Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Alignment between the Strategic Plans of Island Regions and the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development

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Deolésio Mendes, Ana José and Joaquim Mourato

Submitted: September 17th, 2020 Reviewed: December 2nd, 2020 Published: January 8th, 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.95344

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The climate of increasing competitiveness between cities, leads to an urgent need for territorial actors to find solutions, so that cities become a more attractive space for different targets. Although cities are considered centers of innovation and social and economic development, their unplanned and unsustainable growth has resulted in harmful consequences for the environment, community, tourism, among others. This research aims to make a comparative analysis between the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development of Cape Verde, the National Development Plan of São Tomé and Príncipe and the Proposal for the Sustainable Development Plan of the Autonomous Region of Príncipe, considering the theoretical contributions and the guidelines of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It concludes about the similarities and differences between the plans, both in terms of the depth of the elements analyzed, as well as in alignment with the Agenda 2030.


  • sustainable development
  • strategic planning
  • United Nations 2030 agenda
  • island regions

1. Introduction

We live in a climate of increasing competitiveness between cities, where the various territorial actors strive to find solutions, so that the territories become, in a more resilient, more attractive, more inclusive and with a better quality of life.

For this reason, this study aims to contribute to the understanding of the alignment of the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development of Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and the Autonomous Region of Príncipe in compliance with the guidelines of the UN Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development.

The Autonomous Region of Príncipe (ARP), in the context of small African island territories, has been standing out, thanks to small measures implemented in the conservation and preservation of nature and sustainable tourism, which guaranteed it the title of Reserve in 2012 World Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) World Biosphere [1] and, recently, a praise from the United Nations (UN), as an example to follow.

It is imperative to plan and manage the future of the territories rationally, in this environment of uncertainty and ambiguity. This is because, sustainable development imposes on cities a “transparency of processes and mechanisms that, in a multidisciplinary and multisectoral way”, requires the cooperation and collaboration of all its actors, so that the strategy developed reconciles with their interests [2, 3].

That said, it can be considered that a wide field of reflection is open on the main difficulties that small island states have been facing, in the face of the emergence of new paradigms imposed by globalization.


2. Literature review

2.1 Sustainable cities as a development strategy

Considering globalization and the opportunity cost of living in cities in relation to the rural environment, it appears that cities have been registering a significant increase in population [4]. Although these are considered to be the center of innovation and social and economic development, their unplanned and often unsustainable growth has resulted in harmful consequences for the environment, such as: soil degradation, social inequality, pollution, quality of life, among others [5].

In this sense, the territorial actors felt the need to develop and implement strategies, which enhance the promotion and territorial valorization, strive for environmental preservation, favor social responsibility and provide, above all, the satisfaction of the needs of all stakeholders [5, 6, 7].

It is in this context that sustainable development, which is characterized by the ability to meet the needs and challenges of the present, without ever compromising or neglecting the needs of future generations, assumes a leading role in the development of sustainable cities [8].

In this line of thought, the sustainable development of cities and territories must be “a process of transformation, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are harmonized and reinforce the present potential and future in order to meet human needs and aspirations” [8].

For this reason, the sustainable development of cities must be based on three dimensions (environmental, economic and social), in order to facilitate the balance between man and nature. Government institutions have been adopting policies for sustainable development of cities, with the objective of safeguarding the interests and resources of the territories, so that they are always in competitive equality in relation to other cities, thus gaining more and more attractive capacity before stakeholders [9, 10]. This type of development must motivate a committed attitude among all territorial agents, in order to guarantee competitiveness and social cohesion [11, 12].

In addition, cities must be aware of the challenges inherent in their development, in order to build and envision the future, encouraging the use of innovative and creative skills, guided by a scientific and technological research and development (R&D) culture and investing in following views [5, 13, 14, 15]:

  • Prosperity: offering high levels of quality of life to qualified people, in order to foster the knowledge that generates innovation and creativity and, consequently, attract and fix resources, especially financial;

  • Healthy: promote the proximity between man and nature, through the valorization of natural resources and assume the coefficients and the reduction of the ecological and carbon footprint, through healthy spaces;

  • Resilience: establish a posture committed to future generations, conserving the heritage and, using current trends, develop measures to bridge emerging paradigms, always safeguarding endogenous resources;

  • Justice: not to deprive its citizens of the use of citizenship and their cultural identity;

  • Inclusion: foster social cohesion and inclusion of individuals, giving them opportunities for education, health, security and justice;

  • Connection: making connection with the world viable, through cooperation, complementarity and sustainable development.

