Average reproductive performance of Osmanabadi goats.
Among the goat breeds of India, Osmanabadi goat breed is one of the most popular goat breed of the arid and semi-arid region of Maharashtra state. Historically this breed is known to exist on Deccan Plateau since decades. The name Osmanabadi is derived from its origin, i.e. Osmanabad district in Maharashtra state. The breeds is distributed mainly in 2 southern states of India viz. Western Telangana and North Eastern Karnataka state and are having largest contribution to meat production in Southern India as their meat is very tasty when compared with local breeds. The Osmanabadi breed is suited to all types of rearing systems, the most ideal being the semi-intensive system (grazing and closed enclosure) where higher production has been observed compared to extensive (grazing system) and intensive systems (zero grazing system). Osmanabadi goats reared in the Maharashtra, Karnataka and Telangana border region had been analysed with reproductive parameters and found that, the female kids attend puberty at the age of 349.8 ± 6.9 days with 17.45 ± 0.23 Kg body weight. The average gestation period found was 152.24 ± 0.24 days. The mean age at first kidding was found to be 494.4 ± 8.1 days. The average duration of post-partum anoestrus period was 67.34 ± 6.31 days which was responsible for short inter-kidding interval which shows high profile reproductive efficiency. The mean kidding interval recorded as 232.62 ± 5.45 days. Majority of kidding resulted in single births (87.27%) and with only 12.73% of multiple births. Breeding season and kidding season of Osmanabadi goats was observed from the month of June to September and November to February as a major.
- Osmanabadi goats
- Reproductive performance
India is one of the few countries in the world to make a rich contribution to the international pool of genes for livestock and to the improvement of animal production worldwide. India possesses an enormous goat population numbering 148.88 million , which is the second highest in the world after China and contribute about 27.80% of the total livestock population of India. As per the census report of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India (2019), India is a rich repository of goat genetic capital with 23 well-recognised goat breeds and these breeds have evolved in relation to various geographical and climatic situations. In different agro-climate areas, these different breeds are of particular importance and have evolved unique adaptation characteristics over the years in order to survive and simultaneously produce sustained production under the agro-climate conditions of their habitats. In general, these breeds have been named after their place of origin and in some instances based on their prominent features.
Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair and skins over much of the world. Ruminants are of great economic importance in livestock industry and small ruminants play very important role in the socio-economic status of the society. In fact, goat plays a significant economic role for the farming communities living in lowland, midland and highland provinces. Goat, being small sized and more prolific animal, requires minimum capital and maintenance costs with less risk in investment. Goats play an important role in the food and nutritional security of millions of rural people especially to the landless, marginal and small farmers. Further this is sturdy and adaptable animal and is known to provide sustainable source of income to more than 40% of below poverty line rural population. This is one of the indications of rural farmer preference to this animal for employment and income generation. The socio-economic value of goat rearing as compared to other livestock species, for poor farmers is immense. Goats and sheep are also among the main meat producing animals in India, whose meat is readily preferred. They also produce variety of other products, which are especially useful in the semi-arid and arid climatic conditions . In India and other developing countries, the domestic goat (
The goats are usually kept under extensive management and reared on natural vegetation, but due to shrinkage of grazing land and as is blamed for soil erosion and desertification, the maintenance of flocks under extensive system is threatened. However, Semi-intensive and intensive systems of goat rearing with small flocks are gaining momentum. In extensive system of management, the animals are reared on poor and degraded grazing lands resulting in low production and reproduction. The Osmanabadi breed is suited to all types of rearing systems, the most ideal being the semi-intensive system (grazing and closed enclosure) where higher production has been observed compared to extensive (grazing system) and intensive systems (Zero grazing system).
The knowledge of specific physical characteristics and production efficiency of this breed is the need of the hour to avoid indiscriminate breeding and to preserve sustainable productivity. Therefore, this review focuses on physical characteristics and production performance of Osmanabadi goat in India.
