Open access peer-reviewed chapter


Written By

Muthuraman Yuvaraj, Venkatesan Yuvaraj, Venugopal Arunkumar, Muthaiyan Pandiyan and Kizhaeral Sevathapandian Subramanian

Submitted: June 29th, 2019 Reviewed: March 27th, 2020 Published: July 29th, 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.92290

From the Edited Volume

Biochemical Toxicology

Edited by Muharrem Ince, Olcay Kaplan Ince and Gabrijel Ondrasek

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The nanomaterials resembling nanotubes, nanospheres, nanofertilizer, nanoherbicide, nanoinsecticide, and nanosheets have the physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Still, the nanoparticles have very minute dimensions, enormous area and high reactivity they need the potential ability to penetrate in living cells quite rapidly. The petite size nanoparticles contain lofty surface area may cause higher reactivity with nearby particles. It is broadly predictable that there is a critical need for more information and facts about the implications of manufactured nanomaterials on personal fitness and surroundings. Concerns about potential risks to health that may arise during the making, management, use, and discarding of these nanomaterials have been spoken over the past few years. Consequently, strong research action is being undertaken in various institutions, and industries across the world to appraise their toxicity and spread of nanoparticle.


  • nanoparticle
  • issues of nanoparticles size
  • hazardous nanoparticles
  • guidelines
  • environment safety

1. Introduction

The possible risks to health from nanomaterials can be cheap by safe management and organization of the disclosure. Even as no sole part of direction can offer an ultimate, step-by-step advance to safe usage of all nanomaterials in all situations, there are some universal and exact best carry out guides that can be used in nearly all applications [1]. Nanotechnologies have speedy promoted the occasion a substitute making of smart innovative goods and processes have created an unbelievable increase latent for a huge number of industry sectors. The current dispute on the risks of nanotechnologies tends to specialize in the potential dangers of nanoparticles. A growing interest in the production and application of nanoparticles has been generated the need for appropriate safety measures [2, 3].

The protection issues with nanoparticles are not incredibly fine identified but they are possible for threat is obvious owing to the high exterior area-to-volume ratio, which can create the particles especially hasty or catalytic movement. The understanding of in what way nanomaterials relate to the alive system is imperfect [4, 5]. A toxicological study has been generated a great contract in order on the affiliation among the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles and their difficult effect on our fitness. These artificial nanoparticles comprise nanotubes, fullerenes, nanowires, quantum dots and diverse nanoparticles used for drug release and analysis. Due to their odd shapes and high reactivity, their effect on the metabolism cannot simply be predicted [6].

The inhaled nanoparticle can be deposited all through the human respiratory tract and lungs. Nanoparticles can be transferred in the lungs to added organs such as the brain, liver and maybe the fetus in pregnant women [7, 8]. Nanoparticles can get into the body during the surface of the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal system. This force helps make free radicals, which may cause a cell to injure and break to deoxyribonucleic acid. Besides, these can pass through cell membranes in organisms and may interact with biological systems [9, 10].


2. Nano hazard identification

The detection of nano hazards is that the starts to decide risk and contact. This step involves typical nanomaterials and their connected processes that source destructive. When assessing the risks coupled with nanomaterials, particular care must be taken to spot the specific achievement of surface chemistry, shape, size and morphology on toxicity caused to diverse organs. The successive key hazard categories could also be measured when assessing risk linked to nanomaterials [11, 12] (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Diagram of the projected safety plan.

2.1 Surface charge

The leading exciting chemistry characteristic of nanoparticle about toxicity is that the surface charge, with toxicity rising contained by the subsequent way: neutral < anionic < cationic.

2.2 Surface chemistry

The surface chemistry of nanoparticles may require a duty inside the age group of free radicals, which influences the broad surface reactivity and toxicity of ingested particles [13].

2.3 Particle shape

Studies have recognized that contact with leathery particles like amphibole will boost the carcinogenic effect. Correspondingly the tubular formation of carbon nanotubes is supposed to cause inflammation and lesions in the lungs [14].

