Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Application of Augmented Reality in TVET, a Modern Teaching-Learning Technology

Written By

Balakrishnan Chandrasekar

Submitted: June 29th, 2021 Reviewed: July 19th, 2021 Published: March 16th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.99550

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Abstract

Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) in India is increasingly receiving significance with focus towards skill development and employability in the development sector. The skill development and employability of skilled resources depend on the extent of design, delivery, attainment, relevance of vocational training programmes. The objectives of TVET institutions have varied with focus on the type of technical vocational and skill training, the delivery systems, employment potential, and employment in the relevant sectors. They are predominantly relevant to the geographic location, availability potential resources viz. manpower, funding and employment scenario. The skill training providers largely face several constraints and difficulties in the delivery systems, teaching-learning process, which have varied with learner’s expectations and the education needs. The technology-enabled teaching-learning has directed towards increased use of information communication technology (ICT) and computer-based teaching technologies in the learning centres. The computer-based teaching, virtual experiments and practical-based learning find wider application. Very little has been done in terms of relevance of vocational training and applications. This chapter attempts to review the available augmented reality or extended augmented reality for technical vocational education training and skill development, its relevance and increasing the impact of student leaning application in the skill centres. The author finally shares the experience of use of extended augmented reality for a vocational training.

Keywords

  • TVET
  • virtual learning
  • e-learning
  • augmented learning technology

1. Introduction

Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is a comprehensive system provided for training at the technician level to aspiring youth, which essentially forms part of an integral employment system in any developing nation. TVET and skill development systems are pivotal to employment creation, employment generation and employability across a variety of domains of economic activities in a country. India has taken a stride in providing wider opportunity for skill training and the technical vocational education for few decades. TVET and skill development have grown manifold with opportunities and seamless integration with formal system of training and employment. Across the Asian region, the technical vocational education has broadly remained the same within the context of skill-based training system, outcomes and learner attainment.

All developing nations have instilled strong belief that well-trained workforce is the cornerstone to the growing economy and development of the nation. They always serve as a backbone to the nation in bringing more skilled workforce, aspiring to quality services and relevance to the market-driven economy.

In order to give an understanding of evolution of TVET in a typical developing nation like India, a sequential history of policies and strategies are briefly presented in the following section. It is also common to observe that abutting nations to India have systems even before India’s republic, as they all have emerged from the erstwhile British regime, countries have adopted as per the country’s need, demand and availability of resources with time.

The vocational training system in India can be traced back to the British Rule, the pre-independence and post-independence (before and after 1947, respectively). During the onset of economic growth, the vocational education received little attention. However, the government at that point of time consciously put in place policy initiatives recommended by such Committees during pre-independence era. The key initiatives in technical vocational education training system enumerated schemes detailing the programme framework, learner attainment, etc. The policy decisions in pre-independence were through the statutory committees and intended reports, as follows: (a) Wood Despatch [1], (b) Indian Education Commission [2], (c) Rise of National Education Movement (1905–1921) [3], (d) the Hartog Committee (1929) [4], (e) the Sapru Committee [3], (f) Abbot Wood Report [4], (g) the Zakir Hussain Committee [5] and (h) the Sargent Report and Central Advisory Board on Education [6].

The recommendations and strategies put forth by these committees laid the foundation for design, preparation and institutionalizing the education system inclusive of technical vocational education. The education policy broadly covered the technical education (the engineering stream), technician and vocational system and related areas. The technical vocational system received its significance as per the priorities at that point and funding availability. The section below presents the highlights relevant to development of TVET systems, in the context of the learner engagement and pedagogy.

The formal structure of education in general composed of primary, secondary schooling and pre-university (5 + 3 + 3 years, respectively), and the vocational studies commenced after 11 years of schooling, as recommended by the Sapru Committee [3]. During this phase, the basic education syllabus along with the crafts curriculum was proposed, wherein all school students to receive the vocational curriculum to be imparted at school level. The pedagogy in basic education and vocational education was given importance and began as a policy as also outlined in its report [4]. In this phase, the assessment, evaluation and student retention in classroom for instructional-based learning were also emphasized to be stakeholder needs. Classroom teaching with common instructional medium and the regional language (mother tongue) were given stressed during this period. Following this, the learning resources such as textbooks, lab manuals and workshop resources received attention in the vocational education at the secondary level.

