Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Critical Dimensions of EQ among Malay Women Entrepreneur in Malaysia

By Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, K. Sarojani Devi Krishnan, Zurinah Suradi and Nurita Juhdi

Submitted: September 22nd 2020Reviewed: April 26th 2021Published: August 13th 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97883

Downloaded: 25

Abstract

This paper highlights the dimensions of emotional quotients (EQ) of Malay women entrepreneurs who own either micro enterprises or small and medium size enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia. EQ comprise of five dimensions which are social skills, self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, and empathy. About 1000 questionnaires were distributed around Klang Valley, Malaysia, with a 20% response rate. Out of 200, only 169 questionnaires were able to be used for the analysis of this study. The findings show that the most important dimension of EQ during economic crisis was self-regulation followed by self-motivation, empathy, social skills, and self-awareness. After the economic crisis, the most important dimension was self-awareness followed by social skills, self-motivation, self-regulation, and empathy. Hence, emotional quotients are important for Malay women entrepreneurs during the economic crisis to remain positive and endure business challenges in managing their business operations for business sustainability. The findings also highlighted that after the economic crisis, the focus was more towards facing business challenges from employees, customers, and other stakeholders due to increasing demand in products/services and business activities. To conclude, all the elements of each dimension were considered important for Malay women entrepreneurs during and after the economic crisis.

Keywords

  • Malay
  • women
  • entrepreneurs
  • EQ
  • Malaysia

1. Introduction

According to the former Malaysian Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, he stated that with the implementation of National Entrepreneurship Policy, Malaysia is expected to be a true entrepreneurial nation by 2030 [1]. Entrepreneurship is an ongoing process for business continuity and development that contributes to the economic development process of a country. In Malaysia, entrepreneurship is an area that can enhance the quality of life of women, in particular single mother [2].

According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the Malaysian population in 2020 is estimated to be 32.7 million as compared to 32.5 million in 2019. Overall, there are more males than females. Based on the report released on July 2020, the male population which is about16.8 million outnumbered females which is only 15.9million in 2020. The Malay is the majority of Bumiputera (native people) population, was the highest with 69.3 percent in 2019 and it is estimated that there would be an increase by 0.03 percent in 2020 [3]. However, in the economic sector, the Malays, being the majority did not perform in parallel with the total population [4].

The Chinese community has been monopolizing more than 50 percent of the economic activity in Malaysia [4]. Thus, the Malaysian government has made many initiatives to encourage more Malay or Bumiputra (native people) to become entrepreneurs [5]. Past literatures highlighted that the Malaysian government has been very concerned about developing and promoting entrepreneurship especially for women entrepreneurs [6, 7].

Hence, it is about time to further explore the emotional quotients of Malay women entrepreneurs who face business challenges in Malaysia. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the important elements and dimensions of Emotional Quotients among Malay women entrepreneurs during the economic crisis and after the crisis which contribute towards business sustainability.

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2. Literature review

This section discusses Malay women entrepreneurs, and emotional quotients.

2.1 Malay women entrepreneurs

The inherent attitude of a patriarchal society which claims that men are superior to women and that women are best suited to play the reproductive roles pose significant challenges for Malay Muslim women entrepreneurs [7]. Malay women entrepreneurs also must face many challenges in the business and economic sector as this field is monopolized by males and other ethnics in Malaysia [4].

In support of the inclusion of women in economic activities, the 2021 budget highlights several initiatives to provide for women entrepreneurs. Among the allocations given are RM 95 million for special micro financing through Tekun, Mara and Agrobank for women entrepreneurs [8].

However, with the advancement of technology nowadays, there are many opportunities and platforms to encourage women participation in entrepreneurship activities. For example, recent studies point out that a large portion of new entrepreneurs on the Shopee platform are women and they are a strong force in driving rural entrepreneurs [9]. Thus, with the presence of social media and e-commerce platform today, Malay women entrepreneurs will be able to grow in this field along with males and other ethnics in Malaysia.

