Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Municipal Solid Waste Management and the Inland Water Bodies: Nigerian Perspectives

Written By

Akindayo A. Sowunmi

Submitted: September 24th, 2018 Reviewed: February 4th, 2019 Published: May 22nd, 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84921

Chapter metrics overview

1,794 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

Abstract

Municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, natural transformation, dynamics and impacts on inland water bodies in Nigeria were examined, using dumpsites and landfills as the common markers. Nigeria is estimated to have over 178.5 million people and kg/capita/day of 0.26–1.02 MSW, projected to increase with the expansion of the economy which is in need of better articulated MSW management strategies. The enormous natural inland surface and groundwater resources are daily challenged directly and indirectly, through decline in physical, chemical and biological quality. Solid waste disposal along the waterways and leachates from natural activities on materials at dumpsites and landfills was strongly identified and recognized as the source of pollutant inputs. The immediate and projected public health consequences in changes in inland waters were provided for resident aquatic organisms, some of which serves as food for resident human populations that are largely dependent on these water bodies for their daily water requirements.

Keywords

  • Nigeria
  • inland water bodies
  • municipal solid wastes
  • water quality
  • public health

1. Introduction

Municipal solid wastes (MSW) refer to all wastes generated, collected, transported and disposed of within the jurisdiction of a municipal authority. In most cases, it comprises mainly food waste, discarded materials from residential areas, street sweepings, commercial and institutional nonhazardous wastes as well as (in some countries) construction and demolition waste.

MSW has been variously described as aggregation of unwanted materials generated from a range of human-related activities denominated from domestic to production. The origin of what is regarded as MSW can be closely associated with the earliest attempts by humans to transit from migrant to settler modes of living, which imposed the need to modify or change the character of raw or primary materials available to support or sustain the new modes of living and originating human activity.

Nigeria is the dominant country in West Africa, accounting for 47% of West Africa’s population, with gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average rate of 5.7% per year between 2006 and 2016, facilitated by volatile oil prices to a highest of 8% in 2006 and lowest of −1.5% in 2016; Human Development Index value also increased by 13.1% between 2005 and 2015 [1]. However, the country continues to face massive developmental challenges including, but not limited to, human development indicators and the living conditions of the population. Last collected in 2012 by the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, the total population of citizens in Nigeria was around 166.2 million people. In 2016, it was estimated to have over 178.5 million people although the United Nations’ projections have placed the population as high as 186 million.

While MSW is generally associated with urbanization, recent developments in manufacturing processes have lowered the cost of production, enhancing the ability of manufacturers to produce goods that captures different income groups in population. The resultant effects are that areas hitherto considered as rural areas now experience both technological and economic penetrations. These penetrations will be accompanied by the penetration of MSW problems, hitherto restricted to urban centres. The developmental pressure experienced by major Nigeria cities has precipitated the upsurge in establishment of satellite towns, with attendant increase in human activity range and hence of waste generation.

Nigeria is considered one of the countries endowed with appreciable natural water resources in the world with the presence of the Niger River which is the third largest in Africa [2]. Natural water resources in Nigeria include enormous yearly rainfall, large surface bodies of water of rivers, streams and lakes, as well as in abundant reservoirs of underground water whose extent and distribution have not been fully assessed. The country is well drained with a reasonably close network of rivers and streams (Figure 1). Some of these rivers, particularly the smaller ones, are, however, seasonal, especially in the northern parts of the country where the rainy season is only 3 or 4 months in duration. In addition, there are natural water bodies like lakes, ponds as well as lagoons, particularly in the coastal areas [3, 4, 5]. The hydrology of Nigeria is dominated by two great river systems, the Niger-Benue and the Chad systems. With the exception of a few rivers that empty directly into the Atlantic Ocean (Cross River, Ogun, Oshun, Imo, Qua Iboe and a few others), all other flowing waters ultimately find their way into the Chad Basin or down the lower Niger to the sea. Nigeria lies between longitudes 2° 49′E and 14° 37′E and latitudes 4° 16′N and 13° 52′ North of the equator. The climate is tropical, characterized by high temperatures and humidity as well as marked wet and dry seasons, though there are variations between south and north. Total rainfall decreases from the coast northwards. The south (below latitude 8°N) has an annual rainfall ranging between 1500 and 4000 mm and the extreme north between 500 and 1000 mm.

Figure 1.

Inland surface water resources of Nigeria (Source: [3, 4]).

The country has a vast expanse of inland freshwater and brackish ecosystems with an extensive mangrove ecosystem of which a great proportion lies within the Niger Delta. Freshwaters start at the northern limit of the mangrove ecosystems and extend to the Sahelian region. The major rivers, estimated at about 10,812,400 hectares, make up about 11.5% of the total surface area of Nigeria which is estimated to be approximately 94,185,000 hectares. Lakes and reservoirs have a total surface area of 853,600 ha and represent about 1% of the total area of Nigeria. Thus the total surface area of water bodies in Nigeria, excluding deltas, estuaries and miscellaneous wetlands, is estimated to be about 14,991,900 ha or 149,919 km2 and constitutes about 15.9% of the total area of Nigeria. This review provided an insight on interactions between MSW, as indexed by dumpsites and landfills in Nigeria, and inland surface and groundwater in their vicinity.

Advertisement

2. Municipal solid waste generation in Nigeria

Generation of MSW in Nigeria is a daily occurrence, arising from diverse and varied human activities; hence the character of solid waste generated is never homogenous (Plate 1a–k). The differences can be a function of several indicators which include but not limited to originating tasks, income bracket, location, population density, population characteristics, culture, consumption pattern and seasons [6]. The quantity of MSW generated across cities in Nigeria is closely associated with population, economic, political and commercial activities. All these variables are however tied to the human element, as the driver of these changes. Changes in population pattern have been closely associated with changes in waste generation, even in the presence of optimally articulated management approaches. Table 1 presented the close relationship between population and waste generation for the world’s regions. It is noteworthy that regions with increasing or high per capita for MSW are the regions with high income. Nigeria had a population increase of between 2.6 and 2.7% annually between 2010 and 2018 and oscillated around 2% since 1965 [7]. The per capita income also increases steadily [1] which translated to increased purchasing power and consumptions of more products, with attendant waste generation. However, apart from Lagos State, waste generation data are not readily available or limited in coverage. The MSW per capita per day for different Nigerian cities is presented in Table 2, while Figure 2 showed MSW per capita for low- (Agric), middle- (Bariga and Ojodu) and high-income (Lagos Island) locations in Lagos State over a period of 30 days. These values are comparable to the suggested per capita for the African region (Table 1).The data presented further extended the suggestion of a direct relationship between economic success and waste generation.

Plate 1.

Selected sources and disposal of municipal solid wastes in Nigeria. (a) Waste paper, (b) Cassava peels and chaff, (c) mixed wastes, (d) waste labels, (e) waste bottles, (f) sorted wastes, (g) dumpsite in Sango-Ota(Ogun State), (h) dumpsite in Benin (Edo State), (i) Kara abattoir (Ogun State), (j) Ona River (Oyo State), (k) Mile 2 canal (Lagos State), and (l) Ikpoba River (Edo State).