The vocationalization of secondary education was given importance wherein pre-final and final-year school students at the end of 11 years schooling had the option to specialize in technical and vocational training [5]. During this phase, the vocational education faced impediments during implementation including lack funds, adequate training resources in the centres, schools, lack of trained teachers.

A significant change in the education system along with the technical vocational education training was experienced during the post-independence era. The technical and vocational education received its importance due the labour market needs and demand in the industrial manpower. Following this demand, the education received much attention. Several institutional structures along with formal systems in terms of committees and commissions were formed. Some of the key institutional mechanism were (a) University Education Commission [7], (b) Secondary Education Commission [8], (c) Kothari Commission [9], (d) Central Advisory Board of Education [9], (e) National Policy on Education [10], (f) Report of the Working Group on vocationalization [3], (g) Adiseshiah Report – Vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education & 10 + 2 Committee [11], (h) Working Group on Vocationalization of Education [3], (i) National Policy on Education and the Action Programme on Vocational Education (1986) and (j) National Policy on Education 1986, Revised Policy (1992) [12].

It may be seen the aforesaid institutional mechanisms are key to development of TVET system as it is presently and keeps evolving as per the needs, stakeholder demands and the domain expertise. Taking into account the experience of pre-independence, the Kothari Commission [13] consolidated an education system to meet the national needs, addressing the labour market scenario, taking into account best expertise of the global situation. Thus, the emphasis for vocationalization was introduced at the pre-university, which included wide variety of areas including agriculture, engineering, non-engineering trades. These areas helped learners to acquire specialization in these areas at the higher education level. Vocational courses after 10 years schooling was emphasized for rapid expansion. Trade specialities in health sector, administration, commerce and small-scale industries were introduced. The trade certification levels such as certificate courses, diploma and post-diploma were designed, and the same was offered by the institutes owned by central government and the states.

With the growing needs and demands in the formal vocational system, there was need to undertake surveys and reformulate strategies to meet the skill demands at various level, the central government constituted with the aim to uniformly expand the scope of such technical institutions across the states. The expansion of trade certification programmes in the ITIs to meet the industry needs at rural blocks for increasing employment to such youth was recommended in Subanayagam Report, 1978 [3]. It is at this stage, ITIs were given importance and positioned as units of training service providers with the industry standards of curriculum, syllabus, examinations and certification prescribed by a national body for the identified trades. The process of streamlining a statutory body named, National Council for Vocational Education at the central level and concurrently, states also the established State Councils for Vocational Education to meet the state and regional needs. These institutional mechanisms served to set norms, standards for various trade level courses, certification standards and examination systems.

With increasing demand for trained manpower in the labour market, the technical vocational education and training gained more relevance in the national and regional level context. The central government at that point realized the importance of restricting TVET system. The vocational and skill trades in the context of industry demands were addressed in a comprehensive manner. During this phase, few additional institutional mechanisms were recommended by the Kulandaiswamy Report, 1985 [3]. By this stage, the ministry responsible for education was vested with the responsibility to synthesize curriculum, learning resources, assessment system and introduction of vocational education in schools. Thus, the responsible ministry set up a national apex institution, the National Council for Education Research & Training, which grew to an extent to spin-off a dedicated vocational education training and research in vocational curriculum and pedagogy, and develop the trainers programme at the national level, which is now named as Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Institute for Vocational Education (PSSIVE). This was given complete powers to prepare curriculum in additional to the schooling at all levels for the vocational education and preparing the learning resources.

It is seen that the vocational education and training remain the core for skilling the learners and aspiring youth seeking jobs in the market. The central government have initiated various strategies at all levels to make relevant and appropriate with changing trends, demands and needs in the view of variety of stakeholders. The government at all times has accorded priority to skill development as the central sector scheme to promote TVET in partnership with industry stakeholders [14].