2.2 Emotional quotients

Emotional Quotient (EQ) can be defined as the competence of a person to understand one’s own emotions with respect to other people emotions and it can be learnt or nurtured [10, 11]. Emotional quotients consist of five major dimensions which are self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills [12]. The first dimension, self-awareness can be defined as the skills to evaluate, judge, and comprehend emotions, and internal issues. The second dimension is self-regulation that can be defined as the skills to manage and regulate one’s own impulses and emotions. The third dimension is self-motivation which are skills related to goals attainment, that includes passion and enjoyment with work-related challenges. The fourth dimension is empathy while the fifth dimension is social awareness which are skills related to understanding other people’s emotions and reacting to the emotions. The last dimension is social skills that can be defined as the skills in communication that are able to inspire and influence others to get a favorable response from them [13, 14].

Hence, an entrepreneur must have high EQ due to the nature of the business that requires them to deal with employees, customers, suppliers etc. on a daily basis. Those high in EQ able to work effectively in teams and can build strong social capital in the company that improve business performance. Moreover, EQ has a direct relationship with job efficiency, operational success, and leadership [15–17].

Thus, it is highly critical to identify whether these dimensions of EQ are important or critical for Malay women entrepreneurs during and after economic crises.

3. Methodology

This section focuses on a brief discussion on sampling and data collection, questionnaires development, ethical considerations, and reliability analysis.

3.1 Sampling and data collection

About 1,000 questionnaires were distributed in Klang Valley to micro and small medium enterprises business owners consisting of Malay women entrepreneurs. The questionnaires were collected after seven days. About 200 Malay women entrepreneurs participated in the survey at 20% response rate, However, only 169 questionnaires were deemed complete and usable for analysis. The remaining 31 questionnaires could not be used due to incomplete information in Section B.

3.2 Questionnaire development

The questionnaires comprised of two sections which are Section A and Section B. Section A uses nominal scale to identify information related to respondent personal information and business information. Meanwhile, Section B is on items for each emotional quotient (EQ) dimensions which are self-awareness (5 items), self- regulation (5 items), self-motivation (5 items), empathy (5 items), and social skills (7 items). Five-point Likert scale was used to measure the respondents’ agreement with the statements for each item, with 1 for Strongly Disagree, 2 for Disagree, 3 for Neutral, 4 for Agree, and 5 for Strongly Agree.

3.3 Ethical consideration

The challenges faced during the data collection were due to the hectic schedule and availability of Malay women entrepreneurs to respond to the survey. Nevertheless, they were given freedom to respond to the survey at their convenience. They were not forced to participate or respond to the study.

3.4 Reliability analysis

The reliability analysis were performed using SPSS Software on each dimension of emotional quotients was noted to be within the acceptable range of between 0.7 and 0.8 (refer to Table 1). The Cronbach Alpha value for self-awareness α = 0.707 during crisis and α = 0.734 after crisis (5 items). The scale statistics for self-awareness during crisis is a mean of 20.57 with variance of 5.09, and standard deviation of 2.26. Meanwhile, after crisis the mean is 20.89 with variance of 4.42 and standard deviation of 2.11.

During CrisisAfter Crisis
Total ItemsCronbach’s AlphaTotal ItemsCronbach’s Alpha
Self-Awareness50.7150.73
Self-Regulation50.8050.76
Self-Motivation50.7250.71
Empathy50.7150.75
Social Skills70.7170.73

Table 1.

Reliability analysis results.

Self-regulation α = 0.80 during crisis and α = 0.76 after crisis (for 5 items). The scale statistics for self-regulation during crisis is the mean of 21.62 with a variance of 5.713 and standard deviation is 2.39. After crisis, the mean for self-regulation after crisis is 20.25 with a variance of 5.21 and standard deviation 2.28.

Self-motivation α = 0.717 during crisis and α = 0.714 after crisis (5 items). The scale statistics during crisis for motivation skills shows a mean of 21.06 with variance of 4.33 and standard deviation of 2.08, and after crisis with a mean of 20.79, variance 4.213 and standard deviation 2.05.

As for the empathy dimension the mean is 20.80 with variance 4.37, and standard deviation of 2.09, whereas after the crisis the mean is 20.24 with variance 3.97 and standard deviation of 1.99.

Social Skills α = 0.716 during crisis and α = 0.73 after crisis (7 items). For social skills dimension, during the crisis the mean is 29.10 with variance 6.97 and standard deviation of 2.64, and for after crisis the mean is 29.14 with variance 5.80 and standard deviation of 2.41.

