Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Sustainable and Healthy Food Ingredients: Characterization and Application in Functional Products

Written By

Ţibulcă Dorin and Fogarasi Melinda

Submitted: 14 April 2021 Reviewed: 27 August 2021 Published: 06 October 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.100165

Chapter metrics overview

289 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Nowadays, and considering the increasing pieces of evidence of health-promoting abilities of numerous food classes, a pronounced market pressure has been observed both in agricultural and biotechnological industries. Thus, while the development of functional foods seems to be conceived as an interesting trend with large market potential, the increasing demand and interest of sustainable food ingredients seems also promissory. In order to contribute to this approach, the proposal chapter will provides a comprehensive overview of the healthy and sustainable ingredients as edible mushrooms, legumes and bison emphasizing the characterization and application of those as natural ingredients in functional food products.


  • bison
  • functional and healthy foods
  • legumes
  • mushrooms
  • sustainable ingredients

1. Introduction

The growing demand for nutritious, healthy, sustainable but at the same time attractive food products drives the future of food processing to be multipurpose and more sophisticated. For this reason it became very challenging to develop novel food and/or functional food products, considering that it has to fulfill the consumer’s expectations for products that are simultaneously palatable and healthy. Compared to conventional foods, the development of functional components requires technological solutions that can be demanding and expensive, and needs to establish a dynamic equilibrium between research and business. In addition it is important to consider the fact that functional food markets are continuously changing [1]. Food industry innovation is focused on scientific and technical approaches in food processing, along with the introduction of novel and functional foods. In order to promote and sustain healthy eating, food manufacturers need to offer suitable and attractive options on the market for consumers to choose from. There are two main factors that stimulate the interest among food manufacturers to apply these approaches. From one side there is a constant pressure from the public sector to produce “healthier” food products which is accompanied by increased consumer attention to healthy eating. According to the literature, the achievement of food sustainability is not easy, even more if it is linked to an environmentally friendly diet which is a challenge for even the most dedicated eco-warriors. Concerning human nutrition, agriculture is one of the most important drivers of these changes, since innovation brought by the Green Revolution has completely modified process sustainability, leading to an irreversible tendency to adopt conventional and intensive practices [2].

Sustainable foods are defined as types of foods that are obtained in a manner that minimizes their negative impact on both the environment and the communities that produce them. It is mandatory that sustainable foods meet several criteria among which the most important inquire that there production be environmentally friendly that minimize greenhouse gas emissions, lowering the carbon footprint of the process, and use resources as sustainably as possible. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) sustainable food production is the “method of production using processes and systems that are non-polluting, conserve non-renewable energy and natural resources, are economically efficient, are safe for workers, communities and consumers, and do not compromise the needs of future generations”.

Besides environmental factors, sustainable eating also pays careful attention to the lifecycle of animals involving their raise and slaughter and how farmers are treated and paid. Therefore, foods must be sustainable considering the future trend of global population increase and limited amount of resources (land, water, and the food itself) that we have. In view of the above, the current section focuses on the presentation and discussion of important aspects related to the characterization of healthy and sustainable ingredients and the application of these natural ingredients in functional foods.


2. Foods with potential sustainability, functionality and healthy

Based on the literatures date, it is very clear to the scientific community together with food manufactures what is the main framework of a sustainable food and farming system even though, at the moment, there is no legal definition of ‘sustainable food’. This is clearly reflected in many well known good accreditation schemes which are clearly defined examples, like those certifying ‘organic’ and ‘Fairtrade’ food.

Recently it can be noticed that there is keen interest for plant-based foods which more specifically by nutrition is playing an important factor in the definition of sustainable foods. These foods tend to have a greater emphasis on whole foods and fewer processed ingredients. Moreover, there is a growing affinity of the consumers to sustainable wild food products that are grown and produced in uncontaminated wild areas offering high quality food that is viewed in a completely different way as enriched ones with beneficial bioactive compounds [3, 4]. There are large numbers of wild edible food categories including annual and perennial herbs, forbs, ferns, as well as mushrooms, algae and lichens, vines, sedges and rushes, grasses, broadleaved and needle-like or scale-like leaved shrubs, trees [5].