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2. Recent developments in technical vocational education and training and skill training system

In the context of this chapter, TVET system relates to a formal training system where students after obtaining school certificate enter the vocational stream leading to a certificate, diploma and specialized trade-related courses. In general, the trained youth entered this formal system and were allowed to do an apprenticeship training attached with industry leading to award of certificate for which the learner is enrolled. The skill development system is a structured system of skill training for youth who have never attended a school, students attended school and later drop-out for reasons, or youth who never had a formal education in any of system and those aspiring to enter the labour market with a certification (recognized by the designated skill certification authorities following such norms), and this certification empower the youth in getting an employment in labour market.

Over the decade, the TVET system emphasized the requirement for change in the organizational structure at various levels that will help to address the core aspects of vocationalization. The efforts for introduction of vocational education at various levels achieved impact to an extent at that point of time. The government at national level has taken series of efforts on its own and with the support of externally aided institutions such as GIZ India, ILO, The World Bank and few private sector partners including NGOs to conduct a review of the TVET system [15].

Some of the key issues in the TVET system are briefly illustrated, which are in general relevant to the developing nations like India.

  1. The TVET system shall be dynamic that is responsive and address the needs of the labour market with the growing economic development.

  2. The strategies for improving the relevance and effectiveness of public vocational training institutions shall be the key factor, keeping in view the industry engagement and representative of industry stakeholder across all the policies of a country and keep pace with the demands and requirements.

  3. A well-designed industry-institute engagement model, learner engagement model with the training service provider to meet all times demands will be more appropriate.

  4. The management structure of TVET at all levels needs to be proactive and responsive, which meant defining the roles and functions and be able to address the intended objectives at the national, regional and state levels and other key stakeholders directly responsible.

  5. Autonomy to skill training providers in line with the national strategies, industry demands and needs to address the skill requirements and flexibility to engage with such stakeholders to make vocational skills more relevance. The skill training providers to have a localized management structure and representation of industry stakeholders to address skills needs, demands, work in achieving the efficiency of skill training providers, be able to address local and regional needs at time, more towards addressing skill gaps by equipping skill training providers with modern labs that shall address the industry demand skills.

  6. In order to achieve the effective utilization of infrastructure created, national and regional levels, continual improvement of the system is a must; therefore, increase allocation and availability of financing are to be under top priority and should form part of the TVET strategy.

  7. In the present context, synergizing the formal TVET system and skill development system is a discussion point. Both the systems address skills as the learning outcome. Then, the learner engagement model is concern, which varies with the type of trades, institutions where the learner acquires the skills, the context where the learner acquires such skills, for example in the skill centres, industry floor shop, etc.

The vocationalization in India turned to large-scale training system and the need for private sector engagement came into a realization based on the review and assessment by national and international institutions. Studies were conducted by the World Bank, GIZ India, UNESCO-ILO and few joint studies to elicit nature of demand and potential. Consolidating the recommendations and outcome of the above strategic studies, the Central Advisory Board on Education in 2008 [16] stressed on quality, quantity, access and relevance. The objective was also to engage with private sector in large-scale design, development and deployment of skill trades which lead to employment, education and empowerment. The private sector participation and learner engagement model for the large-scale system varied with the type of service provider, the institutional management structure, financial capacity and capability and reaching the needy across demand sectors, needy sectors and employment potential. A system that allowed greater cost sharing, that is moving from a system which is increasingly financed by the private sector and by student fees and ensuring that vocational technical education, has vertical mobility to higher education for the prospective students.

The technical vocational education and training system in India has evolved to meet the labour market needs at various levels. The integration of skills in the formal education system is presented as a comparison as given in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

TVET & skills training system in India. Source: B. Chandrasekar et al. [12]. *Recognition of prior learning (RPL) is a certification process, which allows learners fortransition from non-formal to an organized market by acquiring skill certification. It is a process of recognizing previous learning, often experimental towards a given qualification and allows horizontal and vertical mobility in the new skill qualification framework [17].

The technical vocational education training in many Asian countries such as Thailand is termed as experimental-based learning process [18] and authors also define as ‘an education designed and developed to enhance learners’ technical skills, human talents, cognitive accepting attitudes and work behaviour in order to make learners employable in industries’ [19].