Hence, since all items have high internal consistency, none of the items were deleted, and all items are considered reliable.

4. Analysis and findings

This section is a brief discussion on the respondent profiles, descriptive analysis of the items in each dimension, and correlation analysis between the dimensions, and correlation of EQ with business sustainability and profitability.

4.1 Respondent profiles

In Table 2, 169 Malay women entrepreneurs responded to the survey with about 10.1% aged from 20 to 30 years old, 35.5% between 31 to 40 years old, 33.7% between age 41 and 50 years old, and 20.7% aged more than 50. In terms of education of the respondents, about 29% of Malay women entrepreneurs had a qualification of PMR, 31.4% with SPM, 24.9% with Diploma, 5.9% with Bachelor’s degree, and 8.9% with either a Master or PhD.

AgeN%Education BackgroundN%
20–30 years old
31–40 years old
41–50 years old
More than 50 years old
17
60
57
35
10.1
35.5
33.7
20.7
PMR
SPM
Diploma
Bachelor’s Degree
Master and above
49
53
42
10
15
29.0
31.4
24.9
5.9
8.9
Total169100Total169100
Years in BusinessN%Types of OwnershipN%
3–5 years
6–10 years
11–15 years
16–20 years
More than 20 years
26
38
66
30
9
15.4
22.5
39.1
17.8
5.3
Sole proprietorship
Partnership
Private Limited
147
15
7
87.0
8.9
4.1
Total169100Total169100
Number of EmployeesN%Financial LoanN%
1–5 employees
6–10 employees
11–15 employees
7
132
30
4.1
78.1
17.8
No
Yes
28
141
16.6
83.4
Total169100Total169100
Sustainable for next 20 yearsN%Business will sustain foreverN%
No
Yes
0
169
0
100
No
Yes
27
142
16.0
84.0
Total169100Total169100
Profit Last YearN%Profit Next YearN%
No
Yes
128
41
75.7 24.3No
Yes
146 2386.4
13.6
Total169100Total169100

Table 2.

Respondents’ profiles.

The business have been in operation around 11 to 15 years for 39.1% of the entrepreneurs, 6 to 10 years for 22.5%, 16 to 20 years for 17.8%, 3 to 5 years for 15.4%, and more than 20 years for about 5.3%. In terms of types of business ownership, about 87% were classified as sole proprietorship, 8.9% partnership, and 4.1% private limited.

The number of employees who worked for the women entrepreneurs were about 4.1% with 1 to 5 employees, 78.1% with 6 to 10 employees, and 17.8% with 11 to 15 employees. About 83.4% had loans, and 100% believed their business will sustain for next 20 years, 84% will sustain forever, while about 75.7% did not earn profit last year, and 86.4% also were expecting not to earn profit the following year.

4.2 Descriptive analysis on items for EQ dimensions

This section briefly discusses the descriptive analysis of each item in self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills.

4.2.1 Self: Awareness: During and after crisis

All items for self-awareness are important during and after economic crisis (refer Table 3). However, the top three most critical elements are self-control and tasks control (mean = 4.20; s.d. = 0.62), confident in managing business (mean = 4.14; s.d. = 0.70), and confident and have pride with the business (mean = 4.11; s.d. = 0.64) during economic crisis. After economic crisis are confident and have pride with the business (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.64), confident and work hard for the business (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.63), and confident with own decision (mean = 4.17; s.d. = 0.56).

Items Self- AwarenessDuring CrisisAfter CrisisN
MeanStd. DeviationMeanStd. Deviation
Confident with own decision.4.070.674.170.56169
Self-control and tasks control.4.200.624.160.57169
Confident in managing the business.4.140.704.140.62169
Confident and work hard for the business.4.050.694.210.63169
Confident and have pride with the business.4.110.644.210.64169

Table 3.

Descriptive analysis – Self-awareness.

4.2.2 Self-regulation – During and after crisis

All elements for self-regulation are critical during and after economic crisis (refer Table 4). However, the top three most critical elements during economic crisis are fair (mean = 4.41; s.d. = 0.63), ethical (mean = 4.40; s.d. = 0.65), and objective (mean = 4.35; s.d. = 0.66) in managing business. Whereas, after economic crisis are patient (mean = 4.17; s.d. = 0.65), fair (mean = 4.09; s.d. = 0.65), and objective (mean = 4.09; s.d. = 0.64) in managing business.

