic in nature. Some insects are reported to transmit zoonotic agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi as vectors. According to [95] cases of botulism, parasites and food poisoning have been reported in using insect meal. In management, these health risks, proper processing, handling, and storage are a necessity in order to prevent contamination and spoilage. However, it is imperative to apply decontamination methods and shelf-life stability of insect meals in order to ensure and achieve marketability and food and feed safety.


8. Production and availability of insect meal

Insects have some valuable biological traits, which include being prolific, high feed conversion rate, and easy to raise with low feed cost [96]. According to [51] insects need less amount of feed for the production of 1 kg biomass, have higher fecundity, for instance, the common house cricket lays up to 1500 eggs over a period of about a month. Insect species are efficient feed converters as they are cold-blooded [51] and do not use energy to maintain body temperature [53]. Insects effectively utilize water and, in most cases, the feed is the main source of water [97]. Generally, the breeding of insects does not require complex infrastructure and their care is simple [98]. Insects propagation can be on several substrates, for example, cereals, decomposing organic materials, fruit or vegetables, poultry, pigs and cattle manure, industry by-products, or waste products, which would be environmental problems [51, 99]. According to [100, 101] utilization of insect meals or larvae meals can reduce the cost of poultry feed when nurtured on bio-waste. Insects can convert waste into valuable biomass [102] and convert low-quality plant waste into high-quality crude protein, fat, and energy in a short time [3]. Insects can effectively convert low-grade organic waste into high-quality protein. They utilize the organic waste, which could otherwise end up on dumpsites, causing environmental pollution. Insects have higher feed conversion efficiency. Most insects are produced on organic wastes or material that could not be consumed by humans. In their production, insects use minimal space, in the rearing process. Reports indicate that insects contribute less greenhouse gases than pigs and cattle [37].

The other benefit is the larvae’s ability to decrease bacterial growth in the manure and thus reduce odor [97] H. illucens larvae has a 66% potential waste reduction and also waste reduction of 51–80% was recorded on pig, chicken, and kitchen waste [103]. Insect farming can also provide environmental benefits. Feeding waste materials to insects protects air, land, and water from potential contamination [104]. For example, the black soldier fly (H. illucens L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can be fed food waste that would typically be placed in landfills [105]. Accordingly, digestion of these materials suppresses noxious odors [105] greenhouse gases [106], and pathogens [107]. Furthermore, less land, water, and space are needed to produce insects, such as the black soldier fly, than traditional animal production [107]. Other benefits include fast development time (e.g., black soldier fly can develop to harvestable size within 14 days) [108], versus beef (e.g., 12–18 months of feeding to reach the needed weight to slaughter) [109]. It is also worth noting that the full insect is edible unlike beef (48.5%) [36]. Because of the ability of the black soldier fly to consume a variety of organic wastes, while offering benefits to the environment, it is now viewed as the “crown jewel” of the insect.

Insects’ growth rate depends on microclimate. The optimal temperature for most insect species rearing is 27–30°C [110]. The insect’s larvae are the most effective for production and it is possible to produce more than 180 kg of live weight of H. illucens larvae in 42 days from 1 m2 [110]. The insect market for animal feed is continually increasing globally, especially focused on T. molitor larvae (mealworm). T. molitor and H. illucens (black soldier fly) are two of the most promising insect species for commercial exploitation and for use in poultry feeds [110] their production is seamless and well understood [111].

Even though raising insects seem to be a positive move, there is a dearth of information with regards to insect production methods and technologies, mainly in mass production [112, 113, 114]. This may be due to the fact that private companies hardly share that kind of information as they are in business. However, indigenous technical knowledge is mainly utilized in raising these insects, eventually becoming the basis of any technological improvement. For instance, in Indonesia, a complete guide on how H. illucens on medium-scale production has been circulated [115]. General, insect husbandry includes two main distinct units, which include the maintenance of the breeding colonies and the growing larvae [28]. In the event that business deals with adult insects, this requires more space for rearing purposes. As this implies to where crickets are raised [116]. Improved systems usually include an area to process insects and improve resultant products. Production wastes, like substrate remains and frass, may be utilized to come up with fertilizers in a devoted facility, hence leading to circularity and sustainability.