2.4 Particle size

Nanoparticles will go through the membrane barriers ensuing in critical compensation for occurrence particularly silver nanoparticles with size <9 nm can enter the nuclear membrane of certain human cells nucleus and cause major deoxyribonucleic acid mutation [15, 16]. Weakly soluble inhaled nanoparticles will basis aerobic stress, leading to inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Several research reported that considerably higher toxicity of nano metals as compared to nanoceramics that have been recognized to higher suspension rate in water [17, 18].


3. Finest practice to be pursued while using nanoparticles

3.1 Hygiene

Do not eat or store food and beverages in a nanotechnology laboratory. Do not use mouth suction for pipetting or siphoning. Wash hands regularly to reduce nanoparticle exposure during intake and dermal contact. Remove gloves when exiting the laboratory, so as not to infect doorknobs, or when handling common use objects such as phones, multiuser computers, etc.

3.2 Labeling and signage

Store in a well-sealed container, preferably one that can be opened with minimal agitation of the contents. Label all chemical containers with the identity of the contents. Hazard warning and chemical concentration information should also be included if known. Apply cautious decision when leaving operations unattended: (i) Post signs to communicate appropriate warnings and precautions, (ii) anticipate potential equipment and facility failures, and (iii) provide appropriate suppression for chance release of hazardous chemicals [19].

3.3 Clean-up measures and spills

Specifically, watch out for exposure during cleaning operations. Wear gloves and work in a fume hood while handling nanoparticle and clean the fume hood afterward. If needed, monitor the lab air nanomaterial concentrations during clean-up. Wear respiration protection when working outside a fume hood or in an open fume hood and consider overall protection [20, 21]. Materials and surfaces can be cleaned by following techniques like wiped with a wet cloth where possible, rinsing off the cloth with water or disposing of it. The vacuum cleaner is equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air filter. Monitor the exhaust of the vacuum cleaner during operation. A malfunctioning filter can increase the exposure by dispersing the nanomaterial in the air. High-efficiency particulate air filtered vacuum cleaners with a combination of wet wiping is more suitable for most nanomaterial clean-up [22, 23]. Energetic cleaning methods such as dry cleaning or the use of compressed air should be prohibited [24]. Collect spill cleanup materials in a tightly closed container. The nanoparticle spill kit containing the following items Barricade tape, Latex or nitrile gloves, Adsorbent material, Wipes, Sealable plastic bags, Walk-off mat [25].


4. Strategy for functioning with nanomaterials

Use sensible general laboratory safety practices as found in your chemical hygiene set up. Do not handle nanoparticles with your bare skin. If it is necessary to handle nanoparticle powders outside of a high-efficiency particulate air filtered to maintain exhaust streamline flow hood. Lab equipment and exhaust systems should also be evaluated before removal, remodeling, or repair [26, 27]. Given the differing artificial ways and experimental goals, no blanket recommendation will be created concerning aerosol emissions controls. Consideration should tend to the high reactivity of some nanopowder materials about potential fire and explosion hazards [28].


5. Constant monitoring of lab air

The nanoparticle detector should be installed in every lab, in which gas-phase work on nanoparticles is passed out and where the capacity of nanoparticulate material exceeds a certain limit. We advocate a limit of 1 μg/h. An instrument of this kind is commercially available as a Joint Length Monitor. This unit contains a size parting mechanism so particles <0, 1 μm area unit mostly detected [29].


6. Discarding of nanoparticles

The quantities of nanoparticles like powders, colloids exceeding the milligram range should be treated as chemical if the particle solubility in water is very small (inorganics like gold, titanium oxide). If the solubility is higher, the principles consistent with the toxicity class of the macroscopic material apply. Nanoparticle residues in water from cleaning can be poured down the drain [30] (Table 1).

Waste nanomaterialPre-treatmentContainmentLevel of engineering controlsDisposal method
Dust nanoparticlesMoistenDoubleInside a local exhausted aeration enclosure or glove boxBurning
Infected solidsMoisten if necessaryDouble bag plastic, sealableInside a local exhausted aeration enclosure or glove boxBurning
Fluid solutionsProcess solvent-soluble with the solvent waste stream. Aggregate nanoparticle will get dissolved and form ionsDrip tray or funnel vial or container or drip trayInside a local exhausted aeration enclosureBurning mix with solid waste. Burn either mix with other soluble waste or dilute to drain if appropriate
Nanomaterial bound in resin or polymerAs for liquid solutions or packages a nanomaterial in a solid matrix not friableSingle containment or double containment if liquid.General aerationBurning or licensed landfill
Nanomaterial in a solid matrix but friableMoistenDouble containmentInside a local exhausted aeration enclosureBurning or licensed landfill
Nanomaterial in a solid matrix not friableNoneSingle containmentGeneral aerationBurning or licensed landfill

Table 1.