The key characteristics in the TVET system have varied with type of vocational technical training, regional needs, skill demands needed in the employment sector and the extent of handling with type of equipment, devices and the like. The common characteristics include as follows:

  1. Contextualized learning: vocational learning content; pedagogy—teaching-learning environment, learning ecosystem; type of workplace; type and level of learners, who make the entire context relevant and appropriate

  2. Varying learner characteristics, skill needs and demands in the type of skill programmes

  3. Trainers adopting different learning methods, classroom-based teaching, mocks & trials in the classroom/workshops, mock labs and virtual experiments, case study resources, visit & experience on practical handling techniques, etc.

  4. On the job training, wherein fresh graduates learning in varied systems and approached lands in shop floor, workshop to get hands-on training and experience to mature into assembly productions, manufacturing, etc.

The structure of TVET common across all Asian nations is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

TVET system in Asia (source: adapted from [20]).

In general, the Asian nations have similar systems wherein youth entering the labour market have less skills or never gone through a formal training for an identified trade. Thus, the need for a system integrating the learning phase in the vocational training centres and that of the industry need to meet the demands for specific tasks and job roles. This holds true across all developing nations. There is always a wide gap in the demand supply system matching the skills across sectors.

While the characteristics are focussed and clear with type of learning objectives for technical vocational education remains pivotal to employability, the significant role of the system is to provide orientation and initial training in the key skills and upgraded skills/upskilling in the relevant areas of skill and vocational training. A combination of the above two key objectives will lead graduates employable in the stream of training obtained. For the initial technical and vocational training, the beneficiaries (student population, youth) at the age group of 16–18 years have obtained the required schooling education and seek employment in any technical vocational sector. They are employed in the production, manufacturing, shop floor jobs in such units with certain skills levels competent to perform such tasks, those who enter the labour market fresh. Another category of skill and vocational learners includes those who desire to upgrade skills in a variety of areas with varied experiences in their prior learning experience (PLE) or in related fields to upgrade their knowledge and skills and facilitate/help move up in their career. The learning experience- and practical-based learning is analogous to higher education as they are counterpart in their field of learning ecosystem, and the comparison is given in Table 1.

Key attributes in learning systems/processesTVETHigher education
Learning environmentPractice-based learningFundamental, theory & concept based learning (basic & advanced level)
Learning goalsOccupational competence: competency-based learning, skill-oriented learningDiscipline-based learning, autonomy/flexibility of choice to specialize in particular areas, upgrade to higher level in education stream; build over all personality
Learning orientationDemand-based training, labour market needs for such qualified workersCannon of representative knowledge from broad based to focussed; research as focus, learn from objectives to evidence based
Knowledge/learning & assessmentAdoption of competency-based educationOn the job training and assessment of student knowledge in a grading approach

Table 1.

Key attributes in learning systems and processes a comparison.

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3. Vocational learning systems

The learning systems in TVET or skills have largely remained conventional wherein typically, the classroom methods with the concept of technical vocational content imparted to learners, while that of practical handling is also within the classroom using demo equipment and devices. The disciplines largely include engineering, manufacturing and production sector trades.

The duration of classroom learning, use of pedagogy and practical training, practice handling of such devices and equipment varied with type of trades, level of certification and the kind of programmes.

With the increasing demand for employment and employability in a variety of areas covering industry, agriculture, service sector and related areas, the learning systems emerged into a combination of traditional method combined with computer-based or technology-enabled learning. The learning contents using the computer-based have varied with time, type of trade and the extent to which the contents can be delivered using technology platform.

ICT in vocational education became a new concept of learning in early 2000 and significantly taken up various nations to meet the increasing skill needs and demands, while attempting to maintain the quality of classroom delivery equivalent to the conventional face-to-face teaching experience. However, during the initial phase, it is kept to the extent as per the needs and demands in the respective areas. The attainment of skills levels varied with the speciality of trades, level of skill programme and availability and usability of the contents. UNESCO-UNIVOC [20] reported that ICT in vocational technical education had the potential to create transformative changes in skills delivery and attainment to the expected level of employers. The possibilities include flexible, life-long learning, enhanced knowledge sharing and social learning between peers and experts, and this augmented system of virtual learning and simulated experiments will meet the sustainable objectives of TVET learning attainment.