2.2 Agenda 2030 guidelines for sustainable development

The leaders of each country and the UN, developed certain measures aimed at, “ending poverty and hunger everywhere; combat inequalities within and between countries; build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; protect human rights and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources (…) create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and economically sustained growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account the different levels of development and national capacities” [16].

In this sense, we sought to develop measures that were related to essential elements for sustainable development, being: people, planet, prosperity, peace and cooperation [16], as detailed:

  • People: Eradicate poverty and strive for equality and equity among human beings, on a healthy planet;

  • Planet: Protect it against the harmful actions of human beings through development policies and sustainable management of resources;

  • Prosperity: Ensure that economic, social and technological development, proceed in “harmony with nature”;

  • Peace: “Promote peaceful, fair and inclusive societies that are free from fear and violence”;

  • Cooperation: combining all existing means and synergies, so that the implementation of this Agenda is based on a revitalized cooperation/partnership on a global scale, that is, “on the basis of a spirit of reinforced global solidarity, focused especially on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people”.

In this sense, through the Agenda 2030 for development, a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ( Figure 1 ), 169 goals and 230 indicators was established, as a way to achieve sustainable development for the planet [16].

Figure 1.

The UN’s sustainable development goals. Source: [16].

However, the implementation and consequent expected results of the UN Agenda 2030 SDGs for sustainable development and the respective guidelines, will only be possible if, on the one hand, we seriously strive for a culture of cooperation at all levels between countries, organizations, civil societies and all actors interested in the sustainable development of a territory and, on the other, if each country is responsible for its own economic and social development, regardless of its political leadership, provided that its policies are awake and compatible with the international rules, to eradicate poverty and spread sustainable development.


3. Methodology

The study that is presented is of a qualitative nature in which it allows to relate the concept with the phenomenon, through the perception of the existing dynamics between the method of induction and/or subjectivity [17]. In other words, studies that choose a qualitative approach, assume that phenomena need meaning. For this reason, the researcher needs to systematize the context, not only using subjectivity, but also the “theoretical-methodological resources that make it possible to perform such a task”, in order to find “a path that will lead him to the most reliable interpretation possible” [18] referenced by [19].

For a better understanding and ease of analysis of strategic plans, the content analysis methodology was used, which is characterized by a “set of communication analysis techniques, which uses systematic and objective procedures for describing the content of messages” [17].

This methodology involves three phases: pre-analysis, material exploration and data processing and interpretation [20]. In this specific case, they corresponded to:

Pre-analysis - reading, selection of strategic plans and constitution of bodies, which concerns the set of three strategic plans;

Material exploration - refers to the creation of a document analysis instrument;

Treatment of results and interpretations - equates to analysis and interpretation of the Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and ARP plans.

For a better understanding of the analysis that took place in each strategic plan and consecutively the alignment that took place between them and the UN Agenda 2030 for sustainable development, a document analysis instrument was adopted, which focused essentially on the sustainability parameters, since it sought to evaluate the following elements: Stakeholder involvement; Economic prosperity; Inclusion and social cohesion; Social justice; Connectivity with the world; Approximation between man and nature; Territorial resilience; Innovation and creativity; Scientific and technological R&D.

For each of these elements, a scale of 0 to 5 was used, which allowed to assess the level of depth, of each element in the alignment and in compliance with the guidelines of the UN Agenda 2030. As a result, it was also possible to evaluate the depth index for each strategic plan, taking into account the level of depth assigned.

Regarding the connotation of the scale, it is important to note that the values ​​correspond to the following: 0- Does not exist; 1- Very weak; 2- Weak; 3- Reasonable; 4- Strong; 5- Very strong.

It is important to note that the different scores attributed to each element resulted from the content analysis carried out on the strategic plans.

With regard to the depth index, this is an indicator that will allow a more quantitative assessment of the extent to which the different strategic plans comply with the guidelines of the UN Agenda 2030. In other words, this index reflects the level of contribution of each plan to the fulfillment of the UN Agenda2030 guidelines for sustainable development. For the sum of contribution of each SDG (score) will be the overall depth index of the plan. It is important to note that the scores refer to the level of depth that is attributed to each SDG in the different plans.

The way to calculate the depth indices will be as follows:

DepthIndex S D G = Score 5 × 19 x 100 E1
TotalPlanDepthIndex = Scores 5 x 19 x 100 E2

It should be noted that in the formula, 5 represents the maximum depth level that can be attributed to each element and 19 is related to the number of elements susceptible to evaluation.

