Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Important Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia: A Review in Years 2015–2020

By Abebe Ayele Haile

Submitted: April 23rd 2021Reviewed: April 27th 2021Published: July 1st 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97937

Downloaded: 184

Abstract

Many studies on medicinal plants have been taking place in different parts of Ethiopia and the people use them for the preparation of traditional herbal medicine. The purpose of the current study is to review the assessment of the medicinal plants used in Ethiopia, to compile the components used, the method of preparation, the medical uses, and the compilation of the number of medicinal plants in 2015–2020. This review paper took place in the years 2015 to 2020 from the published papers. Various databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar, have been searched. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, charts, and numbers using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet 2010. In Ethiopia, a total of 4,007 medicinal plants were identified from different areas by different authors in the years 2015–2020. But, from this total number of identified medicinal plants, there was a similarity between types of plant species. Therefore, this total result has present similarities in plant species and types found in different areas. In 2015, a total of 1,062 medicinal plants were identified from different areas by different authors. Similarly, 315, 613, 944, 341, 732 medicinal plants were identified by different authors in different study areas in the years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 respectively. The years 2015 and 2018 were the years many plants of medicinal value were documented. The growth forms of medicinal plants were analyzed from 2015 to 2020 in the different study areas with different authors but with the same year and valued for each year and put the average one. To calculate the 2015 growth form of medicinal plants for example to calculate herbs, add all herbs identified by different authors in the same year, and take the average one. This method applied to all growth forms of medicinal plants each year. In all years (2015–2020) the dominant growth forms were herbs. The highest average of growth form was herb in the year 2020 which is 44.2%. In all years the least growth form was a climber. In all growth forms, the parts used for medicine were identified. Add each medicinal plant’s parts in the same year and then take the average for all years. In 2020 year, the traditional healers mostly used leaves (56.3%) for the preparation of remedy. In general, in all year leaves was dominant for the preparation of remedy. Oral and dermal ways of the route of administration were the most important in medicinal plants to treat directly different ailments. The route of administration was varying in percentage from year to year and also, a place to place according to the potential of traditional healers and type of diseases. But, different study areas and years showed that oral administration was the dominant one. In 2019, most of the prepared remedy was taken orally. Crushing was the most important and more cited in the preparation of remedy in the year 2015–2020. Also, powdering, boiling, chewing, concoction, grinding, direct and immediate, chopping, squeezing, decoction, boiling/unprocessed use, liquid form, Homogenizing in water, heating, cooking, smoking, and fumigation are common methods of preparation of remedy. In general, this review highlights the situation of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants associated with their knowledge from years to years. In addition, this review paper plays an important role in the extraction of potential medicinal plants to discover new drugs through detailed researches in the future.

Keywords

  • Ethiopia
  • Medicinal plants
  • new drugs

1. Introduction

Ethiopia is the sixth major country in tropical Africa in terms of the diversity of flora [1]. The country is endowed with rich flora, having more than 6,500 species of vascular plants out of which an estimated 12% are endemic and many plant species are used as medicinal plants [2, 3]. In Ethiopia, 80% of people depend on traditional medicine for their health care, and more than 95% of traditional medicinal preparations are made from plant origin [4]. Ethiopia is also a home for many languages, cultures and beliefs that have in turn contributed to the high diversity of traditional knowledge and practice of the people, which, among others include the use of medicinal plants [5, 6]. Ethiopian traditional medicines are greatly complex because the country harbors much cultures and endogenous knowledge [7].