Region Current available data Projections for 2025
Total urban population (millions) Urban waste generation Projected population Projected urban waste
Per capita (kg/capita/day) Total (tons/day) Total population (millions) Urban population (millions) Per capita (kg/capita/day) Total (tons/day)
AFR 260 0.65 169,119 1152 518 0.85 441,840
EAP 777 0.95 738,958 2124 1229 1.5 1,865,379
ECA 227 1.1 254,389 339 239 1.5 354,810
LCR 399 1.1 437,545 681 466 1.6 728,392
MENA 162 1.1 173,545 379 257 1.43 369,320
OECD 729 2.2 1,566,286 1031 842 2.1 1,742,417
AR 426 0.45 192,410 1938 734 0.77 567,545

Table 1.

Current and projected generation pattern for different regions of the world.

Source: World Bank Group [1].

AFR, Africa Region; EAP, East Asia and Pacific Region; ECA, Europe and Central Asian Region; LCR, Latin America and Caribbean Region; MENA, Middle East and North Africa Region; OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; SAR, South Asia Region.

City Kg/capita/day
Lagos 0.63
Kano 0.56
Ibadan 0.51
Kaduna 0.58
Port Harcourt 0.60
Makurdi 0.48
Onitsha 0.53
Nsukka 0.44
Abuja 0.45–0.74
Ado Ekiti 0.71
Akure 0.54
Abeokuta 0.60–0.66
Aba 0.46
Ilorin 0.43
Lafia 0.39–1.02
Gombe 0.26–0.29
Makurdi 0.37–0.62
Jimeta 0.39–1.02
Gboko 0.41–0.49

Table 2.

Per capita wastes for Nigerian cities.

Source: Refs. [8, 9, 10, 11].

Figure 2.

Daily per capita waste generation of different incomes and densities from Lagos State, Nigeria. Modified from [12].

Accordingly, solid waste can be classified into four different types [13] depending on their source, which include:

  1. Household waste, generally classified as municipal waste.

  2. Industrial waste, as hazardous waste.

  3. Biomedical waste or hospital waste, as infectious waste.

  4. Electronic waste (e-waste).

It is important to mention that until recently in Nigeria, MSW disposal methods (Table 3) received very little attention because wastes were considered an entity with homogenous properties [26, 27] or largely dominated by organic/decomposable wastes. Previous reports [28, 29] clearly supported this position and also suggested that study of wastes in Nigeria started in the 1970s. The components of MSW from different parts of Nigeria are presented in Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, which showed that MSW are still largely dominated by organic/decomposable components. Shift in waste characteristics is however gradually becoming apparent reflecting changes from previously ignored traditional household electronic wastes to high-profile ubiquitous wastes of a technology-driven economy, in the form of heterogeneous components, popularly referred to as electronic wastes (e-wastes) and related components. The wastes from traditional household electronics have also increased with better purchasing power over time.

Collection methods Aba Abeokuta Abuja Akure Akoko Edo Gombe Birnin Kebbi Maiduguri Makurdi Yola Ughelli Benin
Waste collection contractor X X X X X X X X
Deposited at waste dump X X X X X X X X X X X X
Solid to other industries/recycling X X X X X X
Deposited in the river X X X
Deposited in drainage X X X X X
Compositing X X X X
Incinerating/burning X X X X X X X X X X X X
Burying X X X X X X X X X
Open space/plot dumping X X X X X X X X X
Government trucks X X X X X X X

Table 3.

MSW disposal methods from different Nigeria cities.

Modified from [8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25].

Waste components Aba Abeokuta Maiduguri Gombe Ilorin Kano Warri
Abia State Ogun State Borno State Yobe State Kwara State Kano State Delta State
Rubber 11.30–18.50
Plastics 6.25 24.95 18.10 23.00–27.80 2.35–4.89
Papers 9.90 25.57 7.50 22.00–26.00 3.84–23.55 0.48–4.19
Glass 4.69 5.75 4.30 20.00–24.00 12.00–26.10 2.75–20.55 4.16–10.41
Aluminum scraps 9.90 2.20–9.49 0.52–4.69
Metal scraps 10.41 5.26 9.10 27.25–31.01
Tins and cans 8.71–20.71
Ceramics 0.35–3.74
Wood 1.19–4.39
Textiles 9.48 3.90 3.80–9.30 0.39–2.84
Compostable (e.g. food and wood) 47.39 25.80
Food waste only 28.00–32.00 24.00–30.90 4.20–31.56
Leaves and human feces 6.50–14.10
Vegetables 13.30–23.00 0.26–7.62
Water sachets and cellophane packages 11.45 4.99–9.08
Hazardous wastes 2.69
Ash 21.50 1.10–22.54
Miscellaneous/others 9.80 22.00–28.00 15.60–21.00 1.74–6.35 20.71–34.91
[15] [8] [23] [24] [30] [31] [32]

Table 4.

Waste components from Nigerian cities. I.

Waste components Kaduna Zaria Onitsha Yenagoa Yola Jos Gboko Makurdi
Kaduna State Anambra State Bayelsa State Adamawa State Plateau State Benue State
Rubber 35 36 10.1 20.7–24.6
Plastics 17.9 18.3 6.2–7.89
Papers 8.1 13.6–14.7 17.7–22.3 10.0–14.0 2.1–10.9
Glass 4.5 9.4–10.9 3.0 7.9–13.1 7.0–10.0 0.1–6.9
Aluminum scraps
Metal scraps 8.7 5.7–5.9 5.8 6.3–7.5 9.0–11.0 0.7–3.4
Tins and cans
Water sachets and cellophane packages 6.3–9.9 15.0–22.0 5.9–10.2
(+plastics)
Ceramics
Textiles 5 1 10.1 67.6 5.7–8.6 9.0–12.0 0.3–6.1
Wood 16 26 10.1 2.5–3.6 5.5–12.6
Compostable (e.g. food and wood) 6.5 15.0–21.0 23.4–57.5
Food waste only 40.50 40.8–42.8 12.2–14.2
Vegetables 13.4–15.2
Leaves and human feces 29 19
Hazardous wastes 20 14
Leather 3.8–6.6
Ash/fines 2.1–2.8 10.0–12.0 21.0–48.7
Miscellaneous/others 3.7 5.3 8.0–10.0 1.7–28.9
[33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [21]

Table 5.

Waste components from Nigerian cities. II.