Handling and Disposal of Waste Nanomaterial.


7. Transport of nanoparticle

  • Safe handling of nanomaterials and normal operation procedures

  • To check the hazards and toxicity of nanoparticle

  • Personal protective equipment to be kept

  • Engineering controls and equipment maintenance

  • Description of nanoparticles should be known

  • Environmental release, shipping, customer protection

  • Exposure monitoring

  • Applicable regulation

  • Labeling and handling of nanomaterials waste


8. Working place with nanoparticle

When handle nanomaterials in solutions or close substrates to reduce airborne release. While working with nanomaterials in liquids it must avoid dispersal of the liquid by operating through a spill instrumentality. Wear gloves that are suited for the liquid being handled. Avoid the dispersion of liquid droplets within the workplace air and directly close up spills, before evaporation or further spreading occurs. While working with nanomaterials in gas phase reactors add a closed reaction vessel, preferably around atmospheric or lower than atmospheric pressure [31, 32]. Make aware leak checks among runs once operating with systems under positive pressure adjust the quality safety rules for controlled vessels and place the vessel into an interior safety vessel. Clean all parts that are in touch with nanoparticles and spills after using suitable safety [33, 34].


9. Development and usage of nanomaterials

Nanomaterials must be stored and transported in sealed shatter-resistant containers. The containers must be labeled with nanomaterial or composition and near particle size, along with any known hazard warnings. Weighing and measuring of dry powders where aerosolization and discharge of nanomaterials are possible should be conducted in clear and closed areas [25]. Different processing steps such as dispersing, mixing, spraying, machining, gas-phase processing have the potential to make nanoparticles with a high concentration. Employing a closed facility to process nanomaterials will considerably reduce occupational exposure during the assembly and processing stages. Particular care to be taken to avoid disturbance of the closed liquid medium to avoid dust scattering and thus disclosure through inhalation [35, 36]. Removal of waste and by-products generated at the assembly facility should be administered with minimum exposure to humans and therefore the environment.


10. The behavior of nanopowders in the food industry

Nanotechnologies propose a diversity of possible for relevance in different areas of food technology that comprise packaging, processing, quality and shelf life, ingredients and additives. The complexity in characterizing assorted nanomaterials used the food industry and biological systems incomplete information on toxicology and lack optimal test methods the risk appraisal and supervision of nanotechnologies harder [37, 38]. A preventive advance with detailed life cycle estimation and strongly required procedures to stakeholders connecting for diverse activities as formulating best practices that will support the growth of nanotechnology in the food sector for regulating the potential risk to humans and the environment. Humans are exposed to nanomaterials using oral way during the residues present in cultivated crops, meat, and milk produced for consumption further oral contact is most significant in food processing technology and functional foods. Nanomaterial exposure from food packaging is mostly dermal, arising from the usage of such materials [39, 40].

11. Conclusions

The nanotechnology is an enables gifted technology its vast marvelous future applications. Conversely, there are a few drawbacks for example toxicity of the soil, ecological harm and human organ damage caused by nanoparticles. The vital significance provides to contain nanosafety into the occasion of novel nanotechnologies and find products of nanosafety before making a design. It has been at present identified that some engineered nanomaterials will present new and abnormal risks, but there is very little information on how these risks can be recognized, assessed and proscribed. In distinction, good working hygiene practices and existing knowledge on operational with dangerous substances provide a useful source for working safely with nanomaterials. Further, investigate to be conducted for nanosafety and discarding of the nanoparticle. Finally, in the future, many types of nanoparticles may turn out to be of less toxicity but preventative measures should be used while handling particle.


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Written By

Muthuraman Yuvaraj, Venkatesan Yuvaraj, Venugopal Arunkumar, Muthaiyan Pandiyan and Kizhaeral Sevathapandian Subramanian

Submitted: June 29th, 2019 Reviewed: March 27th, 2020 Published: July 29th, 2020