Insects can thrive in thickly populated areas, which permits mass production even in limited spaces. Generally, larvae and pupae are retained together with a nourishing substrate in small trays made of diverse materials like wood, high-density polyethylene, or fiberglass. According to [116] trays for fattening T. molitor larvae are standard ones measuring 65 × 50 × 15 cm3 box, which are handled with ease and are deep enough to avert larvae or adults from fleeing. A recent study by Thevenot et al. [114] reported that a mill was designed to produce 17 tones of T. molitor annually with a density of 5 larvae cm−2.

Currently, insect raising is appealingly increasing awareness in developed countries, which are not enthusiastically normally involved in harvesting insects. This involves countries like Europe and the United States of America. As a result, promoting insect-based products to increase their market share. Indeed, insect husbandry linked with economic benefits produce food and feed ingredients that can benefit the developing and developed nations [117].


9. Conclusion

Insects pose an attractive opportunity to come up with novel sustainable protein source in monogastric animal diets taking into account their nutritive value, biosafety, and consumer acceptance. In addition, they also represent a means of converting food waste biomasses/streams into valued feed materials. However, it appears that there is nothing much barring us from utilizing insect meals as feed material. As a result, we need to get started and reduce the feed costs and also get rid of other insect limitations in their use as animal feed. Insect farming has great potential with regards to sustainably providing feed for the livestock. It can be concluded that insects can be an excellent alternative to partly replace soybean and fishmeal. However, further technological development of this sector and monitoring of the effects of these developments are needed. Also, further exploration is needed to assess the estimation equations parameters tied to these insect species.



The authors would like to extend their gratitude to Gwanda State University for granting us an opportunity, resources, facilities to work on this chapter. Our appreciation also goes to the Animal Feed Science and Nutrition-Health Environment for affording us the opportunity to make this contribution. This research did not receive any external funding from outside.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflict of interest.


Our appreciation also goes to the Animal Feed Science and Nutrition-Health Environment for affording us the opportunity to make this contribution.


