The term “media” refers to all means for social media in your community news and non news, locale and national. In just over a decade, the influence of social media has evolved beyond being an amusing extra into a fully integrated part of almost every aspect of everyday life for many people. This chapter will discuss the changes within the mass media in the new century and cognize how the traditional media have evolved over the twenty-first century. Besides, it will identify how mass media personnel consider the audience an integral part of business concerns and recognize how mass media personnel consider the audience an integral part of business concerns. Morover, the chapter will highlight the relationship between mass media, innovation, and people. Over the past century, life span has significantly changed, and the advancement of media technology is a major reason for it. Compare a day in a contemporary onse’s life with a day in the life of someone from the old generation. Nowadays, there is smartphone, T.V, laptop, easy-to-access internet everywhere, while back in those days, it was almost impossible to find or to imagine having any of these decives.
- mass communication
- mass media
- scoical media
1. Contemporary mass-media
Conventional media covers all the means of communication that occurred before the Internet and technology of media, containing printed materials such as (newspapers, books, magazines), broadcast (T.V. and radio). On the other hand, new media, includes electronic video games and entertainment, and the Internet and social media, according to Andzulis .
Though various forms of mass media rise and fall in recognition, it is worthwhile to note that despite sizeable cultural and technological changes, none of the media discussed during this text has dropped out of use completely.
2. The impact of media on human’s life
Mass media stuff connects to the most intimate aspects of our life. Within our private situations, they still bind us to the universe. Mass media companies are therefore a major force within culture. They must dig deeper to discover how people use the media and what they understand cited in Duncan .
2.1 The Internet and social networking
It is nearly incomprehensible to overstate the impact the Internet has had on media across the previous two decades. At first conceived as an attack-proof military arrange within the 1960s, the Internet has since gotten to be an integral portion of everyday life. With the advancement of the World Wide Web within the 1980s and the presentation of commercial browsers within the 1990s, clients picked up the capacity to transmit pictures, sound, and video over the Internet. Companies rapidly started to capitalize on the modern innovation, propelling web browsers, advertising free web-based mail accounts, and giving web catalogs and look motors. Internet utilization developed quickly, from 50% of American grown-ups in 2000 to 75% of American grown-ups in 2008 . Presently that most of the industrialized world is online, the way we get our news, do trade, conduct inquire about, contact companions and relatives, apply for employments, and indeed observe T.V. has changed totally . For example, several jobs can presently be performed completely from home without the ought to travel to a central office. Meetings can be conducted through videoconference, written communication can happen through mail, and workers can access company information through a server or file transfer protocol (FTP) location .
Besides, to extending the speed with which we can get to information and the volume of information readily available, the Internet has incorporated a whole current evenhanded estimation to correspondence. Finding a workable pacemaker of a printed book may take various long periods of confused effort, however finding a good pace distributor of online material requires minimal more than the press of a catch. Much refreshing to Web based life, for example, web journals, long-range informal communication locales, and anyone can contribute considerations on the Internet. Web-based social networking has numerous focal points, including the immediate circulation of news, a wide range of viewpoints on a solitary occasion, and the capacity to speak with individuals everywhere throughout the globe. Albeit some industry investigators have since a long time ago anticipated that the Internet will render print media out of date, broad communications administrators accept papers will develop with the occasions. Similarly, as the radio business needed to reexamine its business technique during the ascent of T.V., paper experts should reconsider their strategies for content conveyance during the age of the Internet.
Nowadays Internet is used for watching news and getting the most up to date update and around the globe [6, 7]. A great deal of people goes to the Internet while grinding away or out home and it is being gotten to all around the globe. This is the explanation you would all news stations and papers have kept up segments and their own sites. These web journals likewise support openings for work for reporters and writers to put their articles and convey data to the great many individuals around the globe.
Vocation in news coverage is comprehensively at request and a huge number of understudies apply for different courses in mass correspondence every year. Because of the rising scramble for systems administration among understudies, a progression of establishments and reporting authority’s schools have opened in the significant towns.
Likewise, with all the satellite stations, a dash of Radio stations (F.M.) additionally have come up. Every metropolitan city of India has its diverse F.M. radio broadcasts where many radio racers are working. Print press has likewise gained amazing ground and loads of magazines and English, Hindi and local papers have come-up available.