2.1 Mountain food products: wild edible mushrooms

Mountain Food Products have received an increasing interest in the last years due to the fact that these food products have numerous beneficial and unique qualities that are significantly more accentuated or it cannot be found in other products. It was also found that their quality is strongly influenced by the specific environmental and processing conditions of their mountainous regions of production and transformation [3]. Mountain foods include a wide variety of products, such as dairy and meat products, fruits, olive oil, pastries, mineral waters, medicinal plants, mushrooms etc. In fact, increasing evidence have confirmed that mountain produced foods present a high level of health-promoting micronutrients, apart from having vestigial or even null amounts of toxins at same time that safe-guards environment.

Many studies reported in the literature pointed put the potential beneficial applications of mushrooms in human dietary, considering that they possess unique nutritional and chemical properties [6, 7, 8, 9]. Researchers revealed that wild edible mushrooms provide an important amount of fiber and proteins together with other valuable components like essential amino acids but in comparison to other food products they have a low fat content and do not contain cholesterol [10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In addition, wild edible mushrooms are recognized as a delicacy, due to their specific flavor and texture, especially in mountain areas where they are widely collected considering that many studies emphasized their important nutritional value and the fact that amino acids found in mushrooms are comparable with those of animal origin [15]. For this reasons, many studies have been performed in order to use wild edible mushrooms as raw materials for the production of functional foods considering the identified and extractable bioactive compounds, like terpenoids, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, etc. Also, their exceptional chemical characteristics can be valorized in the fabrication of nutraceuticals or pharmaceutical products, exploring the synergies of the large group of bioactive compounds [5, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Figure 1 gives a summary of the range of beneficial properties of wild edible mushrooms, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, strengthening the immune system as well as the ability to improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system [14, 20, 21]. This explains why wild edible mushrooms are becoming more and more important in the definition of a balanced diet for humans all over the world, achieving exploitation of the health benefits and functioning mechanisms of mushrooms which give good results in the prevention of major diseases, such as cancer, heart and nervous problems [22, 23].

Figure 1.

Beneficial properties of wild edible mushrooms.

Mushrooms contain a number of chemical compounds of nutraceutical importance, such as terpenes, bioactive proteins and antioxidants, which make them a therapeutically stronger foodstuff in the battle against various degenerative diseases [7]. Mushrooms have a wide variety of compounds operating in their natural environment, but they can be used to ensure or promote human health in the form of nutraceuticals, additives, functional foods and others. Thus, the creation of a research-oriented field of study for the scientific and novel use of edible or medicinal mushrooms, the exploitation, and promotion of their full use is necessary. Some of the major properties of the mushroom are described and summarized in Table 1.

Table 1.

Health benefits of wild edible mushrooms.

2.2 Legumes

Legumes and pulses have an important contribution to both human and animal dietary worldwide. The most significant ones are alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, soy and peanuts. These have long been a part of Western diets and agricultural management regimes, but they only recently gain the attention of researchers in the domain of in agri-food research. Promoted for their agronomic, nutritional and environmental benefits [35], legumes have been framed as plant-based solutions to an array of problems in the modern food system; becoming vegetable vessels that express the hopes and dreams of diverse researchers, marketeers and other food futurologists [36]. Moreover, research results concluded that legume consumption reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases [37] but at the same time provide a range of essential macro, micronutrients and bioactive metabolites with synergic effect against inflammation, which plays a role in disease onset or progression [38]. The identification of resistant cultivars against abiotic and biotic stresses and development of sustainable field management practices, could address both nutrition and environmental concerns of modern society [2, 38]. These plants are viewed as a key component in many international research programs for the promotion of environmental sustainability development and the accomplishment of zero hunger. The concrete transition to a more sustainable diet rich in legumes requires a substantial change of the typical “western” dietary habits, and food choices (also supported by industrial stakeholders) as well as the suitable strategies to enhance legumes cultivation, distribution and consumption. It is well known that legumes show many environmental sustainability advantages such as the ones presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Environmental sustainability advantages of legumes.