Items Self-RegulationDuring CrisisAfter CrisisN
MeanStd. DeviationMeanStd. Deviation
Ethical in managing the business.4.400.653.930.62169
Patient in facing business challenges.4.240.614.170.65169
Fair in managing the business.4.410.634.090.65169
Multitasking and good in time management.4.220.653.970.64169
Objective in managing the business.4.350.664.090.64169

Table 4.

Descriptive analysis – Self-regulation.

4.2.3 Self-motivation – During and after crisis

All elements for self-motivation are important during and after economic crisis (refer to Table 5). The findings shows that the top three most important elements during crisis are controlling operation cost (mean = 4.25; s.d. = 0.65), enduring all challenges to keep positive business culture (mean = 4.25; s.d. = 0.62), and positive in facing business challenges (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.60). Meanwhile, after crisis the top three most important elements are keeping employee interest in any circumstances (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.65), controlling operation costs (mean = 4.18; s.d. = 0.60), and ensuring business operation run smoothly (mean = 4.17; s.d. = 0.60).

Items – Self-MotivationDuring CrisisAfter CrisisN
MeanStd. DeviationMeanStd. Deviation
Positive in facing business challenges.4.210.604.140.57169
Ensure my business operation run smoothly.4.190.554.170.60169
Endure all challenges to keep positive business culture.4.250.614.100.60169
Control operation cost in enduring business challenges.4.250.654.180.60169
Keep employee interest in any circumstances.4.150.634.210.65169

Table 5.

Descriptive analysis – Self-motivation.

4.2.4 Empathy – During and after crisis

All elements for empathy are important as seen in Table 6 that shows all the mean scores are above 4.00 out of 5-point Likert scales. The top three most important elements during business crisis are understanding problem faced by employees and give them time to solve it (mean = 4.25; s.d. = 0.63), ensuring family matters given priority (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.59), and being cautious on ethical business issues and know how to face it (mean = 4.14; s.d. = 0.60). However, after business crisis, it is critical to empathize on others and fully understand their situation (mean = 4.12; s.d. = 0.58), ensure family matters given priority (mean = 4.05; s.d. = 0.60), and understanding the problem faced by employees (mean = 4.05; s.d. = 0.50).

Items EmpathyDuring CrisisAfter CrisisN
MeanStd. DeviationMeanStd. Deviation
Cautious on ethical business issues and know how to face it.4.140.604.020.57169
Empathize on others and fully understand their situation.4.110.624.120.58169
Ensure family matters given priority and allow employee to settle their family matters.4.210.594.050.60169
Understand the problem faced by employees and give them time to solve it.4.250.634.050.50169
Put initiatives to help employees.4.090.644.010.58169

Table 6.

Descriptive analysis – Empathy.

4.2.5 Social skills – During and after crisis

All elements for social skills are important during and after crisis (refer to Table 7). However, the top three most important elements during crisis are special unit to manage communication (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.62), negotiation techniques to get cooperation (mean = 4.20; s.d. = 0.63), and special unit to inspire others (mean = 4.20; s.d. = 0.61) as critical during business crisis. However, after crisis the top three most important elements are evaluation on abilities to inspire others (mean = 4.20; s.d. = 0.57), give full attention in giving inspiration (mean = 4.18; s.d. = 0.56), and give full attention when communication (mean = 4.18; s.d. = 0.55).

Items – Social SkillsDuring CrisisAfter CrisisN
MeanStd. DeviationMeanStd. Deviation
Use negotiation techniques to get cooperation.4.200.634.100.53169
Give full attention when communicating.4.120.644.180.55169
Give full attention in giving inspiration.4.080.664.180.56169
Evaluate abilities in communication.4.150.574.170.56169
Evaluate abilities to inspire others.4.150.654.200.57169
Special unit to manage communication.4.210.624.160.55169
Special unit to inspire others.4.200.614.140.58169

Table 7.

Descriptive analysis – Social skills.

4.3 Correlation analysis

This section is a brief discussion on the dimensions for EQ during and after economic crisis.