Therefore, it is important to clarify that the instrument for aligning strategic plans in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030, was composed of the SDGs illustrated in Figure 1 , the Depth Levels and the Depth Index.


4. Results and discussion

4.1 Strategic plan for sustainable development of Cape Verde

The main challenges to overcome for the development and progress of the archipelago, focuses on:

Combat vulnerabilities (economic, environmental and social) and apply measures that make the country more resilient - betting on standards that aim to make the islands more inclusive, with a sustainable base economy, in order to challenge the “external dependence, the unemployment (at all levels), poverty, inequality in the distribution of income, reduced opportunities for emigration and, consequently, a drop in remittances” (…) and guarantee the valorization and use of endogenous products;

Bet on the valorization of the islands through the decentralization of power, and also in the valorization of the endogenous opportunities and resources;

Striving for education of excellence - ensuring the adjustment, integration, coherence, consistency of preschool to higher education by introducing them to the main information and communication technologies, in order to train teachers and students for the new form of development. In parallel with this, adapt training offers “to the needs of the digital and nanotechnological economy” and train human resources in order to ensure sustainable development;

Streamline the integration of international development agendas, namely Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063 of the UN and the Accelerated Modality of Action of Small Island Developing States (SIGS) - Samoa Pathway.

The following vision for Cape Verde of the future is defined “A developed, inclusive, democratic Cape Verde, open to the world, modern, secure, where full employment and full freedom prevail”.

In order to materialize this vision, it became essential to set four strategic objectives, namely:

Making Cape Verde an Economy of Circulation Located in the Middle Atlantic” - It implies betting on “Creation of a logistical port to supply international ships that pass through Cape Verde”; “Creation of a logistics airport for the international distribution of passengers and cargo”; Attraction of Companies and Investments and local business promotion; “Creation of an international financial platform”; Foster the participation of the migrant population in the development process; Bet on Tourism; “Development of the Digital and Nano-technological Economy”;

Ensuring Economic and Environmental Sustainability”;

Ensuring Social Inclusion and Reducing Social and Regional Inequalities and Asymmetries”;

Strengthening Sovereignty, Valuing Democracy and Orienting Diplomacy to the Country’s Development Challenges”.

For Cape Verde to achieve these objectives, it will need to maintain good relations with all its stakeholders, that is, having a good relationship with non-governmental organizations, the public and private sector, among others, in order to guarantee support, namely the Green Climate Fund, Global Fund for the Environment, support from its UN experts, to instill in the Cape Verdean population good practices of sustainability and use of endogenous resources, among others.

Table 1 illustrates the assessment of sustainability parameters in Cape Verde’s strategic plan.

Dimensions Elements Level of depth
Does not exist Very Weak Weak Reasonable Strong Very strong
Sustainability Stakeholders involvement x
Economic Prosperity X
Social inclusion and cohesion X
Social justice X
Connectivity with the world x
Bringing man closer to nature X
Territorial resilience x
Innovation and creativity X
Scientific and Technological I&D X

Table 1.

SPSD evaluation.

Through this illustration it can be said that in the Cape Verde Strategic Plan of Strategic Development (SPSD), sustainability criteria are in general strongly valued, since they present a level of depth, mostly strong, except for the involvement of stakeholders, connectivity with the world and territorial resilience, which have a very strong level of depth. Alongside this, it is necessary to point out that the Government of Cape Verde is aware that a large part of the financing to support this SPSD will depend on the “external financing of banks and development funds, in order to reinforce the cooperation ties between the institutions”.

Table 2 illustrates the alignment of SPSD in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines.

ODS Level of depth Score Depth of index (%)
0 1 2 3 4 5
Eradicate poverty x 4 4,21
Eradicate hunger x 2 2,11
Quality health x 4 4,21
Quality education x 4 4,21
Gender equality x 3 3,16
Clean water and Sanitation x 4 4,21
Renewable and affordable energy x 4 4,21
Decent work and economic growth x 4 4,21
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure x 4 4,21
Reduce Inequalities x 4 4,21
Sustainable cities and communities x 4 4,21
Sustainable production and consumption x 4 4,21
Climate action x 3 3,16
Protect marine life x 2 2,11
Protect life on earth x 4 4,21
Peace, justice and effective institutions x 5 5,26
Partnerships to implement the objectives x 5 5,26
Means of implementation x 4 4,21
Means of monitoring x 4 4,21
Total 68 75,79

Table 2.