The healthy impact of legumes on human organism is based on the presence of The bioactive molecules [39] among which phenolic compounds, saponins, peptides and small proteins are the most significant [40]. Some of these are ubiquitous in the family, while others are typical of some genera or species and their synthesis is highly dependent on plant growing conditions (e.g., development stage, amount of light, and water availability) [41]. Besides polyphenols, legumes proved to be an excellent source of peptides and small proteins that present many biological activities applicable as nutraceuticals and/or therapeutic agents [42, 43]. As a result, these small proteins have been subjected to many studies both in vitro and in vivo in order to quantify their beneficial properties and their potential role in prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. An important category of well-studied legume proteins are lectins which are adequate as carriers for target drug delivery considering their peculiar binding ability. Such an application is the use of lectins for the transportation and release of anticancer drugs during the different stages of tumor progression taking advantage of the well known fact that carbohydrates present on the cancer cell membrane are involved in recognition processes.

In order to highlight the health benefits of legumes, some of the most common legume species and their health impact are listed in Table 2 based on the scientific literature. According to the data shown in Table 2 it is obvious that these plants represent an important source for both diet and new nutraceuticals, considering the large number of bioactiv compounds and properties.

Table 2.

The most common legume species and their health properties.

2.3 Bison

In the recent years, bison as an alternate meat variety is becoming more and more well-liked in North America [60]. One of the major advantages of bison meat is the fact that it is a sustainable and healthful alternative to cow beef and its production does not face so many environmental and ethical questions. In contrast to cattle which prefer to move around near water sources, bison cover more land leading to the preservation of the sensible ecosystems in the vicinity streams and ponds. Another important fact about bison is that they promote biodiversity considering that by going first for grasses and leaving patches where other plants can fill in. Their hoof prints leave depressions that collect water and their dung serves as a powerful fertilizer: both assist in seedling germination and establishment. Results reported in the literature indicate that in comparison to beef, bison meat presents a lowers energy and fat content and according to the feedback of consumers it seems that bison meat is also healthier than beef. However, the nutrient composition of bison and other meats are strongly influenced by a series of factors like age, type of feed, maturity, gender, type of cut, genetics and season [61]. It is also important to note that bison not only contains less fat than beef but in addition proved to offer an advantageable fatty acid profile, making bison meat a healthy red meat source [62, 63]. Many studies confirmed that bison meat has an hihg ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) [62, 63, 64], 3 to 4 times more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFA and is particularly high in alpha linolenic acid [63]. In addition, ruminants such as bison are a major contributors of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to the human diet [65, 66], providing significantly more CLA than other non-ruminant meat sources such as pork, fish, chicken, and turkey. The dietary inclusion of a specifically rich source of CLA may be advantageous as CLA is believed to have anti-inflammatory properties [67] and may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.


3. Application of sustainable healthy ingredients in functional foods

The recent tendency of functional food development had determined the orientation of the scientific community to attractive sustainable and healthy ingredients which can be used in the production. This demarche aims to valorize some of the most important characteristics of sustainable and healthy ingredients such as easily digestible protein, healthy fat, and repertoire of various essential micronutrients for billions across the globe. In recent years, these ingredients were used in the different sector of the food industry being incorporated in various food products to obtain fortified functional foods (Figure 3) such as bakery and meat products, food supplements, pharmaceutical products, food additives, cosmetic products.

Figure 3.

Application of sustainable healthy ingredients in functional foods.

According to the data presented in Table 3, the benefits of sustainable and healthy ingredient are well known but their application in the elaboration of food products is quite recent mainly as meat, fat, phosphates, salt, flour, and nitrite replacer. As a result, many research teams are focusing on the assessment of efficient incorporation of the bioactivities of sustainable and healthy ingredients into newly developed food products. Despite the progress made there are several issues that need to be solved in the future such as the demonstration of the correlation between the functional activities and mechanisms, as well as their safety evaluation and safe range of intake.