Mass correspondence industry is not just confined to the limit of its nation yet has accomplished all inclusive. Furthermore, it covers the entirety of the latest updates and happenings around the globe [8, 9]. The other improvement in mass correspondence area is publicizing administrations. Many little and enormous publicizing offices have come up from the area and there are vocation prospects out there for mass correspondence graduates.
2.2 Current media versus old media
Innovations have evolved swiftly that administrators in conventional media organizations frequently cannot hold command over their substance. For instance, when music-sharing site Napster started empowering clients to trade free music documents over the Web, distributed record sharing cost the music business a fortune in lost Disc deals. Instead of gain by the innovation, music industry officials sued Napster, at last closing it down, yet never entirely figuring out how to get rid of online music robbery. Indeed, even with legitimate computerized music deals through online merchants, for example, Macintosh’s iTunes Store, the music business is as yet attempting to decide how to make an enormous enough benefit to remain in business.
The distributing business has additionally experienced the impacts of innovation (even though paper readership has been in deterioration since the appearance of T.V. furthermore, radio). At the point when papers started creating on the web forms because of rivalry from link T.V., they ended up facing another type of newscasting: novice blogging. At first expelled as inconsistent and one-sided, web journals, for example, day by day Kos and The Huffington Post have picked up validity and huge readerships over the previous decade, constraining conventional columnists to blog and tweet to keep pace (which permits less time to watch that sources are solid or include profundity examination to a story). Customary papers are likewise missing out to news aggregators, for example, Google News, which benefits from giving connects to writers’ accounts at significant papers without offering money related remuneration to either the columnists or the news associations. Numerous papers have adjusted to the Web out of need, battling falling course figures and drooping publicizing deals by offering sites, writes, and webcasts and creating reports in video structure. Those that had the foreknowledge to adjust to the innovation are breathing a murmur of help; a 2000–2015 Pew Research Center report found that more Americans get their news using the Web than from papers or radio sources, and that the Web is the third most famous news source behind national and nearby T.V. news.
New media has three significant focal points over conventional media. In the first place, it is quick, empowering customers to discover the most recent news, climate forecast, or stock costs at the dash of a catch. Computerized music can be downloaded in a split second, motion pictures can be requested through a link or satellite-on-request administrations, and books can be perused on tablets. In an undeniably quick-paced world, there is little need to hang tight for anything. The subsequent favorable position is cost. Most online substance is free, from web journals and person to person communication destinations to news and diversion sources. Regardless of whether peruses are eager to pay for content once they are accustomed to getting it for nothing is something that the New York Times set to discover in 2011, when it presents a metered expense model for its online paper. At long last, new media can arrive at the most remote pieces of the globe. For instance, if an understudy is searching for data about everyday life in Iran, there is a high likelihood that an individual site page about living in that nation exists some place on the Web. Around half of Europeans, three-fourths of Americans, and a little more than one-fourth of the total populace generally have Web access (Web World Stats). This far-reaching arrive to make the Web a perfect objective for publicists, who can speak with their ideal specialty crowds through GPS beacons, for example, profile data on long-range informal communication destinations .
3. Mass media, technology, and the community
At the point when the iPad went at a bargain in the US in April 2010, 36-year-old visual planner Josh Klenert depicted the gadget as “incredibly costly [and] way overrated .” The expense of the innovation, in any case, did not deflect Klenert from buying an iPad; he preordered the tablet P.C. when it was accessible and wandered down to Macintosh’s SoHo store in New York on opening end of the week to be one of the first to get it. Klenert, and every other person who remained in line at the Mac store during the underlying dispatch of the iPad, is depicted by sociologists as an early adopter: a tech-cherishing pioneer who is among the first to hold onto innovation when it shows up available. What makes an individual be an early adopter or a late adopter? What are the advantages of each? Right now, will find out about the pattern of innovation and how it is diffused in a general public. The procedure and variables impacting the dissemination of innovation is regularly talked about with regards to a dispersion model known as the innovation selection life cycle.