4.3.1 Correlation for the five dimensions of EQ during economic crisis

The most important dimension for EQ during economic crisis is Self-regulation (mean = 4.32; s.d. =0.48), followed by Self-Motivation (mean = 4.21; s.d. = 0.42), Empathy (mean = 4.16; s.d. = 0.42), Social skills (mean = 4.16; s.d. = 0.37), and Self-Awareness (mean = 4.11; s.d. = 0.45) (refer Table 8).

MeanStd. DeviationN
DEQSA4.110.45169
DEQSR4.320.48169
DEQSM4.210.42169
DEQE4.160.42169
DEQSS4.160.37169

Table 8.

Descriptive analysis result for DEQ.

From the Pearson Correlation (refer to Table 9), none of the dimensions have any relationship, hence, during economic crisis, all dimensions for EQ on its own and not related to each other.

DEQSADEQSRDEQSMDEQEDEQSS
DEQSAPearson Correlation10.133−0.0710.0580.055
Sig. (2-tailed)0.0840.3610.4540.476
N169169169169169
DEQSRPearson Correlation0.13310.0360.067−0.123
Sig. (2-tailed)0.0840.6450.3850.111
N169169169169169
DEQSMPearson Correlation−0.0710.03610.101−0.068
Sig. (2-tailed)0.3610.6450.1910.378
N169169169169169
DEQEPearson Correlation0.0580.0670.1011−0.008
Sig. (2-tailed)0.4540.3850.1910.915
N169169169169169
DEQSSPearson Correlation0.055−0.123−0.068−0.0081
Sig. (2-tailed)0.4760.1110.3780.915
N169169169169169

Table 9.

Correlations analysis result for DEQ elements.

4.3.2 Correlation for the five dimensions of EQ after economic crisis

The most important dimensions for EQ are Self-Awareness (mean = 4.18; s.d. = 0.42), Social Skills (mean = 4.16; s.d. = 0.34), Self-Motivation (mean = 4.16; s.d. = 0.41), Self-regulation (mean = 4.05; s.d. = 0.45), and empathy (mean = 4.05; s.d. =0.39) (refer Table 10).

MeanStd. DeviationN
AEQSA4.180.42169
AEQSR4.050.45169
AEQSM4.160.41169
AEQE4.050.39169
AEQSS4.160.34169

Table 10.

Descriptive analysis result for AEQ.

The Pearson correlation analysis shows that there is only one significant relationship between self-awareness and self-motivation (r = 0.196*; p = 0.011)(refer to Table 11). Hence, those who have high self-motivation also have high self-awareness and vice-versa.

AEQSAAEQSRAEQSMAEQEAEQSS
AEQSAPearson Correlation10.0460.196*−0.134−0.135
Sig. (2-tailed)0.5570.011.0820.081
N169169169169169
AEQSRPearson Correlation0.04610.0210.102−0.145
Sig. (2-tailed)0.5570.7840.1880.060
N169169169169169
AEQSMPearson Correlation0.196*0.02110.068−0.042
Sig. (2-tailed)0.0110.7840.3820.584
N169169169169169
AEQEPearson Correlation−0.1340.1020.06810.032
Sig. (2-tailed)0.0820.1880.3820.684
N169169169169169
AEQSSPearson Correlation−0.135−0.145−0.0420.0321
Sig. (2-tailed)0.0810.0600.5840.684
N169169169169169

Table 11.

Correlations analysis result for AEQ elements.

Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).


5. Discussion

Figure 1 summarizes and discusses the findings in Section 5.1 and Section 5.2.

Figure 1.

Findings on important EQ dimensions during and after the economic crisis.

5.1 The importance dimensions and elements for EQ during economic crisis

During the economic crisis, all dimensions of EQ are important for Malay women entrepreneurs. Firstly, most of the Malay women entrepreneurs agreed they should self-regulate by being more ethical, fair, and objective in managing their businesses when facing the economic crisis.

Secondly, most of the Malay women entrepreneurs agreed that self-motivation was highly needed in facing economic challenges to keep positive business cultures, controlling operational costs, and be positive in facing business challenges during the economic crisis.

Thirdly, empathy as the third dimension of EQ was considered to be important, whereby they need to understand problems faced by employees, prioritize family matters, and be cautious of ethical business issues.

