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Introductory Chapter: CO2 Sequestration

Written By

Leidivan A. Frazão, Junio C. Silva and Adriana M. Silva-Olaya

Submitted: November 14th, 2019 Published: July 22nd, 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91747

From the Edited Volume

CO2 Sequestration

Edited by Leidivan Almeida Frazão, Adriana Marcela Silva-Olaya and Junio Cota Silva

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1. Introduction

The Special Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] revealed that recent trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the level of international ambition indicated by nationally determined contributions, within the Paris Agreement, deviate from a track consistent with limiting warming to well below 2°C. This will require a drastic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and thereafter removal of carbon from the atmosphere in large quantities. The IPPC reports found that many climate models can only meet the two-degree Celsius goal when carbon removal strategies are included among the potential policy options.

There are several strategies to promote carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration by agriculture and industry. So, it is necessary to evaluate the methodologies that have been used and to understand the gaps to achieve more sustainable production systems.

In agriculture, the management of agricultural systems that promote soil carbon sink depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock [2]. As the soil carbon fluxes vary according to environmental and anthropogenic driving factors [3], soil carbon sequestration can be a short-term solution of reducing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

In addition to agronomic practices, several effective methods of carbon capture and storage (CCS) have been proposed to reduce the amount of emitted CO2 in the atmosphere. Adsorption processes can be performed using activated carbon [4] where the adsorptive process can use adsorbents derived from low-cost agro-wastes. Another way to reduce CO2 emission into the atmosphere is by capturing CO2 from the flue gases and storing that in deep geological formations [5]. The CCS provides financial offsets in terms of CO2 sequestration cost.

Therefore, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art about the strategies that contribute to reducing GHG emissions and promote CO2 sequestration by agricultural techniques and carbon capture and storage.

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2. Opportunities and challenges for CO2 sequestration

Several studies have indicated the storage in biomass, soils, adsorption processes, and geological formations as viable techniques for CO2 sequestration. All these technologies have the potential to mitigate global warming and climate change [2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Improving agricultural land management techniques is an efficient way to increase carbon uptake and storage. Strategies to ensure soil carbon sequestration can be obtained through the adoption of different agronomic management practices [2]. Land use with grassland species can also maintain and increase soil organic carbon storage over time [7]. Other studies have reported that land use with perennial crops can also be adopted to promote CO2 sequestration in biomass, and soil is the main component storing the highest amount of carbon in these agroecosystems [8, 9].

Carbon removal can also be achieved through the technology of adsorption on activated carbon from low-cost raw material. Agricultural and forestry residues or biomass residue wastes could be used as suitable raw materials for the production of activated carbon [10]. Furthermore, CCS by geological sequestration is another technological form for carbon removal and can be applied to different industries [5].

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3. Perspectives

As the population is growing around the world and indirectly contributes to global warming, several efforts have been made to mitigate GHG emissions. So, the adoption of CO2 sequestration technologies in the agricultural and industrial sectors has become essential to reduce the impacts of global warming and climate change.

References

  1. 1. International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In: Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner HO, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR, et al., editors. Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty. 2018. Available from: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/06/SR15_Full_Report_High_Res.pdf
  2. 2. Lal R. Digging deeper: A holistic perspective of factors affecting soil organic carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Global Change Biology. 2018;24:3285-3301
  3. 3. Stockmann U, Adams M, Crawford JW, Field DJ, Henakaarchchia N, Jenkins M, et al. The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013;164:80-90
  4. 4. Mohammad SS, Wan Mohd Ashri WD, Amirhossein H, Ahmad S. A review on surface modification of activated carbon for carbon dioxide adsorption. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2010;89:143-151
  5. 5. Mosleh MH, Sedighi M, Babaei M, Turner M. Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. In: Letcher TM, editor. Managing Global Warming: An Interface of Technology and Human Issues. London, United Kingdon: Academic Press (Elsevier); 2019. pp. 487-500
  6. 6. Vaughan NE, Gough N, Mander S, Littleton EW, Welfle A, Gernaat DEHJ, et al. Evaluating the use of biomass energy with carbon capture and storage in low emission scenarios. Environmental Research Letters. 2018;13:044014. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aaaa02
  7. 7. Hungate BA, Barbier EB, Ando AW, Marks SP, Reich PB, van Gestel N, et al. The economic value of grassland species for carbon storage. Science Advances. 2017;3:e1601880. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601880
  8. 8. Leblanc HA, Russo RO. Carbon sequestration in an oil palm crop system (Elaeis guineensis) in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 2008;121:52-54
  9. 9. Mohammed AM, Robinson JS, Midmore D, Verhoef A. Carbon storage in Ghanaian cocoa ecosystems. Carbon Balance and Management. 2016;11(6). DOI: 10.1186/s13021-016-0045-x
  10. 10. Kaghazchi T, Soleimani M. Effect of raw materials on properties of activated carbons. Chemical Engineering and Technology. 2006;29:1247-1251. DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200500298

Written By

Leidivan A. Frazão, Junio C. Silva and Adriana M. Silva-Olaya

Submitted: November 14th, 2019 Published: July 22nd, 2020