Sustainable ingredientsApplicationReferences
1Shiitake powderFrankfurter[68]
2Mixt of Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina velutipesYogurt[69]
3Suillus luteusCottage cheese[69]
4Tremella fuciformisPork patties[70]
5Pleurotus eryngiiPork sausages[71]
6Boletus edulisFrankfurter
[72, 73]
7Cantharellus cibariusFrankfurter[72]
8Agaricus bisporusMeat emulsion
Beef patties
Smoke sausages
[74, 75, 76]
9Flamulina velutipesEmulsiontype sausage
Chicken sausage
[77, 78, 79]
10Agaricus bisporusSnacks
White bread
Sponge cake
[80, 81]
11Pleurotus ostreatusNoodles[82]
12Cordyceps militarisExtruded product[83]
13Phaseolus vulgaris L.Tortilla
Bakery product
[84, 85]
14Pisum sativum L.Cookies[86]
15Arachis hypogea L.Bakery products[86]
16Cicer arietinum L.Pasta, snacks[87]
17Lens culinaris L.Bread, cake, crackers, pasta, snacks, dressings, soups, dairy and meat products[88]
18Glycine max L.Noodle, meat product[89]

Table 3.

Applications of different types of sustainable ingredients.


4. Conclusions

Nowadays, sustainable ingredients gain more and more attention due to the beneficial and unique characteristics which make them an attractive source of high added-value compounds that could be utilized to fortify different products such as cosmetics and functional foods. Based on the result provided by several studies it can be concluded that healthy sustainable products provide protein, fat, minerals and vitamins in a very precise form and adequate content being recognized as a delicacy and therefore preferred by big part over the globe. It is important to note that literature data show an increasing demand to foods that has low calories, low fat and low cholesterol content and functional foods, which are defined as foods that have positive effects on human health. As an overall conclusion it can be stated that the studied and presented sustainable ingredients have great potential to be used as a natural source of bioactive compounds for the production of functional foods.



This work was supported by a grants of Ministry of Research and Innovation, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P1-1.1- PD-2019-0475.


Conflict of interest

“The authors declare no conflict of interest.”