2. History and name of breeds
Osmanabadi goat mainly originated in Tuljapur taluka of Osmanabad District and Udgir taluka of Latur district of Maharashtra, both were earlier under the Osmanabad district hence the name Osmanabadi became popular among the farmers. This goat is also known as Deccani. As these districts were earlier included in erst while Nizam State of Rule which was popularly known as Deccan State and hence the Osmanabadi breed was also synonymed as Deccani. The history of origin of Osmanabadi goat breed dates back to 150 years in the breeding tract of Marathwada region. The Osmanabad district being named after the Nizam Ruler of Hyderabad Deccan Estate Mir Osman Ali Khan the 7th Ruler of Nizam dynasty, hence the goat breed being named on the basis of breeding tract and origin from Osmanabad district as Osmanabadi (Seeri Hind and Tareekh-e-Khursheed, M. K. Shazli, 1968).
3. Distribution of breeds
The Osmanabadi breed distributed over greater part of central peninsular region, comprising the semi-arid areas or sub-tropical zones of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states. It covers the major part of southern Maharashtra especially Osmanabad, Latur, Nanded, Parbhani, Hingoli, Beed, Jalna and Aurangabad district of Marathwada region and adjoining parts of Telangana and Karnataka State.
4. Breeding tract and climate
Osmanabad and Latur districts of the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state are the breeding areas for Osmanabadi goats . The Osmanabadi breed has also been found to migrate to neighbouring areas. The breeding tract comprising Latur and Osmanabad districts is spread over 180-05′ to 180-07’ N Latitude and 730-25′ to 770-25′ E Longitudes and 17035′ 18040’ N Latitude and 75016′ to 76040′ E Longitude respectively in the deccean plateau . Latur district is situated at 540 to 638 m height from mean sea level. The altitude of Osmanabad district is 600-611 m above mean sea level. The tract’s agro-climate condition has been categorised as a subtropical zone and falls within a scarcity zone. Cereals, oilseeds, and pulses are the main crops grown in the Latur and Osmanabad districts, leading to harvests in the Kharif and Rabi seasons. The crops taken in Kharif are Jowar (
5. Management practices
The goat house did not have well drained system for urine (98.72%) and only 1.28% had the proper drainage for urine, particularly noticed in pucca type of flooring structures. Shinde  reported 93.04% farmers provided housing for Osmanbadi goats during night hours only with 70.44% and 29.56% closed and open housing, respectively. It was further revealed that 98.27% had kutcha floors and only 1.28% pucca floor provided to the goats. Singh  and Gokhale
6. Physical characteristics
6.1 Coat colour pattern
Osmanabadi goats have different coat colour patterns. According to the colour and presence or absence of horns, Osmanabadi goats were classified into five types. There is no specific name for these types, except Kali (Black), Morkani (White spotted ear), Hondi (Polled). The distribution of goats in surveyed area revealed that S1 (Kali) was 62.16%, S3 (Hondi) 17.12%, S2 (Morkhani) 10.68%, S4 (Hondi Morkani) 3.09% and proportion of remaining goats having different colour combinations i.e. S5 was 6.95%, .
Thus the majority of Osmanabadi goat population was comprised of breed sub-type S1 and S3 (79.28%); while the proportion of breed sub-types S2 and S4 was comparatively negligible than the first two subtypes. The breed sub-type S5 might be developed due to the admixture of different coat colours and breed combination in the population. The eyelids and hooves of Osmanabadi goat was 100% black for all categories of goats studied. Prakash and Balain  reported that the common colour of Osmanabadi goat was black and a mixture of white and black or red. Similarly, Ruben  reported that the coat colour of Osmanabadi goats was complete black or mixture of black and brown colour. Anonymous  recorded the distribution of Osmanabadi goats according to different breed sub-types in three districts and reported 82.60, 11.19, 2.67, 0.75 and 2.84 percent of the goats in the respective five breed sub-types.