  1. 1. Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). Insects as Animal Feed. Available from: [Accessed: 2 November 2021]
  2. 2. Van Huis A, Oonincx DGAB. The environmental sustainability of insect as food and feed. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2017;37:43. DOI: 10.1007/s/3593-017-0452-8
  3. 3. Makkar HP, Tran G, Heuzé V, Ankers P. State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2014;197:1-33
  4. 4. Gasco L, Finke M, van Huis A. Can diets containing insects promote animal health? Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2018;4:5
  5. 5. Khan SH. Recent advances in the role of insects as an alternative protein source in poultry nutrition. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2018;46:1144-1157
  6. 6. Belforti M, Gai F, Lussiana C, Renna M, Malfatto V, Rotolo L. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets: Effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2015;14:670-675
  7. 7. Renna M, Schiavone A, Gai F, Dabbou S, Lussiana C, Malfatto V. Evaluation of the suitability of a partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal as an ingredient for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 2017;8:957-969
  8. 8. Bovera F, Piccolo G, Gasco L, Marono S, Loponte R, Vassalotti G, et al. Yellow meal larvae (Tenebrio molitor) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets. British Poultry Science. 2015;56(5):569-575. DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2015.1080815
  9. 9. Schiavone A, De Marco M, Martínez S, Dabbou S, Renna M, Madrid J. Nutritional value of a partially defatted and a highly defatted black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) meal for broiler chickens: Apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 2017;8:897-905
  10. 10. Dourado LRB, Lopes PM, Silva VK, Carvalho FLA, Maura FAS, Silva LB, et al. Chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of insect meal for broilers. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. 2020;90:3. DOI: 10.1590/0001-37652020200764
  11. 11. Marono S, Piccolo G, Loponte R, Meo CD, Attia YA, Nozza A, et al. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical compostion traits. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2015;14:3889. DOI: 10.408I/ijas.2015.3889
  12. 12. Kovitvadhi A, Chundang P, Thongprajukaew K, Tirawattanawainich C, Srikachar S, Chotimanothum B. Potential of insect meals as protein sources for meat-type ducks based on in vitro digestibility. Animals. 2019;9:155. DOI: 10.3390/ani9040155
  13. 13. Akullo J, Agea JG, Obaa BB, Okwee-Acai J, Nokimbugwe D. Nutritional composition of commonly consumed edible insects in the Lango sub-region of northern Uganda. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25:159-166
  14. 14. Adamkova A, Ml’cek J, Kou’rimska L, Borkovcova M, Busina T, Adamek M, et al. Nutritional potential of selected insect species reared on the Island of Sumatra. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017;14:521
  15. 15. Bbosa T, Ndagire CT, Mukisa IM, Fiaboe KKM, Nakimbugwe D. Nutritional characteristics of selected insects in Uganda for use as alternative protein sources in food and feed. Journal of Insect Science. 2019;19:23
  16. 16. Omotoso OT. Nutrition composition, mineral analysis and antinutrient factors of Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptea) and winged termites, Macrotermes nigeriensis Sjostedt (Termitidae: Isoptera). Brazilian Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2015;8:97-106
  17. 17. Ghosh S, Lee SM, Jung C, Meyer-Rochow VB. Nutritional composition of five commercial edible insects in South Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2017;20:686-694
  18. 18. Nyakeri EM, Ogola HJ, Ayieko MA, Amimo FA. An open system for farming black soldier fly larvae as a source of proteins for small scale poultry and fish production. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2017;3:51-56
  19. 19. Dillak SYFG, Suryatni NPF, Handayani HT, Temu ST, Nastiti HP, Osa DB, et al. The effect of fed maggot meal as a supplement of finisher broiler chickens. Earth and Environmental Science. 2019;260:2-6
  20. 20. Oonincx DGAB, Van Broekhoven S, Van Huis A, Van Loon JJA. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144601
  21. 21. Klunder HC, Wolkers-Rooijackers J, Kopela JM, Noute MJR. Microbial aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control. 2012;26:628-631. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.013
  22. 22. Tran G, Heuze V, Makkar HPS. Insects in fish diets. Animal Frontiers. 2015;5:37-44