  1. 1. Iriondo-DeHond M, Miguel E, Del Castillo MD. Food Byproducts as Sustainable Ingredients for Innovative and Healthy Dairy Foods. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 22;10(10). PubMed PMID: 30249001. Pubmed Central PMCID: 6213882
  2. 2. Conti MV, Guzzetti L, Panzeri D, De Giuseppe R, Coccetti P, Labra M, et al. Bioactive compounds in legumes: Implications for sustainable nutrition and health in the elderly population. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2021
  3. 3. Martins N, Ferreira ICFR. Mountain food products: A broad spectrum of market potential to be exploited. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2017;67:12-8
  4. 4. Melinda Fogarasi , Zorita Maria Diaconeasa, Carmen Rodica Pop, Szabolcs Fogarasi, Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc, Fărcą AC, et al. Elemental Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of SomeWild Edible Mushrooms from Romania. agronomy. 2020;10(1972)
  5. 5. Mocan A, Fernandes A, Barros L, Crisan G, Smiljkovic M, Sokovic M, et al. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of the wild mushroom Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr: a study with samples from Romania. Food & function. 2018 Jan 24;9(1):160-70. PubMed PMID: 29168866
  6. 6. Roncero-Ramos I, Delgado-Andrade C. The beneficial role of edible mushrooms in human health. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2017;14:122-8
  7. 7. Rathore H, Prasad S, Sharma S. Mushroom nutraceuticals for improved nutrition and better human health: A review. PharmaNutrition. 2017;5(2):35-46
  8. 8. Reis FS, Martins A, Vasconcelos MH, Morales P, Ferreira ICFR. Functional foods based on extracts or compounds derived from mushrooms. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2017;66:48-62
  9. 9. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2007;39(1):44-84. PubMed PMID: 16978905
  10. 10. Fogarasi M, Socaci SA, Dulf FV, Diaconeasa ZM, Farcas AC, Tofana M, et al. Bioactive Compounds and Volatile Profiles of Five Transylvanian Wild Edible Mushrooms. Molecules. 2018 Dec 11;23(12). PubMed PMID: 30544917. Pubmed Central PMCID: 6321188
  11. 11. Vamanu E. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures. BioMed research international. 2014;2014:974804. PubMed PMID: 25110715. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4119741
  12. 12. Nagy M, Socaci S, Tofana M, Biris-Dorhoi ES, ȚIbulcĂ D, PetruȚ G, et al. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca Food Science and Technology. 2017;74(1):1
  13. 13. A B, A T. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of six mushrooms collected from Himachal Pradesh. IJBPAS. 2016;5(7):1717-28
  14. 14. Bains A, Tripathi A. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract of Wild Mushrooms Collected from Himachal Pradesh. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017;10(3):467
  15. 15. Barros L, Baptista P, Correia D, Casal S, Oliveira B, Ferreira I. Fatty acid and sugar compositions, and nutritional value of five wild edible mushrooms from Northeast Portugal. Food Chemistry. 2007;105(1):140-5
  16. 16. Reis FS, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira IC. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2012 Feb;50(2):191-7. PubMed PMID: 22056333
  17. 17. Barros L, Baptista P, Ferreira IC. Effect of Lactarius piperatus fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2007 Sep;45(9):1731-7. PubMed PMID: 17459553
  18. 18. Barros L, Cruz T, Baptista P, Estevinho LM, Ferreira IC. Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2008 Aug;46(8):2742-7. PubMed PMID: 18538460
  19. 19. Taofiq O, Calhelha RC, Heleno S, Barros L, Martins A, Santos-Buelga C, et al. The contribution of phenolic acids to the anti-inflammatory activity of mushrooms: Screening in phenolic extracts, individual parent molecules and synthesized glucuronated and methylated derivatives. Food Res Int. 2015 Oct;76(Pt 3):821-7. PubMed PMID: 28455068
  20. 20. Muszynska B, Grzywacz-Kisielewska A, Kala K, Gdula-Argasinska J. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review. Food Chem. 2018 Mar 15;243:373-81. PubMed PMID: 29146352
  21. 21. Kalač P. Chemical composition and nutritional value of European species of wild growing mushrooms: A review. Food Chemistry. 2009;113(1):9-16
  22. 22. Ma G, Yang W, Zhao L, Pei F, Fang D, Hu Q. A critical review on the health promoting effects of mushrooms nutraceuticals. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2018;7(2):125-33
  23. 23. Martinez-Medina GA, Chávez-González ML, Verma DK, Prado-Barragán LA, Martínez-Hernández JL, Flores-Gallegos AC, et al. Bio-funcional components in mushrooms, a health opportunity: Ergothionine and huitlacohe as recent trends. Journal of Functional Foods. 2021;77:104326