3.1 Mass media and new technology
As innovation comes to the racks and the quantity of early greater part buyers racing to buy it expands, broad communications outlets are compelled to adjust to the new medium. At the point when the iPad’s prominence kept on developing all through 2010 (selling 3,000,000 units inside 3 months of its dispatch date), customary papers, magazines, and T.V. systems raced to frame associations with Apple, propelling applications for the tablet so customers could legitimately get to their substance. Unconstrained by the constrained measure of room accessible in a physical paper or magazine, productions, for example, The New York Times and USA Today can incorporate more itemized detailing than they can fit in their customary paper, just as intelligent highlights, for example, crossword puzzles and the utilization of video and sound. “Our iPad Application is intended to exploit the developing capacities offered by the Internet” said Arthur Sulzberger Jr., distributer of The New York Times. “We consider our to be on the iPad as being like our customary print job—to go about as an astute, unprejudiced channel and to furnish our clients with data they require and can trust .”
Due to Apple’s choice to boycott streak (the prevailing programming for online video seeing) from the iPad, some conventional T.V. systems have been changing over their video documents to HTML5 to empower full T.V. scenes to be screened on the gadget. CBS and Disney were among the primary systems to offer free T.V. content on the iPad in 2010 through the iPad’s worked in internet browser, while ABC gushed its shows through an iPad application. The iPad has even figured out how to resuscitate types of customary media that had been stopped; in June 2010, Condé Nast declared the rebuilding of Gourmet magazine as an iPad application called Gourmet Live. As more media content opens on innovation, for example, the iPad, the iPod, and the different tablets accessible available, it advances to a more extensive scope of purchasers, turning into a self-propagating model.
4. Expansions of mass media and evolving trends
4.1 Characteristics of working in mass media that anyone needs to know
There are consistently special cases to deciding news line-ups. A nearby solid story will supersede national one, and a solid national one will override a universal one and so forth. For instance, the appointment of the President in the US, or an Executive in Australia, would ordinarily be so common over a catastrophic event in some underdeveloped nation. Albeit critical to the individuals and the nation managing the issue, it will be without significance to different countries somewhat, particularly when illuminating.
On the likelihood that you are not on a zone T.V., you scarcely start to expose what is underneath. Not to a huge segment of individuals, at any rate. What is more, if you are not on radio news, you are careless concerning an alternate crowd that turns on news radio when their chance on the start and drive to work. However, in advertising, there has constantly been an inclination toward papers.
Most experts who work right now, often begin as print journalists. Papers are likewise unmistakable. You can grasp the unmistakable story. You can even remove it with scissors and make photocopies or hit reorder and forward a story to your chief and collaborators .
It’s substantially harder to catch a sound clasp from a radio story, or a video clasp of a T.V. piece. Stations—particularly radio broadcasts—communicate throughout the day. They do not have the room or the free work to spare and chronicle each second and video .
Furthermore, it is valid, that papers ordinarily break stories that T.V. what is more, radio broadcasts at that point spread. It is not an incognito that radio and T.V. makers read the morning paper when they are searching for things to fill the day by day communicates and kill at some point.
Today, individuals can get their report from a huge number of various outlets. There are many outlets on paid T.V. also web radio. You can get to pretty much any paper you need online by the snap of your fingertips. Nowadays, when the whole country returns home from work, perusing the paper and turning on the T.V.
If one needs to arrive at in excess of a cut of the segment that you looked for, they need to get into papers, however radio, T.V., and the web, and so on. To have a bigger effect .
The new Pew Research Center examination on where individuals go to for news shows productive reliance on the Web, with a major spike in individuals announcing that they turn on their PDA to investigate news, climate, and sports.
Additionally, Detrani  revealed that they checked various sources, with 99% of Americans saying that on a run of the mill day, they check the report from at any rate one of the accompanying: on T.V., radio, in print, or Online.
T.V. is conspicuous, with 78% of Americans saying they watch nearby T.V. news and 73% getting their report from systems or link-news channels.
The Web is developing productively; 61% of individuals said they checked news on the Web. Radio 54% scarcely beat nearby papers 50% and national papers came in at 17% .
There is additionally a major switch toward online networking, which is presently a typical quality. Individuals are Twittering and Facebooking about stories. The general purpose of mass correspondence is arriving at the majority and attracting them. You could overwhelm the wireless radio transmissions yet miss practically a large portion of the populace—the equivalent with papers.
Nearby T.V. an incredible alternative, arriving at very nearly eight out of ten individuals. Be that as it may, it is multiple times harder to get inclusion on the T.V. news all things considered getting into papers, radio, or the web as cited in McQuail .