Medicinal plants are plants that are used to treat diseases of humans and animals [8]. Traditional healers practice on these plants using their indigenous knowledge and hence, they are called traditional medicines. Primitive peoples in all ages have had some knowledge of medicinal plants derived as the result of trial and error [9]. Medicinal plants were traditionally used for health care and serve as the bases for the emergence of modern medicine. About 6,000 medicinal plants are believed to be used in traditional medicine globally [10, 11, 12]. Most of the medicinal plants are directly used from the wild and some from home gardens. However, home gardens played important role in cultivating and retaining medicinal plants beyond other useful plants [13]. Ethnobotanical knowledge as part of living cultural knowledge and practice between communities and the environment is essential for biodiversity conservation [14, 15, 16]. Most traditional medical treatments put into performing in Ethiopia rely on an amplification of disease that draw on both the “mystical” and “natural” base of medical circumstance and put together use of a holistic approach to management [17]. The usage of herbal medicine in Ethiopian patients in the treatment of diseases like cancer, liver, neurological and hepatic diseases were reported by some authors [18, 19]. In general plants are very important in Ethiopia to treat various ailments.

The present review was conducted to gather information about the plants used by people of Ethiopia in traditional medicine in the years 2015 to 2020, such as to highlight the description of medicinal plants including local name, the parts used, the preparation methods, traditional uses, and to compile the number of medicinal plants in each year till 2015 to 2020. This is believed to show the importance of traditional knowledge on treating ailments and elucidate the degree of development of this knowledge to marketable business.

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2. Methods and materials

This review paper took place in the years 2015 to 2020 from the published papers. Various databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar, have been searched. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, charts, and numbers using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet 2010.

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3. Medicinal plants in Ethiopia

In Ethiopia many medicinal plants are useful for treatment of different health problems. As indicated in Table 1, (review of recent literature: 2015–2020 years) medicinal plants in Ethiopian pharmacopeia are studied in different parts of the country by different authors. The review was restricted to the years 2015–2020 because the study made so far is bulky. This review showed that the total number of medicinal plants documented varied from year to year. In 2015, a total of 1,062 medicinal plants were identified from different areas by different authors. Similarly, 315, 613, 944, 341, 732 medicinal plants were identified by different authors in different study area in years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively.