Waste components Abuja
Rubber 0.2–3.4 8.1–26.7
Plastics 16.2–21.3 3.4 2.3 –13.9
Papers 6.9–13.6 25.3 3.2–13.4
Glass 4.1–5.5 3.00 0.8 –6.5
Metal scraps 3.3–6.7 3.14 1.0–7.9
Tins and cans
Ceramics 0.1–8.8
Textiles 0.1–4.7 3.0 0.2–4.8
Compostable (e.g. food and wood) 42.6 44.1–65.1
Food waste only 52.0–65.3
Leaves and human feces
Vegetables
Water sachets and cellophane packages 14.5 7.8–18.6
Hazardous wastes 2.8 1.1–5.5
Ash 1.0–10.7
Miscellaneous/others 0.6–2.8 2.2 0.9–11.2
[10, 25] [16] [39]

Table 6.

Waste components from Abuja.

Waste components Lagos
Plastics 7.29 3.6 5.0 15 6
Papers 10.2 12.5 10.0 10 6
Glass 2.8 1.8 2.0 5 8
Aluminum scraps
Metal scraps 4.1 2.1 3.0 5 10
Water sachets and cellophane packages 7.7 9.0
Textiles 3.8 5.0 4 6
Compostable (e.g. food and wood) 29.8 68.2 8 8
Food waste only 66.0
Leaves and human feces
Vegetables 45 50
Bones 1.8
Ash/fines 21.2 4.2 8 10
Miscellaneous/others 18.8
[40] [41] [12] [42] [43]

Table 7.

Waste components from Lagos State.

Waste components Port Harcourt
Rubber 7.6
Plastics 1.5–8.3 2.2–4.8 11.5 18.0 9.9
Papers 4.0–16.5 5.6–16.5 12.3 24.2 12.4
Glass 0.2–6.3 0.2–2.5 9.5 10.9 13.5
Metal scraps 0.5–15.0 0.5–4.0 15.2 17.2
Tins and cans 10.9
Water sachets and cellophane packages 9.9–18.5 10.5–14.7
Textiles 7.6
Wood 18.0 8.4
Compostable (e.g. food and wood) 52.1–69.0 60.0–69.0 51.5
Food waste only 29.2
Leaves and human feces
Vegetables 18.0
Miscellaneous/others 2.0–8.1 2.0–6.8 1.8
[11] [44] [45] [46] [47]

Table 8.

Waste components from Port Harcourt.

E-wastes were largely unacknowledged in Nigeria and considered part of MSW until the Koko waste incidence of 1988. This led to the separation of discarded household, ICT and personal electronic devices as e-wastes [48, 49]. The availability of cheaper versions of everyday ICT and personal electronic devices now provides additional source of consistent waste volume arising from short life cycle of substandard products. The volume and characteristics of MSW showing e-waste proportion from dumpsites or landfills were absent from available studies. The isolation of e-waste as a unique recent component, activities of scavengers or pickers, electronic market dumpsites and dedicated studies to e-wastes probably contributed to the lack of such data.

Advertisement

3. Municipal solid waste and inland water bodies in Nigeria

The magnitude of changes experienced by inland water bodies as a result of MSW in Nigeria could be attributed to inappropriate siting, design, operation and maintenance of dumps and landfills. The history of the association between changes in quality of inland waters and MSW generation in Nigeria has not been adequately documented. However, classical reports [50, 51] provided a different trajectory to the narratives, where low-level perturbations reported for both the Ona River and Ogunpa River were associated with generation and disposal of MSW in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Inland waters in Nigeria have been on the receiving end of MSW, but the details have been patchy. Inland surface and groundwaters in the vicinity of dumpsites in Nigeria have been reported to be generally compromised, and leachates have been the most cited reason.

Dumpsites usually undergo modification of wastes [52] in the following five basic steps:

  • Phase I (lag phase/initial adjustment).

  • Phase II (transition phase).

  • Phase III (acid formation phase).

  • Phase IV (methane production/fermentation phase/methanogenic phase).

  • Phase V (maturation phase).

The products of these processes include volatilized chemicals as gas, leachate and changing community of organisms, all of which have profound influence on the physical, chemical and biological conditions in the immediate surroundings.

Leachates from dumpsites and landfills have been characterized (Table 9) and associated with contamination of inland surface water (Table 10) and groundwater (Table 11) resources from different parts of Nigeria with profound physical, chemical and biological consequences. Aquatic life and recreational criteria [53] suggested compromise in physical and chemical qualities, due largely to the presence of dumpsites close to these water bodies. Also age and the unique composition or characteristics of wastes deposited at dumpsites will greatly influence the resultant water quality. The biotic or biological responses of resident organisms to changes as elicited by activities associated with dumpsites have not attracted deserved attention or investigation considering the ecological and public health consequences. However, limited laboratory studies on aquatic organisms, Chironomus sp. Culex pipiens, Bufo regularis tadpoles and Clarias gariepinus, using products from dumpsites in the form of leachates from Oyo [57, 58, 77] and Lagos [77, 78] States showed pronounced aberrant behavioral responses and gross morphological and genetic damages. In spite of the limited studies from Nigeria, the reports agreed with comparable reports from other parts of the world on the negative influence of products of dumpsites on surface inland waters.

Parameters National criteria Odo Oba (Osun State) Aba Eku (Oyo State) Olusosun (Lagos State) Aba Eku Olusosun Aba Eku
Raw Simulated Raw Simulated
pH 6.5–8.5 6.25 8.6 4.9–5.5 7.30 6.80 7.8 8.1 8.0–8.3
Color Dark brown Dark brown Dark brown
TS 5072.17 3054.50 3281.00–4206.00 3116.67 4100.3 433–2091
TSS 0.75 1085.00 220.00–2490.00 1–460
TDS 3400 1969.50 1716.00–3412.00 0.32 1.32
Total hardness 259.36 540 532 615
Chloride 30 42.00 34–38 770.00 240.00 1106 1099 149–4280.0
BOD 6.0 3.67 2.99–3.83 598.00 590.00 601 594 110.7
COD 30.0 5.50 4.50–5.78 480.00 370.00 512 487 29–338.2
Turbidity 1030.00 440–1875
Phosphate 3.5 895 175.5–450.73 122.02 215.7 ND
Nitrate 40.0 97.94 24.92–170.84 3.86 2.46 54.4 72.3 38.6–95.1
Sulphide 1.21 0.29–2.28
Sulphate 500 102.5 101.05–122.10 68.58 48.20 114.34 218.12 10–252
Ammonia 0.08 47.34 41.48–95.16 0.86 78.68 86.4 122.1 83.9
Ammonium 2.0 0.1–7.0
Alkalinity 480.00 300.00 502 623
Calcium 180 2570.00 2500.00–3751.40 30–182
Potassium 120 1800.00 1340.00–2250.00
Sodium 50 79.20 126.50–7740.00
Mg 40 2.40 4.00–12.00 18–175
Cu 0.01 0.0935 4.50 5.30–20.00 0.77 0.44 2.44 3.86 ND–0.103
Pb 0.1 0.0588 2.20 3.60–8.80 1.40 0.69 2.08 2.00 0.008–73.3
Fe 0.5 8.321 1.90 0.83 3.20 4.71 0.30–50.5
Cd 0.01 0.0385 2.20 3.65–8.82 0.58 0.46 1.44 2.20 0.4–5.7
Ag 0.0163
Mn 0.253 2.80 4.20–15.00 0.79 0.46 2.90 3.10 0.6–23.8
Ni 0.1 0.249 3.60 1.80–5.12 1.88 2.51 ND–0.10
Ar 2.26 3.63–8.83
Zn 0.2 3.60 5.00–18.00 0.3–3.5
Hg 0.0005 2.38 2.14–8.75 0.41 0.23
Cr 0.5 2.28 2.50–8.70 2.32 2.43 0.04–2.5
As 0.36 0.27 1.50 2.60
[53] [110] [54] [55] [56] [57, 58]

Table 9.

