A number of chapters have been submitted to the book
The chapter entitled
Other territories such as Madagascar have over 10,000 endemic species. Australia has its own species, genera and botanical families, as this continent has three major climate types, tropical, desertic and Mediterranean, along with Central America and many other areas on earth. In areas in Central America, the endemic flora is of particular importance for conservation. The origin of this flora varies in different areas of the planet and may consist of taxa with ancient origins (paleoendemics) or young taxa formed by the evolutionary process after becoming isolated (neoendemics). Plate tectonics and the Alpine orogeny that gave rise to seas, oceans and mountain chains are among the causes of the isolation of populations, which has allowed the genesis of new species. However, the greatest impact on the emergence of endemic species occurred with the glaciations in the Quaternary era, as they took refuge in more southerly environments and subsequently become isolated.
The highest rate of endemism can be found in major mountain chains and on islands in the tropical-subtropical belt. The following are areas of particular interest: Spain, Madagascar, Malaysia, South Africa, Australia, Central America, and particularly Mexico and the Caribbean. Of all the Mediterranean countries in the EU, Spain has the highest rate of endemic plants due to its orography and geological and climatic diversity, as it is situated between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and favoured by migratory routes from the northern territories in Europe and Africa. However, Spain is among the countries that suffered the greatest extinction of species during the Quaternary glaciations as a result of the configuration of its mountain systems, which should alert us to the fact that the climate change that is already underway could trigger a similar phenomenon.
The study of endemism is analysed in several areas and related with the habitat, and fieldwork is conducted in several American and European territories (Mexico, Hispaniola, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Palestine etc.), consisting of compiling phytosociological relevés. The results are various works on vegetation that describes a number of plant associations [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9], all of great interest due to their endemic character. Other results include works on endemism  and a series of studies on the flora of the island published in the journal Moscosoa, together with the Flora of Hispaniola by . This present research is a continuation of the aforementioned works, and we corroborate the bioclimatic and biogeographical studies [1, 7, 12, 13].
3. Results and discussion
Species become isolated through different causes, including geological, geographic, climatic and biological barriers, and throughout history many authors have taken this phenomenon as the basis for understanding the situation of Mexico, Panama, Honduras, Guatemala and the Caribbean Islands—all of which can be considered hotspots and are of great interest for conservation. This is essentially due to the fact that the extinction of species during the Quaternary era was less widespread than in the old European continent due to the configuration of the mountain chains, which acted as corridors for plants and animals. A similar phenomenon occurred with the geological barriers in Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles in the Antillean arc. Large mountain chains were formed in the Cretaceous era that was subsequently linked by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. The Cordillera Central range is siliceous in character and has the highest altitude in the whole of the Caribbean region (Pico Duarte: 3175 m); other mountain chains also originated during the Cretaceous era but have a lower altitude and a calcareous character, with patches of serpentines, which contain a high rate of serpenticolous edaphisms [5, 10].
Examples of this are the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola, which despite their limited territorial extension each have over 6000 plant species of which over 33% are endemic. Five sectors and 19 biogeographical districts have been described for the specific case of Hispaniola, and a series of works have been published on its flora and vegetation [6, 14], highlighting the interest of this island due to its high diversity of flora and vegetation. Of the 6000 species described on the island, a little over 33% are endemic, with a predominance of tree, shrub, vine and epiphyte biotypes; endemic plant species number more than 2000. This high diversity of endemic flora includes their own species and even genera. This is the case of Tortuga Island with
Climate change is causing territorial climate irregularities and an increase in extreme climate statistics. Certain territories in which species have been adapted to the climate for thousands of years are unable to withstand such sweeping changes in this new rapidly changing climate scenario. It is precisely the endemic species with less plasticity that are most at risk.
However, in spite of the influence of climate change on endemic animals and plants, the greatest threat may come from humans, as human pressure on habitats is increasing by the day in spite of the various protection policies, which are more declarations of intent than actual facts. Agricultural and livestock farming areas are maintained almost all over the planet, and there are very few sustainable farming operations. This is for several reasons: first, the need in some countries today and in the past to obtain food and energy, which throughout history has led to mass deforestation, and, second, the current proliferation of forest fires, which are responsible for the loss of biological diversity. It is evident that endemic species form part of some kind of habitat, which points to the need to protect that habitat, as this will also protect the species. It can therefore be said that endemic species are key to the establishment of conservation policies. In places on the planet that are considered hotspots due to their high rate of endemics, we need to know the plant associations in which these species occur. If this information is not available, we believe it is crucial to conduct research to increase the knowledge of these plant communities. Some authors have studied the vegetation in Cuba, as is the case of [15, 16, 17, 18], and numerous diverse endemic syntaxa have been included in the phytosociological classes of
It is evident that the immense majority of endemisms are located within a particular habitat and that this habitat contains one or several plant associations. Paleoendemisms are adapted to very specific environments that occupied greater extensions in the past but have since been restricted as a consequence of climate change, whereas due to their plasticity, neoendemisms may occupy less strict ecological niches and, as noted by , be prepared to increase their area of distribution. This implies that the habitat in which these species are located can be catalogued as either paleohabitats or neohabitats. Paleohabitats should be considered as a restricted area, which formerly covered a greater territory and in theory date from the Eocene and Oligocene eras. If the current climate trend was evolving towards the climate of those periods, the paleohabitat would expand, and if the reverse was true, it would disappear and so would the endemic species in consequence. Neohabitats have been generated more recently, appearing between the Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene eras, and include endemic species with a greater distribution area. The current climate trend could increase or reduce their area of distribution.
Habitat conservation measures must be established to safeguard the flora, and particularly the flora threatened by anthropic actions and climate change. Although human actions cannot be eliminated completely, it is possible to implement a system of sustainable management that mitigates habitat deterioration caused by anthropic action and climate change. This management must have two aspects: the first is local management, which integrates humans in the natural environment by raising educational standards and encouraging the public to value and respect the landscape for which it is essential for people to be familiar with these habitats. It is therefore crucial to have knowledge of plant associations, as certain non-endangered syntaxa can be used and exploited by humans, while others must be strictly monitored for their conservation, as is the case of those we have mentioned previously in this work. In second place, it is important to implement the appropriate national and international policies against fire and climate change.