Medicinal plants studied by and yearName of study areaHabit of medicinal plants in percent (%)Parts utilized in percent (%)Method of preparationPrincipal RA (%)Total Medicinal Plants
HShTCLRFSeStOtOrDe
[20]Abaya District (Guji Oromia tribes),30.348.820.930.239.516.314Powder, crushing pounding, chewing, concoction60.4623.243
[21]Abeshige district, Gurage Zone, SNNP37.129.222.51241.623.67.865.63.3717.97Crushing and pounding51.723.689
[22]Ada’a District,East Shewa Zone, Oromia373917733.6838.346.223.6318.13Concoction, Powdering, Grinding, Chewing49.438.4131
[23]Adwa District, Tigray283628852244812Crushed/grinded or powdered.791225
[24]Yalo Woreda in Afar284421752.9173.273.2723.5crushing and pounding68106
[25]Dire Sheikh Hussein heritage South-eastern Ethiopia29333173626510716Crushing, pounding, chewing, powdering, grinding, cutting592487
[26]Boricha district Southern Ethiopia16.6745.2433.334.7659.312.216.312.2Crushing and chewing, boiling731842
[27]Bule Hora District,West Guji Zone42.8621.4235.7164.2814.2821.4213.2870
[28]Chilga District, Northwestern Ethiopia3630241145.344.610.2Crushing, grinding, boiled5033101
[29]Chiro district, West Hararghe36.6731.6726.66546.9624.244.557.584.5512.03pounding and grinding, Boiled, squeezing63.226.3260
[30]Dale District, Sidama Zone,SNNP495141121235Crushing, chewing76942
[31]Dale Sedi district, oromia29.840.429.836.221.314.927.6Crushing, grinding57.519.247
[32]Debark district, North Gondar36.5633.3319.5110.64018.5712.868.5720Crushing, pounded56.6729.6393
[33]Dega Damot Woreda, Amhara31.135.426.86.72537.58.1258.1258.12513.6Chopping, pounding and crushing6914.854
[34]Dega Damot district, Amhara304025536.515.45.821.21.919.2Decoctions, liquid4426.560
[35]Jeldesa Cluster, Dire Dawa
Administration, Eastern Ethiopia
38.542.8153.734335919Crushing, pounding, concoction, squeez57.727.152
[36]Dugda District, Oromia38.232.522.83.341291119Pounding, crushing and cooking/boiling60.1334.6488
[37]Enarj Enawga District, East Gojjam, Zone, Amhara47.7531.5311.719.0135.8139.533.86.052.7912.02Crushing, boiled, squeezed43.7226.98111
[38]Local Communities of Gambella12.337.0332.118.527231010921Squeezing, chewing, boiled, crushing, burning61.7318.5181
[39]Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Zone of Tigray39.8833.5221.392.8938.6217.069.5811.382.0921.27Direct and immediate/unprocessed use, grinding, boiling, etc.24.322.8173
[40]Gera district, Ethiopia35.728.623.28.9755.43.68.97.1Crushing, exudation, squeezing, concoction41.126.863
[41]Gondar town, North Western Ethiopia8.911.864.740303.326.7Powder, crushed, chewed, boiled,64.326.230
[42]Gozamin Wereda, East Gojjam Zone453116841.917.24.3144.618Crushing, squeezing, powdering, juice, etc.51.6124.7393
[43]Robe district Bale zone, Oromia38332633.321.41926.3Crushed, boiled, chewed, powdered44.534.742
[44]Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia50.3729.614.85.941.0132.75.96.72.910.8Crush, powder, chew, grind, and squeezed61.435.4135
[45]halaba people, southern Ethiopia53.0618.3722.4552.9213.46258.62Crush, squeezedchewed, pound powder68.928.558
[46]Harari regional State, East Ethiopia42.635.214.85.648.1520.379.267.4114.81Crushing, squeezing, chewing and cooking53.724.154
[47]Hawassa Zuria District, Sidama zone3428326561215449Grinding, chewing, boiling, eating, liquid7420105
[48]Horro Gudurru Woreda, Western Ethiopia46.428.62551.819.610.710.77.2Grinding, crushing, chopping, decoction57.133.981
[7]Jigjiga town, Somali region, Ethiopia26393532.730.83.859.63.8519.2Homogenizing in water, crushing, decoction, chewing55.627.846
[49]Kembatta Tembaro (KT) Zone, Southern Ethiopia542513412631515Crushing, decoction, chewing, squeezing6922145
[50]Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray443812640.9834.432.75.82.913.19Crushing, chewing unprocessed,2529.6950
[51]Kunama ethnic group in Northern Ethiopia3713431321.7435.58.99.52.621.76pounding/crushing, smoking,50.4330.43115
[52]LaelayAdi-yabo District, Northern Ethiopia2929291034242.761320.3Crushing, grind48.6548.6537
[53]Libo Kemkem District, northwest Ethiopia41.13814.76.131.230.97.221.727Crushing, grinding, concoction, boiling44.937.7163
[54]Menz Gera Midir District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara43.8730.3218.456.4543.93183410.1Pounding, powdering, squeezing47.9628.57155
[55]Minjar-Shenkora District, North Shewa Zone of Amhara38.9840.6713.556.4845.718.513.522.3liquid forms, exudates, powder, smash54.2141.78118
[56]Misha Woreda, Hadiya Zone, southern Ethiopia4327219412633Crushing, powdering, Boiling, chewing4731126
[57]Raya Kobo District of Amhara Region46.231.82253.121.86.456.459.82.4Grinding/pounding, Crushing, Boiling, Chewing, Squeezing53.728.991
[58]Sayo and Hawa Gelan Districts of Kelem Wollega Zone, Oromia15.145.539.457.4717.245.456.4513.39Concoction, squeezing, boiling, smoking, chewing553266
[59]Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray3942.214.44.4441648325Crushing, pounding, Chewing, Squeezing64.635.490
[60]Sheka Zone of SNNP State, Ethiopia5323.712.410.9421663330Liquid form, chewed.4733266
[61]Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region303916155910724Grinding, Decoction, homogenization, concoction97.42.442
[62]Abergelle, Sekota and Lalibela districts of Amhara region15.6919.660.134.5732.0832.0811.3224.52Crushing, grinding, squeeze, fumigation35.8533.9653
[63]Tepi Town, Southwest Ethiopia33.324.2424.2415.1536.3612.123.0349.49Crushing and grinding75.759.0933
[52]Cheha district491929.412651451033Cooking, smoking, heating and boiling6924102

Table 1.