SPSD alignment in compliance with UN guidelines.

It is concluded that, in general, SPSD contributes positively to the fulfillment of the UN Agenda 2030 SDGs, presenting a depth index of 75.79%. Nevertheless, there are some SDGs that need greater depth to globally comply with the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines, such as: eradicating hunger, protecting marine life, gender equality and climate action. Therefore, improving performance in these SDGs leads to a more robust alignment of SPSD with the guidelines of the UN Agenda 2030.

4.2 National development plan of São Tomé and Príncipe

For São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) to achieve its development, it must overcome the following challenges:

Develop the “productive base” of the country’s economy and promote the “diversification of sources of growth and employment”, so that youth and women unemployment and can be mitigated, and also supply the local market with endogenous products, in order to “alleviate” the export rate;

To train human resources in public administration, using “methods”, “instruments and working conditions”, in order to facilitate the implementation and monitoring of development policies, since the political interest seriously influences the country’s development, especially in the social and economic scope;

Promote gender equity and equality throughout the development process and especially in public administration;

Generate and “modernize the infrastructure network” to “support development (energy, roads, ports, airports, water)” and Mitigate territorial vulnerabilities (environmental and social).

The vision that we intend to have focuses on: “São Tomé and Príncipe 2030: The Country we want to build”, the objective of this vision is to build a country so that “São Tomé and Príncipe can live decently in a stable, egalitarian, democratic and solidary, in the process of modernization and offering quality services at regional and global level, without any form of discrimination against women”.

Regarding the strategic objectives, the following were outlined for STP:

In the economic sphere - “Improving the exploitation of the country’s development potential, accelerating economic growth and striving to integrate into the regional and global economy”, through “diversifying the economy and expanding its production base”, “increasing production and diversifying of food culture and expansion of exploitation culture”, “optimization of the exploitation of fisheries resources”, to boost services, development of tourism and small industries;

In the social sphere - “Accelerate and deepen reforms to significantly improve the human development index of São Tomé and make substantial progress towards the conservation of the SDGs”. For this to become necessary, “strengthening human capital and governance”, improving health services, “promoting youth, consolidating families and protecting vulnerable groups” and “valuing national culture, supporting the development of sport and inclusion of the diaspora”;

In the institutional/governance domain - “Improving the capacity for strategic management of national development, strengthening good governance and democracy”, through “improving the quality, speed and accessibility of justice”, fighting crime, “developing the financial sector”, “Improving strategic development management”, “improving public finance management”, “strengthening governance”, “gender institutionalization”, “strengthening local development poles and promoting decentralization” and “consolidating international cooperation and preserving national sovereignty”;

In the field of infrastructures - “development of economic and social infrastructures” and “promotion of the development of telecommunications” and information and communication technologies;

In the field of the environment - “Improving land management and preserving the environment”.

Given this scenario, the STP established the following target audiences: tourists, resident population and investors.

Maintaining a good relationship with its partners becomes an “agenda” phrase for the Democratic Republic of STP, since about 89% of its budget is financed by external partners.

Using the document analysis instrument, the National Development Plan for São Tomé and Príncipe (NDPSTP) is evaluated as follows ( Table 3 ).

Dimensions Elements Level of depth
Does not exist Very Weak Weak Reasonable Strong Very strong
Sustainability Stakeholders involvement x
Economic Prosperity x
Social inclusion and cohesion x
Social justice x
Connectivity with the world x
Bringing man closer to nature x
Territorial resilience x
Innovation and creativity x
Scientific and Technological I&D x

Table 3.

Evaluation of the NDPSTP.

Analyzing Table 3 , it was found that there is a need to deepen, globally, even more in the elements of sustainability in the NDPSTP, since most of these elements have a reasonable depth index, except the elements Stakeholder involvement, economic prosperity and Inclusion and social cohesion, with a strong or very strong level of depth.

The implementation of the NDPSTP is dependent on a set of reforms, which aim to improve the strategic management of STP development in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines:

  • “Operationalization of new planning systems (…) through the implementation of a true management based on results”;

  • “Accelerate the implementation of the public finance reform action plan”;

  • “The development of a national action plan for the implementation of the Paris Declaration on the effectiveness of Public Development Assistance and the Strengthening of Coordination with Technical and Financial Partners”;

  • “Consolidation of an information system to respond to information needs”.

Table 4 evaluates the alignment of the NDPSTP with the aforementioned UN Agenda 2030 guidelines.