  23. 23. Iaconisi V, Marono S, Parisi G, Gasco L, Genovese L, Maricchiolo G, et al. Dietary inclusion of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal: effects on growth performance and final quality traits of blackspot sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo). Aquaculture. 2017;476:49-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.04.007
  24. 24. Onsongo VO, Osuga IM, Gachuiri CK, Wachira AM, Miano DM, Tanga CM, et al. Insects for income generation through animal feed: Effect of dietary replacement of soybean and fish meal with black soldier fly meal on broiler growth and economic performance. Journal of Economic Entomology. 2018;111:1966-1973. DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy118
  25. 25. Van der Fels-Klerx HJ, Camenzuli L, Belluco S, Meijer N, Ricci A. Food safety issues related to uses of insects for feeds and foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2018;17:1172-1183. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12385
  26. 26. Biasato I, Renna M, Gai F, Dabbou S, Meneguz M, Perona G, et al. Partially defatted black soldier fly larva meal inclusion in piglet diets: Effects on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, gut morphology and histological features. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 2019;10:2-6. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-019-0325-x.13
  27. 27. Finke M, Oonincx DGAB. Nutrient content of insects. In: Van Huis A, Tomberlin JK, editors. Insects as Food and Feed: From Production to Consumption. Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2017. pp. 290-316
  28. 28. Halloran A, Flore R, Vantomme P, Roos N. Insects and human nutrition. In: Halloran A, Flore R, Vantomme P, Roos N, editors. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems. Cham: Springer; 2018. pp. 83-92. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-74011-9
  29. 29. Ssepuuya G, Mukisa IM, Nakimbugwe D. Nutritional composition, quality and shelf life stability of processed Ruspolia nitidula (edible grass hoppers). Food Science & Nutrition. 2016;5:103-112. DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.369
  30. 30. Kourimska L, Adamkova A. Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects. Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2016;4:22-26
  31. 31. Spranghers T, Ottoboni M, Klootwijk C, Ovyn A, Deboosere S, De Meulenaer B, et al. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2017;97:2594-2600. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8081
  32. 32. Akhtar Y, Isman MB. Insects as an alternative protein source. In: Rickey YY, editor. Proteins in Food Processing. Canada: Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition; 2018. pp. 263-288
  33. 33. Devic E, Leschen W, Murray F, Little DC. Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal. Aquaculture Nutrition. 2018;24:416-423
  34. 34. Kim TK, Yang HI, Kim YB, Kim HW, Choi YS. Edible insects as a protein source: A review of public perception, processing, technology, and research trends. Food Science of Animal Resources. 2019;39(4):521-540. DOI: 10.5851/kosfa.2019.e53
  35. 35. Veldkamp T, Bosch G. Insects: A protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets. Animal Frontiers. 2015;5:45-50
  36. 36. van Huis A, van Itterbeeck J, Klunder H, Mertens E, Halloran A, Muir G, et al. Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2013
  37. 37. Dobermann D, Swift JA, Field LM. Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutrition Bulletin. 2017;42:293-308
  38. 38. Pretorius Q. The evaluation of larvae of Musca domestica (common house fly) as protein source for broiler production [Ph.D. dissertation]. Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa: Stellenbosch University; 2011
  39. 39. Marono S, Loponte R, Lombardi P, Vassalotti G, Pero ME, Russo F, et al. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age. Poultry Science. 2017;96:1783-1790
  40. 40. Roncarati A, Gasco L, Parisi G, Terova G. Growth performance of common catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.) fingerlings fed mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) diet. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2015;1:233-240
  41. 41. Wang L, Li J, Jin JN, Zhu F, Roffeis M, Zhang XZ. A comprehensive evaluation of replacing fishmeal with housefly (Musca domestica) maggot meal in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Growth performance, flesh quality, innate immunity and water environment. Aquatic Nutrition. 2017;23:983-993