List of medicinal plants studied by and year, study area, habit, parts utilized, mode of preparation in Ethiopia (2015–2020 years).

N.B. H = herb, Sh = shrub, T = tree, mpts = medicinal plants, C = climber, L = leaf, R = root, F = fruit, Se = seed, St = stem, Or = oral, Ot = other, De = dermal, RA = Route of administration, SNNP = South nation and nationality of people.

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4. Identified medicinal plants in Ethiopian in the years 2015–2020

The pattern of number of identified medicinal plants per year in Ethiopia in the years 2015–2020 was different (Figure 1). In 2015, 1,062 of medicinal plants were identified. When compared to the year 2016, it was greater by 747. Years 2015 and 2018 were the years many plants of medicinal value were documented (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Pattern of number of identified medicinal plants in Ethiopia years 2015–2020.

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5. Growth forms (habits) of medicinal plants

The growth forms (habits) of medicinal plants was analyzed from 2015 to 2020 in different study area with different authors but with the same year and valued for each year and put the average one. To calculate the 2015 growth form of medicinal plants for example to calculate herbs, add all herbs identified by different authors in the same year and taken the average one. This method applied for all growth form of medicinal plants to each year (Figure 2). In all years (2015–2020) the dominant growth forms were herbs. The highest average of growth form was herb in year 2020 which is 44.2% (Figure 2). In all years the least growth form was climber (Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Growth forms (habits) of medicinal plants years 2015–2020.

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6. Parts of medicinal plants

In all growth forms, the parts used for medicine were identified. Add each medicinal plants parts in the same year and then taken the average for all years (Figure 3). In 2020 year the traditional healers mostly used leaves (56.3%) for the preparation of remedy. In general, in all year leaves was the dominant for the preparation of remedy (Figure 3).

Figure 3.

Average of plant parts used in preparation of remedies 2015–2020.

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7. Route of administrations

Oral and dermal ways of route of administration were the most important in medicinal plants to treat directly different ailments. The route of administration was varying in percentage from year to year and also, place to place according to the potential of traditional healers and type of diseases. But, in different study areas and years showed that oral administration was dominant one (Figure 4). In 2019, most of the prepared remedy was taken orally.

Figure 4.

Route of administration of remedies years 2015–2020.

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8. Methods of preparation of medicinal plants

Crushing was the most important and more cited in the preparation of remedy in the year 2015–2020 (Table 2). Also, powdering, boiling, chewing, concoction, grinding, direct and immediate, chopping, squeezing, decoction, boiling/unprocessed use, liquid form, Homogenizing in water, heating, cooking, smoking and fumigation are almost common for many traditional healers were shared methods to preparation of remedy.