Leachate characteristics from dumpsites and landfills from Southwest Nigeria.

All in mg/l except pH and colour.

Parameters National criteria Effurun Nnewi Agbani Abakaliki Onitsha Aba Akoko Edo Ibadan (Ona River)
2002 1997
Delta State Anambra State Enugu Ebonyi Anambra Abia Ondo Oyo State
EC 628.0–694.5 140.3–197.0 18.6–790.2 43.4–48.60 366–611 160–600
TDS 80.3–694.5 12.28–16.82 10.0–30.0 10.3–855.8 320–364 408–2054 90–250
Total solids 16.81–21.7 40.0–380.0 80.0–81.7 535.0–600.0 460–2160
Turbidity 180.0–338.54 0.04–32.1 3.62–5.91
TSS 0.25 171–265 38–170
Ca2+ 180 8.0–39.0 1.60–28.10 13.3–158.2 ND–4.0
Mg2+ 40 12.0–214.0 ND–97.30 4.60–10.00
Fe2+ 0.05 0.08–1.82 0.17–1.89 0.10–0.80 19.61–32.14 0.03–0.6
Na2+ 120 65.89–118.72 184–358
K2+ 50 45.91–49.19 2.0–8.0
Nitrate 9.1 0.87–1.25 0.22–2.43 0.20–8.20 8.04–8.28
Phosphate 3.5 3.60–50.34 6.13–7.25 0.20–10.40 1.39–1.41 700.0–1129
Sulphate 100 64.0–100.5 211.66–239.17 27.4–103.8 63.0–74.0 386–480
Chloride 300 40.5–240.6 122.93–164.82 2.00–47.90 12.1–184.0 143–190 45.0–70.0
Alkalinity 24.97–33.87 3.1–3.3 40.9–175.8
Acidity 2.0
Ammonia-nitrogen ND–2.2
Ammonium 0.05 1.02–3.24
Total hardness 4.0–40.0 18.1–168.2 129–320
%TOC 2.98–3.01
Phenol 1.2–2.0
pH 6.5–8.5 6.8–7.0 6.77–6.97 3.5–6.0 6.1–6.8 6.43–7.24 7.2–8.9
DO >6.0 43.04–63.93 1.4–4.9 5.6–11.3 0.9 –22.1
BOD 3.0 6.8–8.9 12.67–20.55 5.0–18.0 3.8–37.9 0.00–11.4
COD 30.0 55.0–95.0 264.89–342.45 60.0–320.0 5.6–53.0
Zinc 0.01 0.40–1.42 0.14–0.16 0.30–1.30 0.48–0.57 2.10–2.5 0.007–0.5
Aluminum 0.2 23–76
Copper 0.001 0.40–0.08 0.9–1.0 010–0.90 0.001 ND
Chromium 0.001 0.02–0.04 0.001 3.0–4.0 ND–0.03
Cadmium 0.005 0.02–0.05 0.22–0.99 0.001 ND–2.50 ND–0.01
Iron 0.05 1.46–6.42 17–25
Lead 0.01 0.23–0.31 0.06–0.08 0.11–1.99 0.06–0.09 32–51 ND–0.06
Nickel 0.01 0.053–0.06
Arsenate 0.05 0.21–2.6
Mercury 0.001 0.3–1.8
Cobalt 0.02–0.2
Manganese 0.01–0.17
[53] [59] [60] [61] [62] [2] [63, 64] [65] [66] [67]

Table 10.

Quality of inland surface waters receiving dumpsite/landfill effluent/products from Nigerian cities.

Parameters National criteria Abuja Ilokun Effurun Minna Onitsha Ota Akoko Edo Lagos Ibadan
Olusosun/Ojota Ring road Aba Eku
Ekiti State Delta State Niger State Anambra State Ogun State Ondo State Lagos State Oyo State
Electrical conductivity (μS/cm) 1000.0 30–213 20.3–1200.0 344.0–1191.0 15–1572 13.6–51.8 107.0–4043.0 172–868 106.9–696.0
Total dissolved solids(mg/l) 500.0 65–132 9.7–765.4 210.0–738.9 8–836 102.0–415.0 40.0–2021.0 147–1100 53.9–347.0
Suspended solids (mg/l) 15–35 13.0–52.0 14.0–85.0 0.00–246.0
Total solids 1500.0 115.0–430.0 500.0–1370.0 160–1620 53.4–347.0
Turbidity (NTU) 5 1–9 4.5–38.7 1.2–2.3
Phenol 2.0 0.001 0.20–1.0
pH 6.5–9.2 6.5–8.5 6.8–7.2 6.3–7.1 7.2–8.4 4.5–6.01 5.8–7.0 3.8–7.0 5.56–8.22 7.4–8.3
Fe 1.0 0.3 ND–0.32 0.12–0.5 0.001–1.9 0.5–2.91 2.4–4.5 0.06–5.5 ND–21 ND–16.9
Mg 150.0 20.0 3.5–5.2 0.1–1.5 ND–18.72 1.5–13.1 4.6–74.9 1.6–84.9
Zn 15 3.0 0.2–0.4 0.18–0.60 2.0–3.1 1.01–2.7 0.9–3.6 ND–2.5
Mn 0.5 0.2 0.1–0.3 ND–0.55 0.7–0.9 0.03–1.3 ND–0.5
K 5.8–32.2 2.1–2.9 1.0–4.1 0.6–2.5 0.9–52.4
Na 200.0 10.7–65.4 5.8–7.1 4.0–13.4 104–292
Ca 200 29.1–72.1 11.3–38.0 71.0–327.0 4.0–89.9 4.0–98.2 1.0–9.0 3.7–87.5
Cd 0.006 0.003 ND–0.001 0.22–0.24 0.004–0.007 ND–3.6 0.01–0.2
Ni 0.075 ND–0.007 ND–0.03 0.01–0.03 0.02–0.03 ND–0.22
Cr 0.03 0.05 0.007–0.01 ND–0.002 0.01–0.03 0.009–0.12 1.0–6.0 ND–0.05
Cu 0.075 1.0 0.02–0.4 0.03–0.2 0.29–0.67 0.04–0.6 ND–0.04
Pb 0.075 0.01 0.001–0.03 0.19–0.5 ND–0.03 0.003–0.08 ND–58 ND–0.2
As 0.06 0.01 0.001–0.001 0.003–0.5
Silver ND–0.02
Aluminum 0.2 ND–0.007 19–42
Molybdenum ND–0.9
Mercury 0.0003 0.001 0.002–0.4
Cobalt 0.1 ND–0.081 0.025–0.001
Cl 600 250.0 39.6–216.7 8.9–225.0 28.1–167.9 70.9–186.5 126.0–304.0 53.1–726.0 20.00–118.00 1.5–68.9
Sulphate 400 100.0 20–231 2.6–6.2 ND–24.3 11–278 54.0–130.0 2.0–735.0 114–700 1.6–43.2
Nitrate (N) 50 50.0 3.6–8.0 0.08–56.0 1.3–16.7 4.4–8.8 ND–45.0 0.1–44.2
NO3 0.2–41.5 0.02–0.2 9.3–66.0
Nitrite 2 0.2 ND 0.001–0.2 0.06–0.98
Ammonium ND–0.9 0.16–96.0 0.03–0.7
Total hardness 19.4–79.0 112.0–444.0 10–212 45.0–367.0 78.8–428
Hardness (Ca) CaCO3 500 150.0 28.7–48.7
Hardness (Mg) CaCO3 28.7–48.7
Total alkalinity (mg/l) 4.00–74.0
Phosphate as phosphorus 0.01–0.2 ND–0.3 ND–8.3 0.3–0.9 10.3–42. 0.4–0.9 0.02–40.8 257–1040
BOD ND–16.4 4.1–8.1 40.0–3427.0
COD ND–35.0 1.8–3170.0 4.2–18.7
DO 3.6–9.5 0.5–0.7
[53] [68] [69] [70] [59] [71] [2, 72] [73] [64] [72, 74, 75] [66] [76]