Today’s crowd being so divided methods any arrangement to get press inclusion needs to consider every contingency. You cannot send a similar public statement to each medium outlet and call it great. A discharge that’s the correct size for the paper is very long to peruse on the radio.
T.V. cannot run with plain words. There must be pictures, something appealing to the eyes.
To arrive at all of these various socioeconomics and types of media, need all the more concentrating on what is friendly to them all.
Newspapers need content and photographs.
Radio require live individuals in the studio or on the telephone, discussing an issue.
Television stations need more grounded images.
4.2 Evolving developments
As indicated by the Endless Dial study directed by Arbitron and Edison Exploration the Web has become the most significant vehicle just because by outperforming television. Being approached to need to choose Web and T.V. 49% of individuals offered an explanation to forsake television contradicted to 48% to desert the web. As well, most fascinating is the wide adaption of advanced media in autos by 24% of individuals utilizing mp3 regarding vehicle media according to Vivian and Maurin .
5. Simultaneous T.V./web usage jumps
In a sign that T.V. what’s more, the Web are beginning to combine in viewers’ cognizance, more people invested more time seeing the Web and T.V. in December 2017 than in June 2017 or December 2016, as indicated by the Three Screens Report from The Nielsen Corporation according to Wilkins and Christians .
In December 2017, 59% of Americans utilized T.V. furthermore, the Web all the while, contrasted with 56.9% in June 2017 and 57.5% in December 2016. On a year-over-year premise, support right now 2.7% as cited in Wilkins and Christians .
Tallying singular clients, 134,056 Americans utilized T.V. what’s more, the Web all the while in December 2017. This looks at to 128,047 in June 2017 and 128,167 in December 2016. On a year-over-year premise, the quantity of individuals utilizing T.V. furthermore, the web at the same time expanded 4.6%.
Nobody can question the mass arrive at that T.V. empowers, however the fact of the matter is the online channel is presently starting to offer that equivalent degree of crowd reach—yet with ostensibly better commitment and offers. Also, quite often at a progressively reasonable cost.
Clients are likewise investing more time online than any time in recent memory. It depends who’s discharging the report (e.g., Nielsen or an online distributer like Netflix and Hulu), however a few assessments show that online media consumption has now outperformed T.V. seeing. As revealed by MSNBC, this is unquestionably valid for adolescents and youthful grown-ups, with time invested online presently outperforming energy spent viewing T.V. or on the other hand chatting on the telephone referring to Wilkins and Christians .
Also, the promoters follow the eyeballs. Web based publicizing has been quickly infringing on conventional media’s part of the media blend pie throughout the previous quite a long while. What’s more, as per Forrester, spending on web-based publicizing is in truth set to overshadow T.V. spends by 2016 as cited in Duncan .
Furthermore, as indicated by a few examinations, these online watchers might be more connected with and have higher promotion review than those viewing T.V. advertisements. A similar report by Nielsen found that premium online video advertisements would do well to mark sway measurements than customary T.V. promotions, including brand review, message review, and affability.
Furthermore, a 2018 review by BrightRoll found that 70% of sponsors overviewed said that online video publicizing is similarly or more compelling than promotions on T.V. Besides, 87% said that video was more powerful than show publicizing. NewMediaRockstars.com gives this information and furthermore calls attention to the accomplishment of the viral YouTube crusade for Old Flavor. Also, clearly it worked—deals supposedly expanded by more than 100%.
Given the quick take-up of this medium, it’s evident that sponsors are seeing incredible incentive in publicizing with online video and grasping the period of associated T.V.
6. Modern media delivery: pros and cons
In October 2013, 17-year-old child-care girl Ashleigh Hall maybe a friendship with a handsome 19-year-man on Facebook. Ashleigh, from Darlington, England, and her new companion started chatting on the web. She exchanged phone numbers so they could message one another. The energized young girl to her new friend that she was going out with her new boyfriend, Pete, and that his dad would get her in his car. Sadly, Pete and his father were very much the same individual-convicted rapist Peter Chapman. The 33-year-old homeless sex offender utilized his Facebook alter ego (which included photos of an obscure high school kid) to draw Ashleigh to a confined area, where he assaulted and killed her. Chapman was captured by chance not long after the occasion, and in court he confessed to hijack, assault, and murder.