Plant familyScientific Namelocal nameHabitused partsMedicinal usesMethods of preparationReferences
AsteraceaeVemonia adoensisSch.Bep. ex Walp.feres zengHerbrootMenstrual disorderRoot is chewed with honey, then drunk the fluid[32]
Echinops hispidusFresenKeberichoShrubStem/rootCoughSmoke the nasal cavity of the patient with dried stem or root[64]
Carthamus tinctoriusLSufHerbSeedCough[54]
Tagetes minutaLGimieHerbLeafBlack legTake the prepared remedy through orally.[54]
Echinops macrochaetusFresenkosorruu(or)koshshleHerbStemRingwormFresh stem of this plant is chopped and fumigated to affected area.[36]
Helichrysumsp.NechiloShrubLeafImpotency[54]
Artemisia abyssinica
Sch.Bip.
ChikugnHerbRoot/leafCommon cold, evil eye, typhusNasal for common cold
Neck hang for the evil eye
[54]
Carduus leptacanthusFresen.guccino(or
Amharic-
HerbstemHemorrhoidCrushed dry stem concocted with Vernonia amygdalinaleaves mixed with water is taken orally[20]
Vernonia amygdalinaDel.GirawaShrubleafBloatingCrush and give with water[53]
Acmella caulirhizeaDel.yemider
berbrie
HerbleafTonsillitisSmashed and rubbed, take the juice[64]
Kleiniaodora (Forssk.)WushieHerbleaf,stemheart disease[46]
FabaceaeSenna singueanaLhambaha mbo (tig) key inchetShrubRoothelmints, abdominal painGrind and mix with water, then drinking[23]
Tephrosia bracteolata’
Guill. and Perr.
gerengerieHerbleafBody lice[54]
Lupinus albusLgbtoHerbseedHypertensionThe prepared GB to will be eaten[54]
Senna septemtrionalis(Viv.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby.hamashaka (sd)HerbleafSnake biteRubbing[47]
Crotalaria karagwensisTaub.yeayt aterHerbleafItchinessCrush and powder, thencream with butter[53]
Pterolobium stellatum(Forssk.)Brenanharengeemmaa/kontir/kentafaShrubRootRhumantic painRoot boiled in a cooking dish and fumigating the leg with vapor.[22]
Albizia schimperianaOliv.Sesa/shimoroTreeRootevil eye
swelling
[47]
Cicer arietinumL.shimbraseedMalariaPowdered, boiled and drunk[55]
Calpurnia aureaBenthDigitaShrubleafeye disease, snake bite[55]
Vicia fabaL.Baaqelaa/or oralHerbseedtapewormFresh seeds are soaked in water overnight and eaten for five days[36]
LamiaceaeClerodendrummyricoides(Hochst.) VatkeMisrchShrubleaf/rootevil eye & evil spritCrush, powder, then tie on the neck or take with tooth[54]
Satureja punctate
Benth. Briq
lomishetHerbleafliverCooked fresh and drink the juice[53]
Ocimum lamifolium
Hochst
demakeseShrubleafvaginal bleedingCrush and Smearing in the vaginal part[23]
Thymus schimperiRonnigerTosignHerbLeafLung tuberculosis[54]
Salviaschimperi BenthDibreqHerbSeedDiarrhea[54]
Otostegia integrifolia
Benth
TunjutShrubWhole plantevil eyeChopped and fumigate home using local stoves; chopped and used to take a smoke bath; people chew the leaves and spit into the mouth[34]
Salvia niloticaLcheguri
habesha(tig) hulegeb
HerbRootsnake biteCrushing, homogenize with water and drink a cup of the solution[51]
SolanaceaeDatura stramoniumL.Astenagir/etsefarisHerbLeafRing wormRubbing and painting[28]
Solanum incanumL.Enbuay/yekolaHerbRootAbdominal painDrinking Crushed and mixing with
Water
[23]
Nicotina tabaccumL.TinbahoHerbLeafCoughPowdered and smoked[55]
Solanum anguiviLam.zerch enboyShrubLeafMastitisDried and crushed leaves mixed with
butter
[46]
Lycopersicon esculentumMill.TimatimHerbLeafSpider poisonLeaf Chewed and put on the affected area[33]
Capsicum annuumLKariaHerbFruitMalaria[54]
Solanum marginatumLGeber embouyShrubLeafTapewormTake the prepared remedy through orally[54]