Table 11.

Quality of inland groundwaters receiving dumpsite/landfill effluent/products from Nigerian cities.

Groundwater in Nigeria provides water supply for 40.1% of Nigerians [79] and is considered to be the preferred source of water for different sectors providing about 40% of water public water supply [80] underlying the importance of groundwater sources. The integrity of such groundwater is therefore of importance because of direct consequences on human health. The quality of groundwater showed the presence of substances considered dangerous to human health at concentrations above standards [53, 68] considered acceptable. The detection of cadmium, nickel, chromium, copper, lead, arsenic and aluminum and cobalt in groundwater from most locations should be a cause for concern and perhaps necessitates detailed nationwide surveillance, considering the proportion of population dependent on groundwater. The intake of these metals has been implicated in a variety of human ailments leading to severe problems via disruption of metabolic functions in two ways [81]:

  1. They accumulate and thereby disrupt function in vital organs and glands such as the heart, brain, kidneys, bone, liver, etc.

  2. They displace the vital nutritional minerals from their original place, thereby hindering their biological function.

Residents around the dumpsites are partly or wholly dependent largely on either surface or groundwater for direct or indirect daily water requirements. Thus contact with these water bodies is inevitable, even at distances considered areas with no likely effects. Determination of the health implications of such contacts at present has not been clearly defined, from very limited reports on public health aspects of dumpsite managements. This is because it has not been possible to separate consequences of dumpsite contaminated surface and groundwater contacts from medical conditions associated with population living around dumpsites. Studies [82, 83, 84, 85] reported the following: inhalation of odor, exposure to dust, exposure to smoke, exposure through water sources, consumption of plant materials, consumption of animal materials, exposure through organisms (vectors), noise from vehicles, exposure to fire, dermal contacts and exposure through domestic animals as possible routes of human exposure and contact with dumpsites and products of dumpsite modifications. Medical conditions reported from the population living close to dumpsites in different parts of Nigeria are presented in Table 12, which have been observed in Nigeria from areas of regular contacts with contaminated water [90] but not from dumpsites or landfills. The implication of the above is that symptoms may indicate conditions from multiple exposures or contacts. Inland waters in Nigeria have been subjected to inundations with inputs from multiple sources with resultant changes in quality. The almost hidden nature of contamination and contamination routes by dumpsites reinforces the dangers of not paying required attention to dumpsites, associated activities and value chain. This is because each step or link has an effect on inland water and hence human population making these sources of contamination very dangerous and harmful. Therefore, numerous health hazards associated with waste dump sites in major economic centres in Nigeria [27, 91, 92] can be said to be largely denominated by the resident and/or dominant waste components.

Lagos Port Harcourt/Owerri/Aba
Asthma High temperature and fever/typhoid
Bronchitis Watery stool/frequent stooling
Chest pain Vomiting
Lung disease Catarrh and cough
Nose/throat problems Loss of appetite
Breathing Pains in the abdomen and body
Tuberculosis Dizziness
Skin infection Blood spotted stool
Headaches/nausea/diarrhea/dysentery Urinary tract infection
Children’s diseases Acute osteomyelitis
Accident/injury
Malaria
[84, 86, 87] [88, 89]

Table 12.

Ailments associated with population living near dumpsites.

Radionuclides have also been reported and associated with dumpsites and landfills in Lagos State [93, 94, 95], Oyo State [95, 96, 97], Ogun State [98, 99, 100], Plateau State [101], Benue State [101], Ekiti State [95], Rivers State [102, 103, 104, 105] and Delta State [106]. These dangerous natural and artificial radiation materials from unregulated and unmanaged dumpsites and landfills released into inland water sources pose risks to resident organisms and population of humans, dependent directly on water for domestic purpose and consumption of resident aquatic organisms.

Radionuclides have been reported in leachates [102] and groundwater [102, 105, 107] and rivers [107, 108] with identified sources being the human activities, inclusive of dumpsites [102, 105] and abattoir wastes [109]. Dumpsites and landfills are therefore potential sources of radionuclide inputs into inland surface and groundwaters; the above-cited reports indicated the presence of radionuclides in soils around target dumpsites, confirming the migration of substances from dumpsites, as reported [108], using time-lapsed vertical electrical sounding (VES). This migration of materials into ground- and surface waters will facilitate exposure of resident and non-resident population to radioactive material by direct or indirect intake, respectively. Low cancer risks from chronic exposure to radiation from dumpsites in Nigeria have been suggested [97] even at the low level, thus further establishing the need for urgent management strategies for MSW in Nigeria.

Advertisement

4. Conclusion and recommendation

Nigeria’s development is currently enjoying active support of multilateral agencies, with the sole aim of expanding and diversifying the economy through, but not limited to, multinational manufacturing and small- and medium-scale enterprises. These are desirable and needed to improve socioeconomic status of the populace. However, complementary in-depth consideration of the ecological consequences of expanded economy must include increased generation of MSW, which usually begin with unregulated and undocumented dumpsites associated with penetration of economic activities. The inability of agencies responsible for waste management to anticipate and plan for the increase of MSW is the major reason for the surge in MSW generation and persistence. These will eventually become sources of sometime unexplained inland water contamination and/or public health problems or outbreaks. In view of this, the following be deeply considered to minimize the negative impacts of MSW on inland waters:

  1. Collection of dumpsite and landfill history and location data in each local government area (LGA) nationwide.

  2. Characterize wastes associated with each dumpsite and landfill, to provide data for risk assessment of dumpsite or landfill products.