Fourthly, for social skills, the Malay women entrepreneurs agreed that they should use special unit to communicate with employees, inspire employees, and use negotiation techniques to get cooperation from others (employees, customers, etc.).

Finally, self-awareness as the last dimension was also important during the economic crisis. Most of the Malay women entrepreneurs agreed that during the economic crisis they should be able to perform self-control and tasks control, be confident in managing the business, and have pride with their business to ensure business sustainability.

The top two dimensions of EQ which are Self-regulation and Self-motivation are similar with findings from previous study on women entrepreneur EQ during economic crisis [12, 15].

5.2 The importance dimensions and elements for EQ after the economic crisis

Figure 1 shows that after the economic crisis the most important dimensions in terms of the sequence also changed significantly, whereby the first dimension was self-awareness followed by social skills, self-motivation, self-regulation, and empathy. Hence, the focus of the Malay women entrepreneurs after the economic crisis was to focus more on expanding and earning more profits as compared to during the economic crisis. In short, most of the most important dimensions and elements are more focused on business sustainability.

The first dimension is self-awareness that focuses on being confident and working hard for the business followed by having confidence and pride with their business venture, and confident with the ability to make decisions as the top three elements important after the economic crisis.

The second important dimension is social skills, as agreed by most Malay women entrepreneurs where they must evaluate their abilities to inspire others, followed by the ability to give full attention when giving inspiration, and communicating with others.

The third dimension is self-motivation whereby the Malay women entrepreneurs agreed that must keep the employees’ interest in any circumstances, should keep on controlling operational costs, and must ensure that the business operation runs smoothly. Thus, at this stage the focus is more on efficient business operations to serve increasing demands after the economic crisis.

The fourth dimension is self-regulation that includes having patience, being fair and objective in running the business after the economic crisis. In other words, most women entrepreneurs agreed that they must be prepared when facing stiff competition and increasing demand after the economic crisis.

The fifth or the last dimension is empathy. After the economic s crisis, it is critical to empathize on others and fully understand their situation (employees, customers, etc.), ensure family matters are given priority, and understand the problems faced by employees. In short, after the economic crisis, most Malay women entrepreneurs agreed that they must remain empathizing with employees for smooth business operations, customers for income or profit generation, and other stakeholders to sustain their business operations.

The findings of this study, quite similar with previous study in terms of the top three important dimensions of EQ and bottom two dimensions of EQ after economic crisis [12, 15].

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6. Conclusion

As an entrepreneur whether male or female, they are human beings, hence they have emotions. Thus, it is pertinent for them to understand the emotional quotients or emotional intelligence in sustaining and growing their business venture [16]. Thus, this paper has highlighted the findings on emotional quotients or emotional intelligence among Malay women entrepreneurs while facing economic crisis, and after the economic crisis. These findings can be used not only for Malay women entrepreneurs but for women entrepreneurs in general. As can be seen, women entrepreneurs is more caring in terms of the top three elements for empathy has indicated women are motherly and concern of other people situation, problems, and etc. The highlight of the findings are the important dimensions during the economic crisis as agreed by most Malay women entrepreneurs who participated in this study which are self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, social skills, and self-awareness. Whereas, after the economic crisis the most important dimensions identified are self-awareness, social skills, self-motivation, self-regulation, and empathy. In fact, after the economic crisis, the findings show those Malay women entrepreneurs with high self-awareness also have high self-motivation, and vice versa.

Acknowledgments

We would like to dedicate special appreciation for FRGS Grant granted to fund this study by Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia with reference FRGS/1/2017/SS03/UNIKL/02/4.

The authorship criteria are listed in our Authorship Policy: https://www.intechopen.com/page/authorship-policy.

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Conflict of interest

“The authors declare no conflict of interest.”

Notes/Thanks/Other declarations

Appreciation to Universiti Kuala Lumpur, and UniKL Business School for supporting this book chapter publication.

© 2021 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, K. Sarojani Devi Krishnan, Zurinah Suradi and Nurita Juhdi (August 13th 2021). Critical Dimensions of EQ among Malay Women Entrepreneur in Malaysia, The Science of Emotional Intelligence, Simon George Taukeni, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97883. Available from:

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