  42. 42. Lock ER, Arsiwalla T, Waagbo R. Insect larvae meal as an alternative source of nutrients in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) posts molt. Aquatic Nutrition. 2016;22:1202-1213
  43. 43. Kurbanov AR, Milusheva RY, Rashidova SS, Kamilov BG. Effect of replacement of fish meal with silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa protein on the growth of Clarias gariepinus Fingerling. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2015;2:25-27
  44. 44. Jin XH, Heo PS, Hong JS, Kim NJ, Kim YY. Supplementation of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2016;29:979-986
  45. 45. Altmann BA, Neumann C, Rothstein S, Liebert F, Mörlein D. Do dietary soy alternatives lead to pork quality improvements or drawbacks? A look into micro-alga and insect protein in swine diets. Meat Science. 2019;153:26-34
  46. 46. Meyer S, Gessner DK, Braune MS, Friedhoff T, Most E, Horing M, et al. Comprehensive evaluation of the metabolic effects of insect meal from Tenebrio molitor L. in growing pigs by transcriptomics, metabolomics and lipidomics. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 2020;11:20
  47. 47. Chia SY, Tanga CM, Osuga IM, Alaru AO, Mwangi DM, Githinji M, et al. Effect of dietary replacement of fishmeal by insect meal on growth performance, blood profiles and economics of growing pigs in Kenya. Animals. 2019;9:19
  48. 48. Yu M, Li ZM, Chen WD, Rong T, Wang G, Li JH, et al. Use of Hermetia illucens larvae as a dietary protein source: Effects on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in finishing pigs. Meat Science. 2019;158:2-6
  49. 49. Van Heugten E, Martinez G, McComb A, Koutsos E. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae oil improves growth performance of nursery pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 2019;97:1
  50. 50. Driemeyer H. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae as an alternative protein source in pig creep diets in relation to production, blood and manure microbiology parameters [MSc thesis]. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Stellenbosch University; 2016. p. 99
  51. 51. Cullere M, Tasoniero G, Giaccone V, Miotti-Scapin R, Claey E, Dr Smet S, et al. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: Apparent digestibility, excretal microbial load, feed choice, performance, carcass and meat traits. Animal. 2016;10(12):1923-1930
  52. 52. Moyo S, Masika PJ, Muchenje V, Jaja IF. Effect of Imbrasia belina meal on growth performance, quality characteristics and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meal. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2020;19(1):1450-1461
  53. 53. Biasato I, Gasco L, De Marco M, Renna M, Rotolo L, Dabbou S, et al. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) inclusion in diets for male broiler chickens: Effects on growth performance, gut morphology and histological findings. Poultry Science. 2018;97:540-548
  54. 54. Altmann BA, Neumann C, Velten S, Liebert F, Mörlein D. Meat quality derived from high inclusion of a micro-alga or insect meal as an alternative protein source in poultry diets: A pilot study. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2018;7:34
  55. 55. Dabbou S, Gai F, Biasato I, Gasco L, Schiavone A. Black soldier fly defatted meal as dietary protein source of broiler chickens: Effect on growth performance, blood traits, gut morphology and histology features. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 2018;9:48. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-018-0266-9
  56. 56. Gariglio M, Dabbou S, Biasato I, Capucchio MT, Colombino E, Hernandez F, et al. Nutritional effect of the dietary inclusion of partially defatted Hermetia illucens larva meal in Muscovy duck. Journal of Animal Biotechnology. 2019;10:10-37. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-019-6344-7
  57. 57. Sebatta C, Ssepuuya G, Sikahwa E, Mugisha J, Diiro G, Sengendo M, et al. Farmers’ acceptance of insects as an alternative protein source in poultry feeds. International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology. 2018;8(2):32-41. DOI: 10.3329/ijarit.v8i2.40553
  58. 58. Anand H, Ganguly A, Haldar P. Potential value of acridids as high protein supplement for poultry feed. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2008;7(7):722-725
  59. 59. Moreki J, Tiroesele B, Chiripasi S. Prospects of utilizing insects as alternative sources of protein in poultry diets in Botswana: A review. Journal of Animal Science Advances. 2012;2(8):649-658