  3. Information on nearby surface and groundwater and their utilization by residents.

  4. Information on geophysical assessment of pollutant movements in soil.

  5. Regular determination of inland water quality in the vicinity.

  6. Create awareness on the need to sort waste from source before disposal.

  7. Encourage adoption of recycle and reuse of wastes to reduce wastes generated.

  8. Undertake spatial analyses of population or residents’ socioeconomic characteristics to predict waste profiles and determine appropriate management MSW strategy.

Advertisement

Conflict of interest

I declared no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1. World Bank Group. Available from: https://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria [Accessed: November 26, 2018]
  2. 2. Ezeabasili ACC, Anike OL, Okoro BU. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and the implication in Onitsha, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(4):325, 331
  3. 3. Ita EM, Sado EK. A preliminary inventory of water bodies in Nigeria with special reference to ponds, lakes and reservoirs. In: Proceedings of 3rd Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (F ISON) Maiduguri, 22-25 February; 1983
  4. 4. Ita EO, Sado EK, Balogun JK, Pandogari A, Ibitoye B. Inventory survey of Nigeria inland waters and their reference to ponds, lakes, reservoirs and major rivers. Kainji Lake Research Institute, Technical Report Series. 1985;14:51
  5. 5. Ayoade JO. Water resources and their development in Nigeria. Hydrological Sciences Journal. 1975;20(4):581-591. DOI: 10.1080/02626667509491589
  6. 6. Ezechi EH, Nwabuko CG, Enyinnaya OC. Municipal solid waste management in Aba, Nigeria: Challenges and prospects. Environmental Engineering Research. 2017;22(3):231-236. DOI: 10.4491/eer.2017.100
  7. 7. Worldometers. Dover, Delaware, U.S.A. Available from: http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/nigeria-population/ [Retrieved: November 26, 2018]
  8. 8. Achi HA, Adeofun CO, Gbadebo AM, Ufoegbune GC, Oyedepo JA. An assessment of solid waste management practices in Abeokuta, Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research. 2012;29(2):177-188
  9. 9. Babayemi JO, Dauda KT. Evaluation of solid waste generation, categories and disposal options in developing countries: A case study of Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2009;13(3):83-88
  10. 10. Ayuba KA, Manaf LA, Sabrina AH, Nur Azmin SW. Current status of municipal solid waste management practise in FCT Abuja. Environmental and Earth Sciences Research Journal. 2013;5(6):295-304
  11. 11. Babatunde BB, Vincent-Akpu IF, Woke GN, Atarhinyo E, Aharanwa UC, Green AF, et al. Comparative analysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in three local government areas in Rivers State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;7(9):874-881
  12. 12. Oyelola O, Ajiboshin I, Okewole J. Effective solid waste management in the circular economy: The case study of Lagos state, Nigeria. Procedia Environmental Science, Engineering and Management. 2017;4(3):143-148
  13. 13. Nwaokobia K, Ogboru RO, Okolie PL. Solid waste management: Efficient approach towards sustainable development in Nigeria. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety. 2013;7(2):035-042. DOI: 10.15580/GJEMPS.2018.2.090117118
  14. 14. Odigie JO. Harmful effects of wastewater disposal into water bodies: A case review of the Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria. Tropical Freshwater Biology. 2014;23:87-101
  15. 15. Ajero CMU, Chigbo UN. A study on the evaluation of industrial solid waste management approaches in some industries in Aba, South Eastern Nigeria. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. 2012;4(1):103-112
  16. 16. Kadafa AA. Solid waste management practice of residents in Abuja municipalities (Nigeria). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2017;11(2):87-106
  17. 17. Abdullah TPL, Bena R. Solid waste management practices in Kebbi State, Nigeria: Problems and prospect. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science. 2013;2(12):48-54
  18. 18. Limana A, Ngahb I. Appraisal of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Jimeta-Yola Adamawa State of Nigeria: The need for innovative, PPP strategies. Jurnal Teknologi. 2015;77(15):93-102
  19. 19. Efe SI. Waste disposal problems and management in Ughelli, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2013;4:4-11
  20. 20. Olabode AD, Akinola L. Environmental impact of indiscriminate waste disposal on river channel in part of Akoko-region, Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 2014;5(2):162-168
  21. 21. Sha’Ato R, Aboho SY, Oketunde FO, Eneji IS, Unazi G, Agwa S. Survey of solid waste generation and composition in a rapidly growing urban area in Central Nigeria. Waste Management. 2007;27(3):352-358
  22. 22. Abur BT, Oguche EE, Duvuna GA. Characterization of municipal solid waste in the Federal Capital Abuja, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: Environment and Earth Science. 2014;14(2):1-7
  23. 23. Dauda M, Osita OO. Solid waste management and re-use in Maiduguri, Nigeria. In: Harvey, P, editor. Towards the Millennium Development Goals—Actions for Water and Environmental Sanitation: Proceedings of the 29th WEDC International Conference; 22-26 September; Abuja, Nigeria; 2003. pp. 20-23
  24. 24. Buba HB. Assessment of household solid waste management in Gombe, Nigeria [MSc thesis]. Zaria, Nigeria: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ahmadu Bello University; 2016
  25. 25. Imam A, Mohammed B, Wilson DC, Cheeseman CR. Solid waste management Abuja, Nigeria. Waste Management. 2008;28:468-472
  26. 26. Ngwuluka N, Ochekpe N, Odumosu P, John SA. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2009;3(12):459-465
  27. 27. Igbinomwanhia DI. Characterization of commercial solid waste in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2012;3(5):834-838
  28. 28. Sridhar MKC, Bammeke AO, Omisakin MA. A study on the characteristics of refuse in Ibadan, Nigeria. Waste Management and Research. 1985;3(3):191-201
  29. 29. Bammeke AO, Sridhar MKC. Market wastes in Ibadan, Nigeria. Waste Management and Research. 1989;3(3):191-201
  30. 30. Ajadi BS, Tunde AM. Spatial variation in solid waste composition and management in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010;32(2):101-108
  31. 31. Nabegu AB. An analysis of municipal solid waste in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010;31(2):111-119
  32. 32. Asibor IG, Edjere O. Assessment of the activities of scavengers and their economic impacts in waste recovery in Warri Metropolis, Delta State Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health. 2017;4(2):22-29
  33. 33. Ahmed R, Onyidoh HE. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) management in high population density areas of Zaria and Kaduna Metropolis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety. 2017;7(2):023-034
  34. 34. Nwachukwu MU. Solid waste generation and disposal in a Nigerian city: An empirical analysis in Onitsha Metropolis. Journal of Environmental Management and Safety. 2010;1(1):180-191
  35. 35. Angaye TC, Daokoru-Olukole C, Abowei JN. Characterization of household solid wastes in the Niger Delta: A case study of 100-domestic units in Yenagoa Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research. 2017;3(5):50-53. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20170305.12
  36. 36. Belel ZA, Mahmoud H. Survey of municipal solid waste in Jimeta-Yola, Northeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2013;4(1):1-4