The colour of muzzle was found black in 100% goats under survey. Deokar
6.2 Horn pattern
Horns were noticed in both the sexes in majority (79.54%) of Osmanabadi goats while 20.46% goats were polled, . The 100% Osmanabadi goat had grey colour of horns. The length of horns in adult goats averaged to 7.48 + 0.52 cm. Osmanabadi goats had straight horn (64.40%), while, 35.60% had curved horn, . The orientation of horn was mostly backward (48.55%) followed by upward (44.17%) and very less downward (7.28%) orientation. Presence of horns in both the sexes was also reported in Osmanabadi goat , Sangamneri goat , Jakhrana goat  and Surti goat . The straight horn was reported by Motghare
6.3 Head, ear and tail patterns
The ear orientation of Osmanabadi goat was pendulous (drooping) with medium length (14.90 ± 0.26 cm), . As regards the orientation of ears of Osmanabadi goats in the breeding tract, not a single case of erect ears was recorded. However, very few cases of horizontal ears were recorded. Majority of Osmanabadi goats had convex forehead (95.24%), . The percentage of absence of wattle in Osmanabadi goats was 100%. Likewise the overall percentage of the goats not having beard was 100%. This clearly indicated that both wattle and beard characteristics were not the common feature of Osmanabadi goats. Deokar
6.4 Body measurements and body weight
The average age at first kidding and kidding interval is 523 and 214 days respectively. Goats of this breed have very efficient reproduction and in well managed flocks , with 30% twining and 2% triplets. The daily milk yield ranged from 700 gm to 1500 gm under well managed village flocks with lactation length of 130-150 day. Raskar
6.6 Age at puberty
The mean age at puberty was recorded as 349.8 ± 6.9 days and ranged between 180 and 510 days. Kamble
6.7 Weight at puberty
The weight at puberty in Osmanabadi goats occurred when the does attained an average body weight of 17.45 ± 0.23 kg, . Smith  stated that, Angora goats should weigh 32-41 kg before being bred and recommended that breeding should be delayed until the animal has attained 60% or more of its adult body weight. It was also evident from the study that the age at puberty ranged between 6 and 17 months and it is highly probable that Osmanabadi goats attaining puberty at an early age had a better growth rate resulting in a better body weight cumulating in the onset of puberty.
6.8 Gestation period
The average gestation period in Osmanabadi goats was determined as 152.24 ± 0.24 days and it ranged from 137 to 158 days. The average duration of gestation in goats is generally reported as 147-155 days . The gestation period was recorded as 150.08 days by Pathodiya
6.9 Age at first kidding
The first kidding in Osmanabadi goats occurred as early 330 days in some does and as late as 650 days in few others . The mean age at first kidding was determined as 494.4 ± 8.1 days similar to the reports in other breeds . Mandakmale
6.10 Inter-kidding period
The mean kidding interval in Osmanabadi Does was recorded as 232.62 ± 5.45 days and ranged between 181 to 310 days, . A similar kidding interval has been reported by Markendeya and Devanagare  in Osmanabadi goats. Mabari goats also appear to have a kidding interval similar to Osmanabadi does . Raghavan
|1||Age at Puberty||335.3 ± 13.0||Kamble |
|2||Age at First service||370 ± 14||Kamble |
|3||Age at First Conception||233.02 ± 0.89||Lawar |
|4||Age at First Kidding||0.081 ± 0.010||Patil |
|5||Kidding Interval||0.0317 ± 0.098||Patil |
|6||Gestation Period||0.292 ± 0.086||Patil |
Generally, various factors such as genetic, development systems and management practices have influenced the productive and reproductive success of indigenous goats. The following recommendations have been forwarded from the aforementioned conclusion:
The ability to better adjust the climate for indigenous goat breeds; a regulated crossbreeding and selection policy should be established in line with the conservation of local adaptive characteristics of the breeds.
In particular, farmers should be provided with training and knowledge to increase the reproductive output of goats and farmers’ livelihoods through improved management practises.
The author expresses his sincere thanks to those who have helped in preparation and enrichment of this article. The help received from
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.