  60. 60. Maurer V, Holinger M, Amsler Z, Früh B, Wohlfahrt J, Stamer A, et al. Replacement of soybean cake by Hermetia illucens meal in diets for layers. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2016;2(2):83-90
  61. 61. Niassy S, Ekesi S. Contribution to the knowledge of entomophagy in Africa. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2016;2(3):137-138
  62. 62. Mbaka JN, Mwangi M, Mwangi MN. Banana farming as a business: The role of tissue cultured planting materials in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;9(1):354-361
  63. 63. Verbeke W, Spranghers T, De Clercq P, De Smet S, Sas B, Eeckhout M. Insect in animal feed: acceptance and determinants among farmers, agriculture sector, stakeholders and Citizens. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2015;204:72-87
  64. 64. Szendo K, Naggy MZ, Toth K. Consumer acceptance of meat from animals reared on insect meal feed. Animals. 2020;10:1213. DOI: 10/3390/ani10081312
  65. 65. Sanchez-Muros MJ, Barroso FG, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Insect meal a renewable source of food for animal feeding: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2014;65:16-27
  66. 66. Al-Qazzaz MFA, Ismail D, Akit H, Idris LH. Effect of using insect larvae meal as a complete protein source on quality and productivity characteristics of laying hens. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2016;45(9):518-523
  67. 67. Janssen RH, Vinken JP, van Den Broek LAM, Fogliano V, Lakemond CMM. Nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for three edible insects; Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;65(11):2275-2278. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7600471
  68. 68. Tabata E, Kashimura A, Wakita S, Ohno M, Sakaguchi M, Sugahara Y, et al. Gastric and intestinal protease resistance of chicken acidic chitinase nominates chitin-containing organisms for alternative whole edible diets for poultry. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:6662. DOI: 10.1038/541598-017-07146-3
  69. 69. Borrelli L, Coretti L, Dipineto L, Bovera F, Monna F, Chiariotti L, et al. Insect-based diet, a promising nutritional source, modulates gut microbiota composition and short chain fatty acids (SCFAS) production in laying hens. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:16269
  70. 70. Song YS, Kim MW, Moon C, Seo DJ, Han YS, Jo YH, et al. Extraction of chitin and chitosan from larval exuvium and whole body of edible meal worm, Tenebrio molitor. Entomology Research. 2018;48:227-233
  71. 71. Bovera F, Marono S, Di Meo C, Piccolo G, Iannacconem F, Nizza A. Effect of mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on caecal microbial activity of rabbits. Animals. 2010;4:1522-1527. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731110000558
  72. 72. Khempaka S, Chitsatchapong C, Molee W. Effect of chitin and protein constituents in shrimp head meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbial populations, volatile fatty acids and ammonia production in broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 2011;20:1-11
  73. 73. Bovera F, Piccolo G, Gasco L, Marono S, Loponte R, Vassalotti G, et al. Yellow meal larvae (Tennebrio molitor) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets. British Poultry Science. 2015;56(5):569-575. DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2015.1080815
  74. 74. Loponte R, Nizza S, Bovera F, Riu ND. Growth performance, blood profiles and carcass triats of Barbarypatridges (Alectoris Barbara) fed two different insects larvae meals (Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens). Research in Veterinary Science. 2017;115:2-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.04.017
  75. 75. Benhabiles MS, Salah R, Lounici H, Drouiche N, Goosen MFA, Nameri N. Antibacterial activity of chitin, chitosan and its oligomers prepared from shrimp shell waste. Food Hydrocolloids. 2012;29:48-56
  76. 76. Khoushab F, Yamabhai M. Chitin research revisited. Marine Drugs. 2010;8:1988-2012. DOI: 10.3390/md8071988
  77. 77. Woods MJ, Cullere M, Emmenes LV, Vincenzi S, Pieterse E, Hoffman LC, et al. Hermetia illucens larvae reared on different substrates in broiler quail diets: Effect on apparent digestibility, feed-choice and growth performance. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2019;5(2):89-98
  78. 78. Bovera F, Loponte R, Marono S, Piccolo G, Parisi G, Laconisi V, et al. Use of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal as protein source in digestibility and carcass and meat traits. Journal of Animal Science. 2016;94:639-647