  37. 37. Egbere JO, Itelima JU, Opiah FO. Municipal solid wastes segregation and their health hazard implication in Angwan-Rogo Ward of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2001;4(1):1-4
  38. 38. Akpen GD, Aondoakaa SC. Assessment of solid waste management in Gboko Town. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2009;8(2):71-77
  39. 39. Roberts CL, Watkin GD, Ezeah C. Seasonal variation and municipal solid waste composition—Issues for development of new waste management strategies in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management. 2010;36(4):210-219
  40. 40. Kofoworola OF. Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria. Waste Management. 2007;27:1139-1143
  41. 41. Oyelola OT, Babatunde AI. Characterization of domestic and market solid wastes at source in Lagos Metropolis, Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008;3(12):430-437
  42. 42. Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). Solid Waste Data in the City of Lagos. Department of Planning Research and Statistics. 2011. Available from: http://www.lawma.gov.ng/lawma_prs.html [Accessed: October 16, 2018]
  43. 43. Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). Solid Waste Data in the City of Lagos. Department of Planning Research and Statistics. 2012. Available from: http://www.lawma.gov.ng/lawma_prs.html [Accessed: October 16, 2018]
  44. 44. Audu HAP, Aigwi IE, Enaboifo MA. Solid waste composition analysis for the development of a suitable waste disposal system in Port Harcourt L.G.A of Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2015;6(2):113-119
  45. 45. Akor AJ, Ayotamuno MJ, Aman LI, Enokela SO. Assessment of domestic solid waste generation in Port Harcourt by separator-receptacle technology. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2017;4(1):1-7
  46. 46. Ogbonna DN. The impact of untreated sewage wastes discharge on the physico-chemical properties of rivers in Port Harcourt Metropolis. World Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews. 2014;2(2):1-19
  47. 47. Binafeigha TR, Enwin A. The state of solid waste management in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017;5(4):160-166. DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-4-4
  48. 48. Ukem EO. Electronic waste: A growing challenge in Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2018;14(4):459-462
  49. 49. Nnorom IC, Osibanjo OO. Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria. Waste Management. 2008;28(8):1472-1479
  50. 50. Ajayi SO, Adelaye SA. Pollution studies on Nigerian rivers, I: Preliminary report on the pollution level of River Ona and River Ogunpa. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Nigeria. 1977;2:71-86
  51. 51. Ajayi SO, Osibanjo OO. Pollution studies on Nigerian rivers, II: Water quality of some Nigerian rivers. Environmental Pollution (Series B). 1981;2:87-95
  52. 52. Pohland FG, Harper SR. Critical Review and Summary of Leachate and Gas Production from Landfills. Cincinnati, OH, U.S.A.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1986. EPA/600/2-86/073
  53. 53. National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA). National Environmental (surface and groundwater quality) Regulations. Federal Republic of Nigeria (FGN) - Official Gaezette. 2011;98(49):B693-B727
  54. 54. Bakare AA, Wale-Adeyemo AR. The mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of leachates from domestic solid wastes and Aba-Eku landfill, Nigeria on Alliums cepa. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology. 2004;3(4):455-462
  55. 55. Alimba CG, Bakare AA, Aina OO. Liver and kidney dysfunction in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachate. Resources and Environment. 2012;2(4):150-163. DOI: 10.5923/j.re.20120204.04
  56. 56. Alimba CG, Bakare AA, Arinola GO. Effects of municipal solid waste leachate on leucocyte and differential counts in rat. Global Journal of Environmental Research. 2009;3(3):205-210
  57. 57. Oshode OA, Bakare AA, Adeogun AO, Efuntoye MO, Sowunmi AA. Ecotoxicological assessment using Clarias gariepinus and microbial characterization of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill. The International Journal of Environmental Research. 2008;2(4):215-225
  58. 58. Oni AA, Hassan AT, Peijun L. Toxicity of Leachates from the Aba-Eku Landfill Leachate Lagoon, Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2011;2(2):450-460
  59. 59. Ohwoghere-Asuma O, Aweto KE. Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater and surface water qualities near municipal solid waste dump site in Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2013;3(9):126-134
  60. 60. Okeke IE, Ekenta EO, Mbanefo D. Effects of solid wastes on Ukwaka Stream, Nnewi, Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering. 2018;4(5):172-185
  61. 61. Nwodo PO. The effects of poor wastes disposal on the stream water quality in Agbani Urban Area in the Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State. [PGD]. Nsukka, Nigeria: Department of Geography, University of Nigeria; 2012
  62. 62. Njoku C. Effect of waste dumpsites on water and air qualities in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science. 2015;4(5):455-460
  63. 63. Nkwocha EE, Pat-Mbano EC, Nnaji AO. Effect of solid waste dump on river water quality: A paradigm in a Nigerian tropical environment. International Journal of Science and Nature. 2011;2(3):501-507
  64. 64. Iwuoha GN, Osuji LC, Onwuachu UI. Impact of waste dump on the sediment and surface water quality of Otamiri river, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2013;17(4):573-575
  65. 65. Ololade IA, Adewunmi A, Ologundudu A, Adeleye A. Effects of household wastes on surface and underground waters. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2009;4(1):022-029
  66. 66. Odukoya OO, Arowolo TA, Bambose O. Effects of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at Ring Road, Ibadan, Nigeria. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2002;1(1):43-52
  67. 67. Oduwole GA. Indices of pollution in Ogunpa and Ona rivers, Ibadan: Physico-chemical, trace metal and plankton studies [PhD thesis]. Nigeria: Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan; 1997
  68. 68. Standard Organization of Nigeria. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. NIS-554-2015
  69. 69. Musa JJ. Effect of domestic waste leachates on quality parameters of groundwater. Leonardo Journal of Sciences. 2014;24:28-38
  70. 70. Olagunju E, Badmus O, Ogunlana F, Babalola M. Environmental impact assessment of waste dumpsite using integrated geochemical and physico-chemical approach: A case study of Ilokun waste dumpsite, Ado - Ekiti, Southern Nigeria. Civil Engineering Research Journal. 2018;4(2):001-0013. DOI: 10.19080/CERJ.2018.04.555631
  71. 71. Saidu M. Effect of refuse dumps on ground water quality. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2011;2(6):595-599
  72. 72. Michael EI. Evaluation of leachate contamination index obtained from dumpsite in Onitsha, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology. 2017;7(6):525. DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000525
  73. 73. Ameloko AA, Ayolabi EA, Enaworu E, Bolujo E. Assessment of leachate contamination of groundwater around the Igbenre Ekotedo dumpsite, Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Petroleum and Coal. 2018;60(5):890-902
  74. 74. Adeyemi O, Oloyede OB, Oladiji AT. Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of leachate-contaminated groundwater. Asian Journal of Biochemistry. 2007;2(5):343-348
  75. 75. Sanusi AL. Groundwater quality assessment at Olusosun landfill, Lagos, Nigeria [MSc thesis]. British Columbia: Royal Roads University Victoria; 2013