  24. 24. Barros L, Venturini BA, Baptista P, Estevinho LM, Ferreira I. Chemical composition and biological properties of Portuguese wild mushrooms: a comprehensive study. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 28;56(10):3856-62. PubMed PMID: 18435539
  25. 25. Huang J, Ou Y, Yew TW, Liu J, Leng B, Lin Z, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury in mice. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2016 Jan;82:678-86. PubMed PMID: 26454111
  26. 26. Li S, Liu H, Wang W, Wang X, Zhang C, Zhang J, et al. Antioxidant and anti-aging effects of acidic-extractable polysaccharides by Agaricus bisporus. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2018 Jan;106:1297-306. PubMed PMID: 28855134
  27. 27. Thangthaeng N, Miller MG, Gomes SM, Shukitt-Hale B. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats. Nutrition research. 2015 Dec;35(12):1079-84. PubMed PMID: 26475179
  28. 28. Vamanu E, Nita S. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom. BioMed research international. 2013;2013:313905. PubMed PMID: 23509707. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3591155
  29. 29. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2002 Nov;60(3):258-74. PubMed PMID: 12436306
  30. 30. Zhang RY, Zhang GQ, Hu DD, Wang HX, Ng TB. A novel ribonuclease with antiproliferative activity from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lyophyllum shimeiji. Biochemical genetics. 2010 Aug;48(7-8):658-68. PubMed PMID: 20495861
  32. 32. Žurga S, MPN, Kos J, Sabotič J. Fungal lectin MpL enables entry of protein drugs into cancer cells and their subcellular targeting. Oncotarget. 2017;8:26896-910
  33. 33. Lakhanpal TN, Rana M. Medicinal and nutraceutical genetic resources of mushrooms. Plant Genetic Resources. 2007;3(2):288-303
  34. 34. Feng T, Jia W, Wang WH, Lin CC, Fan H, Zhang JS, et al. Structural Characterization and Immunological Activities of a Novel Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Culinary-Medicinal Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(9):807-19. PubMed PMID: 27910772
  35. 35. Voisin A-S, Guéguen J, Huyghe C, Jeuffroy M-H, Magrini M-B, Meynard J-M, et al. Legumes for feed, food, biomaterials and bioenergy in Europe: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2014 2014/04/01;34(2):361-80
  36. 36. Cusworth G, Garnett T, Lorimer J. Legume dreams: The contested futures of sustainable plant-based food systems in Europe. Global Environmental Change. 2021;69:102321
  37. 37. Becerra-Tomás N, Papandreou C, Salas-Salvadó J. Legume Consumption and Cardiometabolic Health. Advances in Nutrition. 2019;10:S437-S50
  38. 38. Zhu F, Du B, Xu B. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2018 2018/05/24;58(8):1260-70
  39. 39. Murphy KJ, Marques-Lopes I, Sánchez-Tainta A. Cereals and legumes. The Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease through the Mediterranean Diet2017. p. 111-32
  40. 40. Wink M. Evolution of secondary metabolites in legumes (Fabaceae). South African Journal of Botany. 2013 2013/11/01/;89:164-75
  41. 41. Sparvoli F, Bollini R, Cominelli E. Nutritional Value. In: De Ron AM, editor. Grain Legumes. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2015. p. 291-325
  42. 42. Jeong HJ, Jeong JB, Kim DS, De Lumen BO. Inhibition of core histone acetylation by the cancer preventive peptide Lunasin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2007;55(3):632-7
  43. 43. Jeong HJ, Lee JR, Jeong JB, Park JH, Cheong YK, De Lumen BO. The cancer preventive seed peptide lunasin from rye is bioavailable and bioactive. Nutrition and Cancer. 2009;61(5):680-6
  44. 44. De Fátima Garcia B, de Barros M, de Souza Rocha T. Bioactive peptides from beans with the potential to decrease the risk of developing noncommunicable chronic diseases. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2020:1-19
  45. 45. Gomes MJC, Lima SLS, Alves NEG, Assis A, Moreira MEC, Toledo RCL, et al. Common bean protein hydrolysate modulates lipid metabolism and prevents endothelial dysfunction in BALB/c mice fed an atherogenic diet. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2020;30(1):141-50
  46. 46. Kilua A, Chihiro H, Han KH, Homma K, Fukuma N, Kamitani T, et al. Whole kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and bean hull reduce the total serum cholesterol, modulate the gut microbiota and affect the caecal fermentation in rats. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 2020;24
  47. 47. Ngoh YY, Choi SB, Gan CY. The potential roles of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto) bioactive peptides in regulating physiological functions: Protease activating, lipase inhibiting and bile acid binding activities. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017;33:67-75
  48. 48. Clemente A, Carmen Marín-Manzano M, Jiménez E, Carmen Arques M, Domoney C. The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012;108(SUPPL. 1):S135-S44