ODS Level of depth Score Depth of index (%)
0 1 2 3 4 5
Eradicate poverty x 3 3,16
Eradicate hunger x 2 2,11
Quality health x 4 4,21
Quality education x 3 3,16
Gender equality x 4 4,21
Clean water and Sanitation x 3 3,16
Renewable and affordable energy x 3 3,16
Decent work and economic growth x 4 4,21
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure x 3 3,16
Reduce Inequalities x 4 4,21
Sustainable cities and communities x 2 2,11
Sustainable production and consumption x 4 4,21
Climate action x 3 3,16
Protect marine life x 0 0,00
Protect life on earth x 4 4,21
Peace, justice and effective institutions x 5 5,26
Partnerships to implement the objectives x 4 4,21
Means of implementation x 3 3,16
Means of monitoring x 4 4,21
Total 62 65,26

Table 4.

Alignment of NDPSTP in compliance with UN guidelines.

Considering Table 4 , the NDPSTP presents a depth index of 65.26% in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines. This situation must be improved, focusing on deepening the following areas: eradicating hunger and poverty, sustainable cities and communities and protecting marine life. Other SDGs have an average depth level, and there is still a very large margin for progression.

4.3 Strategic plan for sustainable development of the autonomous region of Príncipe - Príncipe 2030

The Autonomous Region of Príncipe must address the following constraints in order to achieve its development:

People - Low number of teachers at all levels, Insufficient offer of professional training opportunities, poor coverage of the health system, limited social protection policy and gender equality policies, difficulty in preserving material and immaterial heritage, dependence on the community International;

Planet - Use of non-renewable (“dirty”) energy sources, limited access to drinking water and sanitation, lack of public engagement in protecting and conserving the environment and good practices, inadequate waste collection and deposition and reduced recycling, use of products harmful to the environment, uncontrolled exploitation of natural resource areas, negative impact of climate change;

Prosperity - Persistence of non-responsible tourism investments, lack of promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation, deficient airport infrastructure, lack of investment in renewable energies, limited training of tourist agents, inadequate employment conditions, limited digitalization of the island;

Peace and Partnership - Lack of proximity policies for law enforcement officers to communities, perfectable justice system, limited promotion of Public-Private Partnerships, lack of training and continuous training, difficult mobilization of financial resources for investment, lack of harmonization of financing in order to avoid duplication of actions;

Planning - Deficient accountability system and associated regulatory environment, insufficient understanding of responsibilities on the part of institutions, limited institutional articulation, little understanding of the mechanisms for validating, implementing, monitoring and evaluating plans and projects, lack of regional cartography and registration, failure to integrate the profile of the regional demographic dividend in the planning process.

The vision that we intend to have on Príncipe in 2030, is as follows: “Until 2030, Príncipe Island, a global biosphere reserve, is an international reference for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, inclusive and resilient to climate change, for through conciliation between responsible tourism and the green and blue economy, guaranteeing people’s quality of life “, based on the following values:“ Sustainability, Inclusion, Resilience, Innovation, Efficiency, Participation, Transparency and Justice “.

Of the seventeen SDGs stipulated by the UN Agenda 2030, ARP established ten of these strategic objectives as a priority, to be achieved in a period of 10 years, materializing in:

Environmental Sustainability - Protect, restore and promote the sustainable and responsible management and use of land and marine resources. Stop and reverse the degradation of ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity;

Resilience to Climate Change - Adopt effective and efficient mitigation and adaptation measures to combat climate change and its impacts;

Responsible Tourism - Promote responsible and sustainable tourism, which generates decent jobs and economic diversification. Valuing local culture and products, with a positive impact on the environment, society and the prosperity of the island;

Green and Blue Economy - Promote responsible and sustainable investments and entrepreneurship, with a special focus on organic farming, agroforestry and fishing, enhancing decent employment and local value chains.

Quality of Life for All - Ensure social inclusion, security and universal health coverage, promoting equitable opportunities;

Resilient Infrastructures - Develop collective, quality, reliable, sustainable, intelligent, integrated and resilient infrastructures and equipment that promote social well-being, economic development and better connectivity between the island and the world;

Innovation and Funding - Foster innovation and ensure inclusive and quality education, training local human resources to ensure personal fulfillment and the sustainable development of the island;

Participatory Planning - Implement participatory policies, plans, legal and monitoring frameworks for sustainable and inclusive socio-economic and territorial development;

Transparent Governance - Ensure participatory, efficient, open and transparent governance that promotes access to information and legal certainty;

Financing for Development - Mobilize financial resources through national, international and public-private partnerships. Generate endogenous revenues and ensure transparent and efficient financial management.