Solanum nigrumL.Xunaye(sd)/tkurawutHerbLeafSnake biteFresh leaf immediately after bit chewed and swallowing[26]
Withania somnifera(L.) Dunal.bula(sd)/girawaShrubRootPneumoniaFresh root is crushed andboiled then infusion is filtered and drunk in the morning for human until recovery and for four days for livestock.[55]
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia abyssinicaJ. F. Gmel. TKulkualTreeRoot/leafJaundiceCrush, immerse in water, then drink or bake bread then eat[54]
Bridelia micrantha
(Hochst.) Brain.
yenebr tifirTreeBarkExpel placentaCrush is then given with water[55]
Clutia lanceolataForssk.FiyelefejShrubRootDiarrheaCrush then tie on neck region[53]
Euphorbia tirucalliL.KinchibShrubSapSwellingPainting[28]
Croton macrostachyusDel.BisanaTreeLeaf/rootEvil eye, Jaundice,
Eye disease
[54]
Ricinus communisL.Qobboo (or)GuloShrubSeedImpotencyThe dried seeds are pounded, mixed with small quantity of latex from Aloe spp. And drunk two coffee cups before bedtime for two days[23]
Tragia cinerea(Pax) Gilbert & Radcl. SmithalebelabitHerbRootKintarotFine powder of plant part mixed with butter /honey and drink before sexual intercourse with his partner.[20]
Phyllanthus ovalifoliusA. Radclife-Smithgurbi adi/qechemoShrubleafScabiesLeaves squeezed by hand and applied on the skin[24]
MalvaceaeSida ovateLumer kope (or)HerbleafSwellingFresh leaves pounded tied on the swelling.[54]
Gossypium
barbadenseL.
TitShrubRootSnake biteTie on neck or chew, absorb the
Juice
[53]
Malva parvifloraHojernachaShrubleafWoundChew and cream with cotton[54]
Sida schimperianaochst. exA. Rich.harmellaa (or)/chfrgShrubRoot/leafEvil eye, intestinal parasite[46]
Malva verticillata
L
LutShrubRootHeadacheCrush the root and mix with water and wash the head[47]
RutaceaeCitrus limon(L.) Burm.fbetre lomi/yeferenji lomiTreefruitLiver disease[54]
Clausena anisata(Willd.) Benth.limichShrubRootEvil eyeSniff, drink and fumigate with the concoction[53]
Citrus aurantiumL.Komtatie/bahre lomiShrubleafHypertensionDrink the juice leaf
Ruta chalepensisL.TenadamShrubleafEvil eyeCrushed, powdered and sniffed[41]
HerbleafCoughLeaves boiled in milk are taken orally and take medicine orally for three days[41]
leafMalariaCrushed the leaves of the plant with bulb of A. sativuminby adding ginger then drunk.[24]
HerbleafflueLeaf of R. chalepensisispounded with bulb of A. Sativum, mixed with soup and used as a drink[65]
AlliaceaeAllium sativum
L.
nech shinkurtHerbbulbEvil eye, malaria, virus. Asthma,Sniff, drink and fumigate
With concoction
[53]
PoaceaeCymbopogon martiniLtejesarHerbRootEvil eye[54]
leafBoost immunity of breastfeeding infantsThe grassy leaf is boiled, macerated, cooled, and given to infants orally (esp. drenching).[65]
Arundinaria alpina
K.Schum
qerqehaHerbRootShotelayThe root of Arundinaria Alpinais tied on the neck part of the body[55]
AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes asperaL.telenjHerbRoot/leafwoundRubbing the leaf or root and applying for the wounded part[28]
AcanthaceaeHypoestes forskaoli(vahl) R.BrgerbyaShrubRootbone fractureTie Cut the root parts and tie the damaged part[23]
Justicia schimperiana
(Hochst. Ex Nees)
Sensel/ Ciikkicho (sd)ShrubleafHelminthiasesThe leaf is pounded, macerated, and drunk[65]
CelastraceaeMaytenus arbutifolia(A. Rich.) WilczekatatShrubRootKidney problem[54]
AsclepiadaceaeCalotropis proceraL.Tobia/ginda/qinbaShrubleafswellingWarming the leaf and rubbing the swelled part.