  49. 49. Ge J, Sun CX, Corke H, Gul K, Gan RY, Fang Y. The health benefits, functional properties, modifications, and applications of pea (Pisum sativum L.) protein: Current status, challenges, and perspectives. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020;19(4):1835-76
  50. 50. Millán-Linares MDC, Bermúdez B, Yust MDM, Millán F, Pedroche J. Anti-inflammatory activity of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) protein hydrolysates in THP-1-derived macrophages. Journal of Functional Foods. 2014;8(1):224-33
  51. 51. Bansode RR, Randolph P, Hurley S, Ahmedna M. Evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin-derived polyphenols in rats on Western-diet. Food Chemistry. 2012;135(3):1659-66
  52. 52. do Valle Calomeni A, de Souza VB, Tulini FL, Thomazini M, Ostroschi LC, de Alencar SM, et al. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of spray-dried extracts from peanut skins. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2017 2017/09/01/;105:215-23
  53. 53. Faridy JCM, Stephanie CGM, Gabriela MMO, Cristian JM. Biological Activities of Chickpea in Human Health (Cicer arietinum L.). A Review. Plant foods for human nutrition. 2020;75(2):142-53
  54. 54. Gautam AK, Gupta N, Narvekar DT, Bhadkariya R, Bhagyawant SS. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2018;24(3):389-97
  55. 55. Lin L, Zhang S, Lin Y, Liu W, Zou B, Cai Y, et al. Untargeted metabolomics analysis on Cicer arietinium L.-Induced Amelioration in T2D rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020;261
  56. 56. Ahmeda A, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A. Green formulation and chemical characterization of Lens culinaris seed aqueous extract conjugated gold nanoparticles for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to mitoxantrone in a leukemic mouse model. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 2020;34(3)
  57. 57. Becerra-Tomás N, Díaz-López A, Rosique-Esteban N, Ros E, Buil-Cosiales P, Corella D, et al. Legume consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: A prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study. Clinical Nutrition. 2018;37(3):906-13
  58. 58. Micioni Di Bonaventura MV, Cecchini C, Vila-Donat P, Caprioli G, Cifani C, Coman MM, et al. Evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effect and prebiotic activity of a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) extract. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2017;61(11)
  59. 59. González-Montoya M, Hernández-Ledesma B, Silván JM, Mora-Escobedo R, Martínez-Villaluenga C. Peptides derived from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of germinated soybean proteins inhibit human colon cancer cells proliferation and inflammation. Food Chemistry. 2018;242:75-82
  60. 60. Joseph P, Suman SP, Li S, Beach CM, Steinke L, Fontaine M. Characterization of bison (Bison bison) myoglobin. Meat Sci. 2010 Jan;84(1):71-8. PubMed PMID: 20374756
  61. 61. Galbraith JK, Hauer G, Helbig L, Wang Z, Marchello MJ, Goonewardene LA. Nutrient profiles in retail cuts of bison meat. Meat Sci. 2006 Dec;74(4):648-54. PubMed PMID: 22063218
  62. 62. Cordain L, Watkins BA, Florant GL, Kelher M, Rogers L, Li Y. Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: Evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;56(3):181-91
  63. 63. Rule DC, Broughton KS, Shellito SM, Maiorano G. Comparison of muscle fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations of bison, beef cattle, elk, and chicken. Journal of Animal Science. 2002;80(5):1202-11
  64. 64. Calder PC, Krauss-Etschmann S, de Jong EC, Dupont C, Frick JS, Frokiaer H, et al. Early nutrition and immunity - Progress and perspectives. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006;96(4):774-90
  65. 65. Chin SF, Liu W, Storkson JM, Ha YL, Pariza MW. Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 1992;5(3):185-97
  66. 66. Turpeinen AM, Mutanen M, Aro A, Salminen I, Basu S, Palmquist DL, et al. Bioconversion of vaccenic acid to conjugated linoleic acid in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(3):504-10
  67. 67. Butz DE, Li G, Huebner SM, Cook ME. A mechanistic approach to understanding conjugated linoleic acid's role in inflammation using murine models of rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2007;293(2):R669-R76
  68. 68. Pil-Nam S, Park K-M, Kang G-H, Cho S-H, Park B-Y, Van-Ba H. The impact of addition of shiitake on quality characteristics of frankfurter during refrigerated storage. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2015;62(1):62-8
  69. 69. Ribeiro A, Ruphuy G, Lopes JC, Dias MM, Barros L, Barreiro F, et al. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients. Food Chem. 2015 Dec 01;188:612-8. PubMed PMID: 26041238