  76. 76. Oni AA, Hassan AT. Groundwater quality in the vicinity of Aba-Eku dumpsite, Ibadan, SW Nigeria: A detailed report. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2013;6(6):589-600. DOI: 10.4314/ejesm.v6i6.2
  77. 77. Alimba CG, Bakare AA. In-vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landfill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats. Ecotoxicology. 2016;25(2):310-319. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-015-1589-3
  78. 78. Alimba CG, Saliu JK, Adesanya A, Bakare AA. Evaluation of genotoxicity of a municipal landfill leachate by micronucleus test using Clarias gariepinus. Research in Environment and Life Sciences. 2011;4(1):1-6
  79. 79. Ahianba JE, Dimuna KO, Okogun GRA. Built environment decay and urban health in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 2008;23(3):259-265
  80. 80. Nwankwoala HO. Groundwater and poverty reduction: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development in Nigeria. Hydrology Current Research. 2016;7(2):240. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000240
  81. 81. Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;43(3):246-253
  82. 82. Nduka JKC, Orisakwe OE, Ezenweke LO, Chendo MN, Ezenwa TE. Heavy metal contamination of foods by refuse dump sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. The Scientific World Journal. 2008;8:941-948
  83. 83. Magaji JY. Effects of waste dump on the quality of plants cultivated around Mpape dumpsite FCT Abuja, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2012;5(4):567-573
  84. 84. Alimba CG. DNA and systemic damage induced by landfill leachates and health impacts of human exposure to landfills in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria [PhD thesis]. Nigeria: Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan; 2013
  85. 85. Obasi NA, Obasi SE, Aloh GO, Elom SO. Review of edible plants in dumpsites: Risks of heavy metals toxicity and implications for public health. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2017;7(6):1-11
  86. 86. Olorunfemi FB. Living with waste: Major sources of worries and concerns about landfills in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2009;2(2):12-19
  87. 87. Babs-Shomoye F, Kabir R. Health effects of solid waste disposal at a dumpsite on the surrounding human settlements. Journal of Public Health in Developing Countries. 2016;2(3):268-227
  88. 88. Onwubiko JA. A study of the health effects of open refuse dumps on nearby residents in Eastern Nigeria. Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 2017;6(2):26-30
  89. 89. Wachukwu CK, Mbata CA, Nyenke CU. The health profile of waste scavengers (rag pickers) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2010;10(17):1968-1972
  90. 90. Karshima SO. Public health implications of poor municipal waste management in Nigeria. Vom Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;11:142-148
  91. 91. Ogbonna DN, Ekweozor IKE, Igwe FU. Waste management: A tool for environmental protection in Nigeria. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 2002;31(1):55-57
  92. 92. Alam P, Ahmade K. Impact of solid waste on health and the environment. Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics. 2013;2(1):2
  93. 93. Oladapo OO, Oni EA, Olawoyin AA, Akerele OO, Tijani SA. Assessment of natural radionuclides level in wasteland soils around Olusosun Dumpsite Lagos, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics. 2012;2(3):38-43
  94. 94. Olubosede O, Akinnagbe OB, Adekoya O. Assessment of radiation emission from waste dumpsites in Lagos State of Nigeria. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 2012;2(3):806-811
  95. 95. Jibiri NN, Isinkaye MO, Momoh HA. Assessment of radiation exposure levels at Alaba e-waste dumpsite in comparison with municipal waste dumpsites in southwest Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Science. 2014;7(4)536-541. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2014.09.002
  96. 96. Odunaike RK, Laoye JA, Alausa SK, Ijeoma GC, Adelaja AD. Radiation emission characterization of waste dumpsites in the city of Ibadan in Oyo State of Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2008;2:100-103
  97. 97. Isola GA, Oni MO, Olasunkanmi SK.Radionuclide concentrations in soil around waste dumpsites and its excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Ogbomoso Metropolis, South-western Nigeria. BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(6):25-30
  98. 98. Odunaike RK, Alausa SK, Fasunwon OO, Orunsolu BA, Ijeoma GC. Radiation dose survey of refuse dumpsites in Abeokuta in Ogun State in Southwest zone of Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2008;3:262-266
  99. 99. Ademola AK, Babalola AI, Onyinye FO, Onuh AD, Enyenihi EE. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Physiology. 2014;39:106-111
  100. 100. Usikalu MR, Ola OO, Achuka JA, Babarimisa IO, Ayara WA. Background radiation dose of dumpsites in Ota and Environs. International Conference on Space Science and Communication. IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics. 2017;852:012045. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/852/1/012045
  101. 101. Sombo T, Avaa AA, Eweh EJ, Akohu M, Akine A, Shaibu B, et al. Radioactivity of dumpsites within selected towns of Benue and Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics. 2018;10(3):15-20
  102. 102. Ehirim CN, Itota GO. Radiological impact of a municipal solid waste dumpsite on soil and groundwater using 2-D resistivity tomography and gamma ray spectroscopy. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2013;2(5):35-42
  103. 103. Avwiri GO, Olatubosun SA. Assessment of environmental radioactivity in selected dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 2014;3(4):263-269
  104. 104. Ulakpa WC, Eyankware EO, Eyankware MO, Eyankware ROU. Evaluation of radionuclides in Eliozu dumpsite, Obio-Akpor L.G.A. South-South Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research. 2016;1(2):15-22
  105. 105. Itota GO, Balogun AO. The radiological impact of a municipal solid waste dumpsite on soil and groundwater using gamma ray spectroscopy. Physical Science International Journal. 2017;13(4):1-6
  106. 106. Avwiri GO, Esi EO. Evaluation of background ionization radiation level in some selected dumpsites in Delta State, Nigeria. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications. 2014;35:36-42
  107. 107. Agbalagba EO, Avwiri GO, Chad-Umoren YE. Gross α and β activity concentration and estimation of adults and infants dose intake in surface and ground water of ten oil fields environment in Western Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2013;17(2):267-277
  108. 108. Ameloko AA, Ayolabi EA. Geophysical assessment for vertical leachate migration profile and physicochemical study of groundwater around the Olusosun dumpsite Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Applied Water Science. 2018;8:142. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-018-0775-x
  109. 109. Jibiri NN, Isinkaye MO, Ilori OA, Sowunmi AA. Determination of natural radionuclides in abattoir wastes and sediments from rivers and streams around selected abattoirs in Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Low Radiation. 2015;10(2):93-106
  110. 110. Bakare AA. The potential mutagenic effect of the leachates from rural solid waste landfill on Allium cepa (L). SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science. 2001;24(2):283-291

Written By

Akindayo A. Sowunmi

Submitted: September 24th, 2018 Reviewed: February 4th, 2019 Published: May 22nd, 2019