SimarobaceaeBrucea antidysentericaJ.F. Mill.abalo/ WaginosTreeleafwartThe leaf is crashed with Clematis simensis, Brucea antidysenterica, and Oenanthe Palustris, and the powder is applied on the affected part.[28]
CucurbitaceaeCucumis dipsaceusEhrenb.Yeamora msa/hafafelo (tig)climberRootbelly ache, snake bite, insect bite,Grind and mix with water drinking[62]
Cucumis ficifoliusA.
Rich
yemdir
embway
HerbRootStomach ache,
Gonorrhea, Rabies
[54]
RubiaceaeCoffee arabicaL.bunaTreefruitwound,Apply the powder on affected part[28]
MoraceaeDorstenia barnimiana
Schwienf.
work
bemeda
HerbRootrabiesGrinding the roots of Malva verticillata, Croton macrostachyus,
and Cucumis ficifoliusseparately and mixing them, then drinking with Skimmed milk, after that drinking coffee.
[28]
Ficus vasta’ForsskwarkaTreeRootEye disease[54]
RhamnaceaeRhamnus
prinoidesL’Herit
geshoShrubShoottonsillitisCrush and drink with water[53]
OleaceaeJasminum abyssinicum
Hochest. ex DC.
tenbelelTreeleaftoothacheTake with teeth[53]
PolygalaceaePolygala abyssinica
Fres.
etse libonaHerbRootevil eyeGrinding the roots of Polygala abyssinica, Carisa spinarum, Phytolacca dodecandra, Capparis tomentosa, Securidaca longepedunculata., Boscia angustifolia, Ruta halepensis,Sida schimperiana,and Croton macrostachyus,then inhaling; additionally bandage[28]
ConvolvulaceaeDichondra
repensJ.R.&G.
Forst.
afer kocherHerbleaffebrile illnessRub, squeeze, then cream except the heart[53]
BoraginaceaeCordia africanaLam.wanzaTreeleafeye problemBurn, then insert ash with butter[53]
CapparidaceaeCapparis cartilagineaDecneqelemberurTreefruitgastritisFruit coat is crushed and mixed with ½ glass water and 3 spoon sugar and taken orally[62]
RootAscarisDried roots crushed and boiled and consumed empty stomach
leafdiarrheaFresh leaves crushed and mixed with water and sugar is added and consumed
LoganiaceaeBuddleja polystachya
Fresen.
anfarShrubshoottonsillitisTie and cream concoction[44]
CuppressaceaeJuniperus proceraHochst
ex. Engl.
Yehebesha tidTreeshoot(painful swellingThe shoot is pounded, decocted, and drunk[65]
fruiturine retentionBoil with TEJ then drink[53]
MyrtaceaeEucalyptus globulus
(Labill.)
nechbahirzafTreeleafNasalinfluenzaChopped, boiled and inhale the vapor[55]
RosaceaeRosa abyssinicaLkegaShrubfruithypertensionPowdered, mixed with water and
drunk
[53]
anunculaceaeClematis hirsutaPerr.yazoharegclimberLeaf/stemSwellings/ Wart, EczemaPowdered and tied on affected part[54]
UrticaceaeUrera Philodendron(A. Rich.) Wedd.lankussoShrubleafretained placentaChopped Leaves and mixed with
water
[46]
RanunculaceaeThalictrum rhynchocarpum
Dill. and A. Rich
sire-bizuHerbRootscrotum
swelling
Crush and drink with Tella[53]
ApocynaceaeCarissa spirarumLagamShrubapexinsect poisonFor any poisoning by insects or animal bite, seven apexes from seven different places are collected and crushed.[33]
SapindaceaeDodonea angestifoliaLkitkitaShrubshoot apexchifeThe apex is charred on an open fire and the powder is mixed with butter and applied on the affected area[33]
EbenaceaeEucleadivinorumHiern.Dedho/kuliew(tig)ShrubRootscorpion biteRoots are chewed to relieve pain[59]
MeliaceaeEkebergia capensis
Sparrm
Lol/sembo/OlonchooTreebarkweight loss in children[30]
PlantaginaceaePlantago lanceolataLgortebHerbleafwound &
bleeding
Crush leaf powder, then cream[53]
PhytolacaceaePhytolacca dodecandraL HeritEndod/shebtiShrubRootrabiesThe dried root of the plant is powdered and mixed with local alcohol and a cup of solution drunk daily for twelve days. Vomiting is its side effect and, therefore, restricted to children and pregnant women[30]