With the increasing availability of computer- and technology-enabled learning, the vocational and skill learning content had focus on delivery of concept, modular-based approaches to skill trades, learners’ ability to pick up the needs relevant to the employers’ expectations. Taking into account the real-time situation, virtual reality and augmented reality are the latest option, where learners at their desktop can access the real-time learning on virtual mode. This shall have combined with gaming techniques and assessment modules to review the learner skill attainment.

The benefits of augmented reality and virtual reality were reported by Diegmann, Schmidt-Kraepelin, Eynden and Basten in [21], mentioned about improving the safety of experiential learning and teaching, access to contents and resources for complex topics, enhancing learners’ interest and keep up the enthusiasm for long-term learning. Later authors mention that virtual reality learning increases learner’s motivation and have experience of seeing issues in a real-time situation, at the same time, learners are able to focus on the key aspects to practical handling. The virtual reality or the augmented reality provides support for continual learner engagement and learners are able to mix and match the collaborative learning with more learning abilities.

The pedagogy in the technical vocational education training over the decades can be traced since its gaining significance, which is illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Evolution of teaching technologies in TVET.

The learning attainment varied with type of combination of technology and disciplines of vocational training by the learners.

A review of unemployment rate in the developing countries indicates that effective learning technologies will address the quality of TVET and employability, effectively the technology-enabled learning can meet largely to the extent and the variety of stakeholders addresses the factor in a variety of means. From the data, it is seen that a large potential of female population are still untapped and potential for vocational training in new areas is still to be explored. Efforts are taken for enhanced participation of female population across the Asian nations.

Unemployment rate of youth total and female in the Asian region, as estimated by the World Bank 2019 is as under as follows:

BangladeshSri LankaIndia
Total201510.7919.2622.33
201911.8721.2323.33
Female201513.1625.8023.14
201915.4229.8224.31

Source: [22].

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4. Learner engagement model

As mentioned, the learner engagement model varies with the type of vocational training institutes either operated and management by the responsible authorities. In a research study conducted by the author for skills development in private sector initiatives, the vocational training institute (or) the vocational service provider is engaged from the end-to-end services in the skill development processes. The service provider is responsible for mobilizing the learners, who are selected based on a prior skill obtained, earlier learning acquired or on the knowledge and skills in the specific domain areas. These learners undergo minimum learning hours, which are usually combination of real classroom teaching and virtual training using multi-media learning resources. These are generally 2D or 3D learning resources. These are conveniently packaged in learning skills with skill attainment and assessment, which are modular based. Upon completion of the entire learning hours, the learner is equipped to deliver services in the respective trade and competent to be an expert in the learned domain areas.

Figure 4 illustrates the typical vocational service provider engaged in training in skill domain areas. The typical learner engagement model is illustrated.

Figure 4.

Learner engagement model. Source: [23].

4.1 Sequential steps about the placement-linked employment training model (PLET)

4.1.1 Mobilization

Youth are mobilized through local resources (representatives—panchayat heads, village heads, local contact point such as postman, bank representatives with some kind of incentive schemes), and information is also collected using technology-enabled solutions—mobile solutions, and identified youth are invited to the nearest skill centre for counselling and enrolment in the skill programmes.

4.1.2 Enrolment and Skill Training

Upon completion of skill assessment and enrolment in programmes of the skill centre, the trainings are held as per the standards. The skill programmes follow the prescribed National Occupational Standards (NOS) and the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF). The skill centres also have unique training delivery methodology addressing the needs of learners, a unique approach of Module Centred Learning Architecture (MCLA), where the trainings that are classroom combined with video-based training delivery are followed. This method is also an ideal, where teachers and trainers are remotely available for continued interaction online with learners.

4.1.3 Vocational Pedagogy

The skill training is a mix of classroom teaching, using of video-based content, mentoring remotely, case study-based learning—practical training, on-job training/industry-based training.

4.1.4 Assessment

An assessment to the training is also included, which includes domain skills, practical knowledge & soft skills, competency based. The grades for the skill acquired are based on the learner’s competency, which are also assessed by the employers.