  79. 79. Cutrignelli MI, Messina M, Tulli F, Randazzo B, Olivotto I, Gasco L. Evaluation of an insect meal of the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as soybean substitute: Intestinal morphometry, enzymatic and microbial activity in laying hens. Research in Veterinary Science. 2018;117:209-215. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.12.020
  80. 80. De-Marco M, Martinez S, Hernandez F, Madrid J, Gai F, Rotolo L, et al. Nutritional value of two insect larval meals (Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens) for broiler chickens: Apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2015;209:211-218
  81. 81. Benzertiha A, Kieronczyk B, Rawski M, Jozefiak A, Kozlowski K, Jankowski J, et al. Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio. Full fat meals in broiler chicken diets: Effect on nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activities and cecal microbiome. Animals. 2019;9:1128. DOI: 10.3390/ani9721128
  82. 82. Schiavone A, De Marco M, Rotolo L, Belforti M, Martinez Mir S, Madrid Sanche J, et al. Nutrient digestibility of Hermetia illucens and Tenebrio molitor meal in broiler chickens. In: Proc. 1st Int. Confer. Insects to Feed the World; Wageningen, The Netherlands. 2014. p. 73
  83. 83. Van Huis A, Oonincx BGAB, Rojo S, Tomberlin JK. Insect as feed: House fly or black soldier fly. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2020;6(3):221-229
  84. 84. Rumpoid BA, Schluter OL. Potential and challenges of insect as an innovative source for food and feed production. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2013;17:1-11
  85. 85. Bakuła T, Baranowski M, Czarnewicz A. The carcinogenic effects of benzoquinones produced by the flour beetle. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2011;14:159-164
  86. 86. Vandeweyer D, Milanovi’c V, Garofalo C, Osimani A, Clementi F, Van Campenhout L, et al. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of selected transferable antibiotic resistance genes in fresh edible insects from Belgium and the Netherlands. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2019;290:288-295
  87. 87. Wynants E, Frooninckx L, Van Miert S, Geeraerd A, Claes J, Van Campenhout L. Risks related to the presence of Salmonella sp. during the rearing of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) for food or feed: Survival in the substrate and transmission to the larvae. Food Control. 2019;100:227-234
  88. 88. Van Broekhoven S, Gutierrez JM, De Rijk TC, De Nijs WC, Van Loon JJ. Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.). World Mycotoxin Journal. 2017;10:163-169
  89. 89. Van der Spiegel M, Noordam MY, Van der Fels-Klerx HJ. Safety of novel protein sources (insect, microalgae, seeweed, duck weed and rape seed) and legislative aspect of their application in food and food production. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2013;12:2-6. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12032
  90. 90. Schrogel P, Watjen W. Insects for food and feed safety aspects related to mycotoxins and metals. Review Foods. 2019;8:88. DOI: 10.3390/foods8080288
  91. 91. Charlton AJ, Dickinson M, Wakefield ME, Fitches E, Kenis M, Han R, et al. Exploring the chemical safety of fly larvae as a source of protein for animal feed. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2015;1:7-16
  92. 92. Cai M, Hu R, Zhang K, Ma S, Zheng L, Yu Z, et al. Resistance of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae to combined heavy metals and potential application in municipal sewage sludge treatment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25:1559-1567
  93. 93. Van Der Fels-Klerx HJ, Andriessen R, Van Schelt J, Van Dam R, De Rijk TC, Camenzuli L. Safety aspects when rearing insects for feed or food consumption. In: 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. Dubrovnic, Croatia: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2018. pp. 27-31
  94. 94. Purschke B, Scheibelberger R, Axmann S, Adler A, Jäger H. Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on the growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 2017;34:1410-1420
  95. 95. Schabel HG. Forest insects as food: A global review. In: Proceedings of a Workshop on Asia-Pacific Resources and their Potential for Development. United Kingdom: Taylor and Francis group; 2010. pp. 37-64
  96. 96. Liu N, Abe M, Sabin LR, Hendriks GJ, Nagvi AS, Yu Z, et al. The exoribonuclease Nibbler controls 3′ end processing of microRNAs in Drosophila. Current Biology. 2011;21:1888-1893