With regard to sustainability parameters, the Príncipe plan was assessed as follows ( Table 5 ).

Dimensions Elements Level of depth
Doesn’t exist Very Weak Weak Reasonable Strong Very strong
Sustainability Stakeholders involvement x
Economic Prosperity x
Social inclusion and cohesion x
Social justice x
Connectivity with the world x
Bringing man closer to nature x
Territorial resilience x
Innovation and creativity x
Scientific and Technological I&D x

Table 5.

Evaluation of Príncipe plan 2030.

Taking into account Table 5 , the Príncipe Plan 2030 presents some weaknesses in the sustainability criteria, since some elements need greater depth, namely: Economic prosperity, Social justice, scientific and technological R&D and Connectivity with the world.

The alignment of the Príncipe Plan 2030 in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030 is assessed as follows ( Table 6 ).

ODS Level of depth Score Depth of index (%)
0 1 2 3 4 5
Eradicate poverty x 4 4,21
Eradicate hunger x 3 3,16
Quality health x 4 4,21
Quality education x 4 4,21
Gender equality x 4 4,21
Clean water and Sanitation x 4 4,21
Renewable and affordable energy x 3 3,16
Decent work and economic growth x 2 2,11
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure x 3 3,16
Reduce Inequalities x 3 3,16
Sustainable cities and communities x 4 4,21
Sustainable production and consumption x 3 3,16
Climate action x 4 4,21
Protect marine life x 4 4,21
Protect life on earth x 4 4,21
Peace, justice and effective institutions x 2 2,11
Partnerships to implement the objectives x 4 4,21
Means of implementation x 4 4,21
Means of monitoring x 3 3,16
Total 66 69,47

Table 6.

Alignment of the prince plan 2030 with UN guidelines.

It was found that the Príncipe Plan 2030 has a depth index of 69.47% in compliance with the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines. This index was negatively influenced, essentially, by the lack of depth in the areas “Decent work and economic growth” and “Peace, justice and effective institutions. It is also noted that no SDGs earned the maximum score, which means that there is a high margin for progression.


5. Conclusions

From the comparative analysis between the strategic plans for sustainable development of Cape Verde, Santo Tomé and Príncipe and Ilha do Príncipe, it was possible to determine similarities and differences.

The main similarities between the plans correspond to participation and inclusion, a focus on tourism, good governance and good relations with development partners, the need to attract investment and measures of resilience and sustainability (environmental, social and economic).

Conversely, the plans show some differences, especially in areas that need more depth. The Cape Verde plan emphasizes the need to deepen institutional capacity, the institutional relationship with the outside world, define ways to communicate its attractions, boost its business fabric, invest in attracting qualified personnel abroad and determine ways to promote the territory.

In the case of the São Tomé and Príncipe plan, the weaknesses revealed were in the following areas: bet only on the qualification of public administration personnel and not on basic education; develop concrete policies to attract staff trained abroad and promote a wider range of emigrants in the development strategy, establish strategies for territorial promotion, not only bet on basic strategies, create measures to combat illiteracy and encourage adolescents to complete compulsory education, among others.

Likewise, the Príncipe Plan 2030 presents a set of points that need to be improved, namely the territorial promotion strategies as a brand, define more consistent attractions given the market’s competitiveness, promote entrepreneurship (social and business) and establish an instrument to monitor the Príncipe Plan 2030.

In addition, there were also some differences between the plans when assessing their alignment with the UN guidelines for sustainable development. It was found, through the depth index, that the Cape Verde plan is in line with 75.79% of the UN Agenda 2030 guidelines, while the São Tomé and Príncipe plan has a 65.26% index, and the Príncipe Plan 2030 the rate of 69.47%.

The depth index allows us to conclude that all the plans analyzed are positively aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals of the Agenda 2030, while identifying the elements that still have a wide margin for improvement.

In short, in order to enhance the sustainable development of these regions, it is recommended that the plans reinforce their performance, focusing in particular on the identified weaknesses.



Authors are grateful for the financial support from the Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P. (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) by the project UIDB/05064/2020 (VALORIZA - Research Center for Endogenous Resource Valorization).


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Written By

Deolésio Mendes, Ana José and Joaquim Mourato

Submitted: September 17th, 2020 Reviewed: December 2nd, 2020 Published: January 8th, 2021