4.1.5 Post-training and review

Post the training and assessment learners, at this stage trained youth is placed with the employer based on the skills certificate obtained from the employer database obtained already for placement. Where needed, the trained youth are mentored and counselled during the career to meet the individual needs and organizational objectives.

4.2 Technology in vocational education training or ICT in vocational education and training

Technology refers to use of computer-aided learning and the innovative use of information communication technology in order to achieve the learning objective in technician and vocational education in the time and scale. They are most often as virtual teachers in guiding the learners when enabled with virtual or remote teachers for a large group or learner community.

A variety of technology-enabled solutions are developed by vocational and skill training providers to meet the larger objectives of flexible learning and lifelong learning. The type of technology varied with the type of skills and vocational trades offered by the service providers. They can be broadly classified and termed as follows:

  1. Multimedia technology for interactive learning

  2. Online learning portals

  3. Virtual labs

Each of the aforesaid can be defined by means of their use, application and relevance for vocational and skill training. The multimedia technology for interactive learning is multi-modular-based skill training resources wherein trainer can use theses as teaching aids and after the classroom delivery, learners can use them as self-learning module. These can be used based on the learners’ skills attainment, capability to learn and capture the skill levels and advance in the learning attainment. The teacher/trainer can use the multimedia content to augment this as teaching notes and combine the virtually additional resources to given learners additional information, techniques in variety of modules. This serves multiple functional pedagogical techniques.

At the same time, online learning portal is a collection of ICT-based vocational and skill contents, already available in the Web site or a pre-recorded content and depending on the learner capacity and requirements, which can be augmented for teaching and learning. However, this allows flexibility to use wide content, which can be sourced from the Web resources across a variety of areas and geographies. The learner has the option of choice for a specific level of learning speed and accordingly can access the resources and be able to combine the best resources available in the Web-based resources. This shall have seamless access to resources available on the web; however, the limitation include they need to be customized as per the skill level, type of trades, focus to skill attainment and too much of flexibility in the assessment framework.

The virtual labs are unique Web-enabled practical handling technologies wherein students will be guided through specific instructions to undertake hands-on training, practice with virtual experimentation and clearly defined outcome-based learning. This will work within the given framework of experimental theme and programme. These are also most suited to advanced experiential learning and experimentation.

4.3 Augmented reality (or) virtual reality in vocational education training

The learning technology for vocational and technical education has grown to a more technologically development methods, by application of real-time learning using virtual experiential learning. This is made using application of more augmented reality, wherein the learner applies using joystick or mouse to experience the real life-learning virtually.

The author in a project funded by the United Kingdom India Education Research Initiative (UKIERI), a bilateral funding for education, TVET and skill development initiatives developed a model for learning and training the vocational trainers; that is, trade instructors and faculty of TVET providers (all beneficiaries were from the government-supported institutes and skill centres) in the welding technology and painting technology, using augmented extended reality models.

The extracts of the use of augmented reality learning contents are presented and discussed briefly, as a case study model. A survey of vocational and technical education trainers were interviewed regarding the use of modern teaching technologies. It was found that the majority of the trainers had access to the resource, however, could not find them relevant in the context of skill attainment; it was only after practical demonstration in the workshop, lab, the learners are able to respond, react and provide ideas on the learnings. Most of the vocational training providers in the government space also have lack of access to modern lab and demonstration equipment and devices. These vocational providers have limited access to updated/latest learning resources. Almost all vocational providers funded by the government at the local, regional and national levels have computing facilities with access to Internet sources. This allows trainers and learners the access to the world of Web resources. However, the access to such resources depends on the type of skill and vocational programmes available in the centre, extent of knowledge and skills of trainers for accessing such contents, etc.

It is in the context, the UKIERI-funded programme attempted to provide knowledge and information regarding the use of augmented extended reality in technical education and training relevant to certificate-level trades covering selected states in India. The extracts as figures of the extended virtual reality as an example for two trades covering welding technology and painting are shown under.