  70. 70. Cha M-H, Heo J-Y, Lee C, Lo YM, Moon B. Quality and Sensory Characterization of White Jelly Mushroom (Tremella fuciformis) as a Meat Substitute in Pork Patty Formulation. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2014;38(4):2014-9
  71. 71. Wang L, Li C, Ren L, Guo H, Li Y. Production of Pork Sausages Using Pleaurotus eryngii with Different Treatments as Replacements for Pork Back Fat. Journal of food science. 2019 Nov;84(11):3091-8. PubMed PMID: 31627254
  72. 72. Pérez Montes A, Rangel-Vargas E, Lorenzo JM, Romero L, Santos EM. Edible mushrooms as a novel trend in the development of healthier meat products. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2021;37:118-24
  73. 73. Romina Alina VLAIC, Crina Carmen MUREȘAN, Sevastiţa MUSTE, Vlad MUREȘAN, Anamaria POP, Andruța MUREȘAN, et al. Boletus Edulis Mushroom Flour-Based Wheat Bread as Innovative Fortified Bakery Product. Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology. 2019;76(1)
  74. 74. Kurt A, Gençcelep H. Enrichment of meat emulsion with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus ) powder: Impact on rheological and structural characteristics. Journal of Food Engineering. 2018;237:128-36
  75. 75. Cerón-Guevara MI, Rangel-Vargas E, Lorenzo JM, Bermúdez R, Pateiro M, Rodriguez JA, et al. Effect of the addition of edible mushroom flours (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus) on physicochemical and sensory properties of cold-stored beef patties. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2019;44(3)
  76. 76. Nagy M, Semeniuc CA, Socaci SA, Pop CR, Rotar AM, SĂLĂGean CD, et al. Utilization of brewer’s spent grain and mushrooms in fortification of smoked sausages. Food Science and Technology. 2017;37(2):315-20
  77. 77. Choe J, Lee J, Jo K, Jo C, Song M, Jung S. Application of winter mushroom powder as an alternative to phosphates in emulsion-type sausages. Meat Sci. 2018 Sep;143:114-8. PubMed PMID: 29734004
  78. 78. Jo K, Lee J, Jung S. Quality Characteristics of Low-salt Chicken Sausage Supplemented with a Winter Mushroom Powder. Korean journal for food science of animal resources. 2018 Sep;38(4):768-79. PubMed PMID: 30206436. Pubmed Central PMCID: 6131377
  79. 79. Jo K, Lee S, Jo C, Jeon HJ, Choe JH, Choi YS, et al. Utility of winter mushroom treated by atmospheric non-thermal plasma as an alternative for synthetic nitrite and phosphate in ground ham. Meat Sci. 2020 Aug;166:108151. PubMed PMID: 32305801
  80. 80. Keerthana K, Anukiruthika T, Moses JA, Anandharamakrishnan C. Development of fiber-enriched 3D printed snacks from alternative foods: A study on button mushroom. Journal of Food Engineering. 2020;287:110116
  81. 81. Salehi F, Kashaninejad M, Asadi F, Najafi A. Improvement of quality attributes of sponge cake using infrared dried button mushroom. Journal of food science and technology. 2016 Mar;53(3):1418-23. PubMed PMID: 27570266. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4984703
  82. 82. Parvin R, Farzana T, Mohajan S, Rahman H, Rahman SS. Quality improvement of noodles with mushroom fortified and its comparison with local branded noodles. NFS Journal. 2020;20:37-42
  83. 83. Zhong L, Zhao L, Yang F, Yang W, Sun Y, Hu Q. Evaluation of anti-fatigue property of the extruded product of cereal grains mixed with Cordyceps militaris on mice. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14:15. PubMed PMID: 28588427. Pubmed Central PMCID: 5457539
  84. 84. Anton AA, Lukow OM, Fulcher RG, Arntfield SD. Shelf stability and sensory properties of flour tortillas fortified with pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour: Effects of hydrocolloid addition. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2009;42(1):23-9
  85. 85. González-Montemayor Á-M, Flores-Gallegos AC, Contreras-Esquivel J-C, Solanilla-Duque J-F, Rodríguez-Herrera R. Prosopis spp. functional activities and its applications in bakery products. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2019;94:12-9
  86. 86. Schmelter L, Rohm H, Struck S. Gluten-free bakery products: Cookies made from different Vicia faba bean varieties. Future Foods. 2021;4:100038
  87. 87. Fares C, Menga V. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Fortification of Cereal-Based Foods to Increase Fiber and Phytochemical Content. 2014:533-46
  88. 88. Romano A, Gallo V, Ferranti P, Masi P. Lentil flour: nutritional and technological properties, in vitro digestibility and perspectives for use in the food industry. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2021;40:157-67
  89. 89. Roohinejad S, Koubaa M, Barba FJ, Saljoughian S, Amid M, Greiner R. Application of seaweeds to develop new food products with enhanced shelf-life, quality and health-related beneficial properties. Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 3):1066-83. PubMed PMID: 28865618

Written By

Ţibulcă Dorin and Fogarasi Melinda

Submitted: 14 April 2021 Reviewed: 27 August 2021 Published: 06 October 2021