leafgonorrheaLeaves of P. dodecandraandroots of C. Macrostachyusare ground, powdered mixed with water and solution drunk with one to two cups of coffee
leafjaundiceLeaves are crushed, squeezed and one cup of juice taken daily for 21 days
BrassicaceaeLepidium sativumLFeto/shenfaHerbseedAmoebiasis,
diarrhea
Seeds are ground into powder, mixed with honey and then taken for three day[54]
AsparagaceaeAsparagus africanusLyesiet kestShrubabovegroundswellingAbove ground is crushed and homogenized in water for washing the swelling.[66]
CaricaceaeCarica papayaLPapaye/papaayeeShrubseeddiarrheaSeeds ground and boiled with coffee
and taken with hone
[24]
VitaceaeCyphostemma adenocaula(A.Rich.)asserkushclimberRootrabiesRoot boiled with milk, filtered and filtrate taken in empty stomach[41]
CrassulaceaeKalancheo petitianaA.Rich,endahulaHerbRootascarisFor ascaris, the root is cut with a knife of horn and chopped on unmovable stone, and mixed with water, it is squeezed between palms, applied in the left nose, then moved the stomach[33]
DipsacaceaeDipsacus
PinnatifidusSteud. ex A.Rich.
Kelem/galamHerbleafrabiesPound and give with water[53]
MyrsinaceaeEmbelia schimperiVatke .enkokoShrubfruitTape wormRow eaten; crushed, is drunk mixed with ‘tela difdif’[54]
VerbenacaeLippia adoensisHochst. exWalpKoseret/kusayeShrubleavesfibril illnessThe leaves squeezed and the filter is given through the nose and drink[41]
plumbaginaceaePlumbago zeylanicaL.AmeraHerbRoot/leafWoundThe crushed form of its root and leaf of Dodonaea angustifolia, with latex of Calotropis proceraaremixed together then creamed on the wound[44]
MelianthaceaeBersama abyssinicaFresenazamirShrubLeafAscaris/ Hypertension,The twig part of the leaf is crushed and powdered then boiled with tea and drunkS [54]
AloaceaeAloe pulcherrima Tod.eretHerbRootImpotencyCrush and powder, then cream with butter[53]
LinaceaeLinum usitatissimumLtelbaHerbseedGastricPound, mix with honey, then drink[54]
AnacardiaceaeRhus vulgarisOlivEmbis/yeregna qoloTreeRootEvil eye[54]
TiliaceaeRewia ferrugineaHochst. ex A. Rich.lenquataShrubbarkExpel placentaPilled the insider part and chopped emilizifyed then given to cattle, goat and sheep[53]

Table 2.

List of most common medicinal plants used in Ethiopia with their local name, scientific name, family, parts utilized method of preparation, ailment treated and route of administration.

N.B.Tig = Tigrigna, Sd = Sidamgna, Or = Oromigna.

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9. Conclusion

All the medicinal plants reported in the current review work have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different human ailments in Ethiopia. But, the studied plants in the present review need further investigation for detailed extraction of natural products, pharmacological and biological activities as well as a safety control. Therefore, today’s review is a gateway for a new researcher to discover new drugs and screening chemicals resulting from these plants for against different health problems.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no any conflict of interests.

© 2021 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Abebe Ayele Haile (July 1st 2021). Important Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia: A Review in Years 2015–2020, Herbs and Spices - New Processing Technologies, Rabia Shabir Ahmad, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97937. Available from:

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