Ashleigh’s awful story shows a few weaknesses of present-day media conveyance: obscurity and untrustworthiness. Albeit person to person communication locales, for example, Facebook are an advantageous method to make new connections and reconnect with old companions, it is implausible of knowing whether clients are who they guarantee to be, leaving individuals (especially receptive adolescents) powerless against online predators. Since a great part of the substance on the web is unregulated, this absence of dependability traverses the whole online range, from reports and Wikipedia articles to bogus publicizing claims and deceitful cheats on sites, for example, Craigslist.
Be that as it may, current media can likewise work to prepare endeavors to stop wrongdoing. The famous NBC television arrangement Dateline: To Catch a Predator followed police specialists who utilized Web talk rooms to distinguish potential kid molesters. Acting like youthful adolescents, cops went into visit rooms and took an interest in discussions with different clients. On the off chance that a grown-up client started a sexual discourse and communicated enthusiasm for meeting the teenager for sexual purposes, the police set up a sting activity, getting the eventual pedophile in the demonstration. In cases, for example, these, the fast transmission of data and the worldwide idea of the web made it feasible for crooks to be caught .
6.1 Advantages of modern media
On the off chance that Ashleigh’s story features the absolute most harmful parts of current media, the brisk scattering of news and data are the absolute most helpful parts of the Internet. As we noted before in the part, speed can be a colossal preferred position of online media conveyance. At the point when a report breaks, it very well may be conveyed quickly through RSS channels and by means of many significant outlets, empowering individuals everywhere throughout the world to find out about a breaking report insignificant minutes after it occurs.
When a Web client has paid for a month to month specialist organization, the greater part of the substance Online is free, permitting individuals access to a boundless abundance of data by means of news sites, web indexes, catalogs, and home pages for various subjects extending from cooking tips to sports random data. At the point when this data turned out to be promptly accessible at the pinch of a catch, numerous writers and innovation specialists composed articles asserting the data over-burden was terrible for people’s wellbeing. Fears that the innovation would cause a lack of ability to concentrate consistently clutter, stunt people’s thinking, and harm their capacity to sympathize raised by some exceptionally regarded productions, including The Hours of London and The New York Times. In any case, there is no steady proof that the web causes mental issues; actually, measurements show that individuals who utilize long range interpersonal communication destinations have better disconnected public activities, and individuals who play PC games are better at engrossing and responding to data than the individuals who do not, and they experience no loss of exactness or expanded indiscretion . As Vaughan Chime calls attention to in his article about the historical backdrop of media alarms, “Worries about data over-burden are as old as data itself, with every age rethinking the perilous effects of innovation on psyche and mind .”
Notwithstanding velocity, reach, and cost, online media conveyance empowers a more extensive scope of voices and points of view regarding any matter. Through nontraditional media, for example, web journals and Twitter, individuals can put their very own inclination on recent developments, mainstream society, and issues that are essential to them without feeling obliged to stay unbiased. An investigation by the Pew Research Center found that nontraditional media sources report on a more extensive assortment of stories than conventional media, empowering singular destinations to build up their own character and voice. The examination additionally found that these online sources center around a profoundly passionate topic that can be customized by the journalists and partook in the social discussion [3, 17]. By opening web journals and web-based social networking destinations to online conversation or discussion, bloggers empower peruses to produce their own substance, diverting crowds from uninvolved customers into dynamic makers. Right now, turns into a common procedure instead of a single direction—the blogger posts an opinion, a reader remarks on the blogger’s opinion, the blogger at that point assesses the reader’s opinion and updates their viewpoint in like manner, and the procedure rehashes itself until an issue has been thoroughly investigated. Numerous bloggers additionally give connects to different online journals they bolster or appreciate perusing, empowering thoughts with legitimacy to channel through different channels on the web.