  97. 97. Jozefiak D, Engberg RM. Insects as poultry feed. In: Proc. 20th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition. Czech Republic: World’s Poultry Science Association; 2015. pp. 73-80
  98. 98. Khusro M, Andrew NR, Nicholas A. Insects as poultry feed: A scoping study for poultry production systems in Australia. World’s Poultry Science Journal. 2012;68:435-446
  99. 99. Sánchez-Muros MJ, Barroso FG, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Insect meal as renewable source of food for animal feeding: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2014;65:16-27
  100. 100. Khan S, Khan RU, Sultan A, Khan M, Hayat SU, Shahid MS. Evaluation the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2016;100:649-656
  101. 101. Kareem KY, Abdulla NR, Foo HL, Mohd AN, Zamri NS, Loh TC, et al. Effect of feeding larvae meal in the diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality in broiler chicken. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2018;88:180-1185
  102. 102. Nguyen TT, Tomberlin JK, Vanlaerhoven S. Ability of black soldier fly (Diptera Stratiomyidae) larvae to recycle food waste. Environmental Entomology. 2015;44:406-410
  103. 103. Nana P, Kimpara JM, Tiambo CK, Tiogue CT, Youmbi J, Choundong B, et al. Blacj soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) as recycles of organic waste and possible livestock. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018;12(5):2004-2015. DOI: 10.4314/ijbc.v12i5.4
  104. 104. Van Huis A, Oonincx GAB. The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2017;37:43
  105. 105. Beskin KV, Holcomb CD, Cammack JA, Crippen TL, Knap AH, Sweet ST, et al. Larval digestion of different manure types by the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) impacts associated volatile emissions. Waste Management. 2018;74:213-220
  106. 106. Perednia DA, Anderson J, Rice A. A comparison of the greenhouse gas production of black soldier fly larvae versus aerobic microbial decomposition of an organic feed material. Research reviews. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2017;5:10-16
  107. 107. Lalander CH, Fidjeland J, Diener S, Eriksson S, Vinneras B. High waste-to-biomass conversion and efficient Salmonella spp. reduction using black soldier fly for waste recycling. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2015;35(1):261-271. DOI: 10.1007/s13593-014-0235-4
  108. 108. Gougbedji A, Agbohessou P, Laleye PA, Francis F, Medigo RC. Technical basis for the small scale production of black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L. 1758) meal as fish feed in Benin. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;4:100153. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafr.2021.100153
  109. 109. World Wide Fund for nature (WWF). Beef, World Wild Fund for Nature. Available from: [Accessed: November 2021]
  110. 110. Jozefiak D, Józefiak A, Kieronczyk B, Rawski M, Świątkiewicz S, Długosz J, et al. Insects—A natural nutrient source for poultry—A review. Annals of Animal Science. 2016;6:297-313
  111. 111. Kieronczyk B, Rawski M, Józefiak A, Mazurkiewicz J, Swiatkiewicz S, Siwek M, et al. Effects of replacing soybean oil with selected insect fats on broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2018;240:170-183
  112. 112. Pastor B, Velasquez Y, Gobbi P, Rojo S. Conversion of organic wastes into fly larval biomass: Bottlenecks and challenges. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2015;1:179-193
  113. 113. Drew DJW, Pieterse E. Markets, money and maggots. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 2015;1:227-231
  114. 114. Thevenot A, Rivera JL, Wilfart A, Maillard F, Hassouna M, Senga-Kiesse T, et al. Mealworm meal for animal feed: Environmental assessment and sensitivity analysis to guide future prospects. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018;170:1260-1267
  115. 115. Caruso D, Devic E, Subamia IW, Talamond P, Baras E. Technical Handbook of Domestication and Production of Diptera Black Soldier Fly (BSF) Hermetia Illucens, Stratiomyidae. Marseille, France: IRD Edition; 2015. pp. 30-38
  116. 116. Dossey AT, Morales-Ramos JA, Guadalupe Rojas M, editors. Insects as Sustainable Food Ingredients: Production, Processing and Food Applications. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Inc.; 2016. pp. 153-201
  117. 117. Cadinu LA, Borra P, Torre F, Delogu F, Madau FA. Insect rearing: Potential, challenges, and circulatory. Sustainability. 2020;12:4567

Written By

Sipho Moyo and Busani Moyo

Reviewed: 25 November 2021 Published: 18 February 2022