The present learning technology emulated by the several of the vocational content development service providers includes application of artificial intelligence-based extended virtual reality using machine learning processes. The process of artificial intelligence allows to have choice of certain commands that apply to the actual demonstration of experiments, lab techniques, etc. Hence, they allow learning with proper logical approach and sequencing. This allows learner a choice and level of learning in the vocational education training sector (Figure 5).

Figure 5.

Application of AR-VR with AI in TVET learning contents (project partnered with UKIERI, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2019). Source: Skillveri Training Solutions Private Limited, Chennai, India, 2020.

A typical model for a welding technology using augmented reality demonstrated during the training is illustrated in Figure 6. It may be seen the trainer using virtual models and joysticks for the welding trade.

Figure 6.

Examples of extended virtual reality in welding technology relevant to skill qualifications for skill qualification framework levels 4 and 5. Source: Skillveri Training Solutions Private Limited, Chennai, India, 2020.

In general, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning unit in a simulator is fed with a large amount of historical data dexterity information, technical field values, for example voltage, current flow rate for any typical engineering sector, and the unit is trained using supervised learning technique, past inputs and corresponding outputs used to create predictions. For example, in the case of welding training, for a given set of input hand movement, current, voltage and plate thickness and related demonstration parameters would be the welded joint defective, the defects reveal the demo and be able to predict and show the learners/trainers. This interface creates enhanced learning environment by developing links between the inputs and outputs and the impact of each input parameters on output.

Mixed reality is yet another new concept, where learners have the option to learn from the mixture of real objects and real working experiments with virtual models. The key aspect that is more relevant and appropriate is included for the engineering and manufacturing sectors. The learner thinking skills along with the real objects help them to conceptualize what shall work better in the given context and situation.

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5. Conclusions and learnings

With a wider option for the vocational and skill development, learners’ aspirants and trainers, multiple options exist with the development of technology and customized development of such technology-enabled learning resources. Many a times, the modules are specific to discipline and skill trades. The trainers and learners can have choice from classroom lectures using books, textbooks, skill manuals/guides, computer-aided learning resources, hand-held devices and a wider range of electronic appliance such as tablets, smartphones, short clippings from multimedia resources clubbed with any Web-enabled contents. There is now wide choice of knowledge resources, great deal of information, and hence, adopting to appropriate methods and application of type of resource is dependent on the learners’ capability, type of discipline/trade and skill relevant to specific need and demand.

The advancement of learning in a virtual environment shall be largely based on the application of the augmented reality, virtual reality or extended virtual reality, which shall be one of the most advanced developments in vocational and skills training. The application of artificial intelligence will help suit the learners’ mode in making the right choice of the content relevant to specific trade and learners’ ability towards skills attainment.

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6. Definitions

TVET means Technical Vocational Education and Training, which is understood as comprising education, training and skills development relating to a wide range of occupational fields, production, services and livelihoods. TVET as part of lifelong learning can take place at secondary, post-secondary and tertiary levels and includes work-based learning and continuing training and professional development, which may lead to learning-acquired certification/qualifications [24]; e-learning means learning done by learners using computers and computer-based programmes and TVET refers to computer-based learning of vocational- and skill-based contents, with the aim to meet the learners’ learning needs and requirements, usually relating to additional information and clarification of complex issues; virtual learning environment means education technology using a Web-based platform for the digital aspects of courses of study, usually within learning centres/vocational institute, and they are a pool of learning resources, activities, assessments, reference points, combined with interactions with course structure, and are provided for different stages of assessment [25]; augmented learning technology means is an on-demand learning technique, which adapts to the learner requirements, by providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater understanding of a module, topic, etc. These technologies incorporate rich media that the learner experience an adaptive learning experience based on the current context [25].

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Acknowledgments

The author is thankful to the grants made available for a project through the UKIERI for ‘Train the Trainers of Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) covering select states in India’ and piloting the use of Artificial Intelligence based Extended Augmented Reality welding and painting technology module and sharing the part research in this chapter. Pictures and model of Skillveri Training Solutions Private Limited, Chennai, are also suitably acknowledged.

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Written By

Balakrishnan Chandrasekar

Submitted: June 29th, 2021 Reviewed: July 19th, 2021 Published: March 16th, 2022