6.2 Disadvantages of modern media
Alongside a developing number of online predators distorting themselves on long range informal communication locales, the web is answerable for a lot of different kinds of falsehood flowing the Internet. Except if clients can recognize dependable, fair-minded sources and accurate data, they may end up devouring off base news reports or bogus reference book passages. Indeed, even purported solid news sources are dependent upon incidental mistakes with their source material. At the point when French writer Maurice Jarre kicked the bucket in 2009 at 84 years old, Irish human science and financial aspects understudy Shane Fitzgerald chose to attempt an investigation with Wikipedia. He added anecdotal statements to Jarre’s Wikipedia passage and afterward looked as papers around the world (counting respectable sources, for example, The Gatekeeper) replicated his statements in the same words and ascribed them to the writer. Humiliated columnists were later compelled to address their blunders by withdrawing the statements. Composing a subsequent report for The Irish Occasions, Fitzgerald remarked, “If I could so effectively adulterate the news over the globe, even to this little degree, at that point it is startling to consider what other bogus data might be accounted for in the press .”
Albeit most customary media take a stab at nonpartisanship, numerous more up to date online sources are intensely conservative or left-wing. With sites, for example, the Huffington Post on the left of the political range and the Day laborer Report on the right, buyers should know when they are perusing news with an ideological inclination. Pundits dread the pattern toward Internet-based life sources may prompt the limitation of the development of thoughts. If purchasers pick their media circle only predictable with their own political inclinations, they will be constrained to a restricted political perspective.
Alongside practical drawbacks, the web likewise has a few financial hindrances. An expanding hole between individuals who can manage the cost of PCs and access to the Internet and individuals who cannot, known as the advanced gap, isolates those who are well off and the poor. Albeit around 75% of US family units are associated with the web, there are holes in access as far as age, salary, and instruction. For instance, an ongoing report found that 93% of individuals matured 18–29 have Web get to, contrasted and 70% of individuals matured 50–64 and only 38% of individuals more than 65 . Comparative variations happen with salary and training.
These aberrations imply that individuals with lower wages and instructive levels are off guard with regards to getting to online employment postings, data, news, and PC related aptitudes that may help them in the work environment. The computerized partition is considerably progressively conspicuous among created and creating nations. In countries, for example, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, the administration allows almost no entrance to the web. In different nations, for example, Mexico, Brazil, and Columbia, inadequate media communications framework powers clients to stand by amazingly awkward time spans to get on the web. Furthermore, in many creating nations that have poor open utilities and discontinuous electrical help, the web is practically incredible. In spite of its enormous populace, the whole landmass of Africa represents under 5% of Web utilization worldwide.
This chapter pinpoints the issue of contextualizing of social media and describes its implication of the individuals. With the instant satisfaction and expediency offered by the raising fields of social media, social reporting, blogging, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, increasing demand for new technology and new forms of mass communication will have a decisive impact upon both the consumers and producers of mass media.
It is today’s mass communication substance that must adapt and function with each of the new technological changes that emerge from such a dynamic field of study. While we may now just be getting a look of what the future of mass communication might be, the fundamental concept of mass communication—the ability to convey something to a large number of people in the most expedient and efficient way possible; to understand and be understood—always has been, and always will be the core of the process.
Networks and social orders are consistently needing usable and productive intends to pass on data . Mass correspondence is the development of this need. We characterize the mass correspondence as the mutual exchange of messages through the media or innovation-driven channels to an enormous number of beneficiaries, you can without much of a stretch to recognize the various types of mass correspondence you depend on in your own, scholarly, and proficient lives as cited in Wilkins and Christians .
These incorporate print, sound-related, visual, intuitive media, and online life structures. A moderately late mass correspondence marvel known as mass-individual correspondence joins mass correspondence channels with relational correspondence and connections, where people are presently accessing innovation that permits them to contact enormous crowds. Online networking accomplishes work, It is difficult for a business as it very well may be costly [19, 20]. The expense of not utilizing it is an excessive amount to pay. Business chiefs that “do social media” will pick up turnover, companions, faithful clients, benefits, resource worth, and regard.
Post connects to the posts, data, and substance on a business four online life outlets’ that individuals (potential and genuine purchasers) can skim between them flawlessly. There is a streaming site to internet-based life and back and advances. It is a data flow that gets clients in transit like an enrolling digital drive. It is all allowed to utilize—cash in vain from new Internet-based life companions (clients). Web-based life is not private. Google lists everything. Ensure that the business posts solitary uplifting news. Designate somebody in the association to screen web-based life consistently. Plan B is to designate a P.R. Firm to do it expertly.
Utilizing Internet-based life in advertising is something that numerous individuals do not realize they have to know, until they find out about it! Investigate. Start today by discovering progressively about utilizing Online networking to create cash.