Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Ecological and Environmental Assessment of Nara Desert Wetland Complex (NDWC), Khairpur, Sindh-Pakistan

Written By

Muhammad Saleem Chang

Submitted: November 8th, 2017 Reviewed: May 11th, 2018 Published: October 3rd, 2018

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78623

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Abstract

The Nara Desert Wetland Complex (NDWC) includes sandy dunes, steep hills and occupies low lying flat zones associated with different natural wetlands formed from the seepage of Nara Canal. These different wetlands are the major perennial source of water to the agricultural lands, local communities, wildlife and for grazing livestock. The NDWC encompasses more than 225 seasonal and permanent small, medium and large sized lakes/wetlands. The total area of Nara Canal is distributed about (108,960 hectares) which starts from Sorah to Head Jamrao. The NDWC was declared in 1972 as a Game Reserve area for the protection of wild animals. The NDWC is also recognized an important potential Ramsar Site. The different floral habitation in the Nara Desert consists of mostly drought resistant vegetation of phytoplankton, reed vegetation, herbs, shrubs and trees. The area is ecologically rich with the faunal biodiversity that includes zooplankton, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. The NDWC has received high values for its economic, social, floral and faunal habitat, aquatic biodiversity since the local communities are directly or indirectly dependent on these natural sustainable resources. During the sampling of environmental parameters, most of the wetlands were determined to be seasonal and permanent freshwater, brackish and hypersaline lakes.

Keywords

  • Nara Desert wetland complex
  • Nara Canal
  • biodiversity
  • ecologically-sustainable resources
  • environmental parameters

1. Introduction

1.1. Nara Desert wetland complex (NDWC)

The Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary is located between 26°28° N and 68°70° N (Elevation 50–115 m) in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The desert area is approximately 23,000 km2 semiarid, receiving most of its water 88–135 mm of annual rainfall sporadically during the season of monsoon. These wetlands have rich variety of floral and faunal life such, as various aquatic plant species and different animal species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, the region is of diverse ecological value for the biodiversity of plant and animal species. These wetlands are distributed in different districts which usually start from Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur and ends in Sanghar District [1, 2, 3, 4]. In the Nara Canal region, the ground water level usually varies around 76 mm. The capacity of recharging these wetlands in the region is very low due to low rainfall. The level of water table varies between 2.5 and 5 m. In the nearest lands to the Nara Canal, the water level increases up to 10–18 m. Most of the wetlands were developed from sand dunes while a few were developed by deposition of silt [5]. Irrigation system on Nara Canal is contained from upper Nara between Sukkur Barrage to the south Jamrao Headwaters and includes major canals such as Jamarao, Mithrao, Khipro and Thar [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The area is geographically part of the Indus Basin and is composed of alluvial sediments which are deposited by previous and current different branches of the rivers. The sediments of the area are carried by Indus River which have tertiary shale and limestone basement. The sediments are composed of acolin sands that have previously been deposited during the Pleistocene Epoch. The composition of soil is from sandy to loamy and some part of soil is scarcely made up with the loamy sands. The color of soils is generally from brown to gray brown with the 5–15% mixture of CaCO3. The soil is usually composed of nan-saline, non-sodic mixed with poor organic materials having range of pH from 7.8 to 8.4. The developing hypersaline wetlands are common due to the overflow from Nara Canal [5]. The region is distributed with the sandy and steep hills which are locally famous as “patt”, “Tars” or “Tals”. The main source of water for the agriculture and other activities is Nara Canal which extends up to 4–5 km from both sides of canal [5] (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Map of study area of Nara Desert wild life sanctuary.

The area has high wind velocity with the huge amounts of shifting of sand hills and have high temperature with higher soil radiation in the summer and observed very short rainfall and high evapo-transpiration. In the Nara Desert the average minimum temperature is 20°C and the maximum temperature is 45°C. In the summer, the hottest months are from May to July, when the temperature increases from 45 to 51°C. In the winter season, the lower temperature ranges from 20 to 28°C for the months of December to January. In the region, the annual rainfall from 88 to 135 mm occurs during the months from July to September [1, 2, 3, 4, 6]. The region of NDWC includes about more than 225 small to medium and some large sized-wetlands; some of these are seasonal and most are permanent. The Nara Canal is the largest canal of Sindh Province and covers more than 108 million hectares. On the both sides of Nara Canal the area is covered with woodland, riverine forest, scrub and desert scrubs. In the region, the source of water for wetlands is the seepage from the Nara Canal [1, 2, 3, 4, 7].

The climate of the area is mainly arid having high temperatures and late summer rains observed. The seasonal rainfall is varied and is less than 250–300 mm and rainy season usually starts from June to September. Before the monsoon season, the average temperature is exceeding 45°C in the desert region and in the plains of NDWS the average temperature between 30 and 40°C. The wetland complex is recognized of great hydrological values as 98% Nara Canal water is used for agriculture and only 2% water is used for domestic and drinking purposes. The wetland complex of Nara Canal is 361.6 km long and 90–135 m wide. The maximum water depth of wetland complex is 7.5 m. The highest water discharges of Nara Canal are reported in the months of May–July and the minimum water flow in the August [1, 2, 5].

1.2. Socio-economic status of area

According to the census survey report of 2016, the total population of Nara Taluka is counted 160,985. The target area of Nara Taluka the total population can be estimated to be more than 60,000. The major communities are living in the area study are Baradin, Baloch, Chang, Shard, Syed, Rapper, Dashi, Maleah, Khaskheli, Channa, Sahta, Gopang, Bhurgari, Rind, Nizamani, Mirbahar, Khoso, Wassan, Deewan, Ibupoto, Kakepoto, Rajar, Mirani, and Macchi. From these communities, a few numbers of people are engaged in artisan work, trade, business and job in government departments etc. The Livestock and agriculture are the major source of income of local communities. Cotton and wheat are the main crops cultivated in the Nara while sugarcane, barely, oil seed, pulses, vegetable and fodder are also cultivated. The peoples of the area are living in the worst condition and they have least health facilities, drinking water, education and they do not have available basic life facilities. In spite of low productivity of area, the desert area sustains relatively higher human (1.05 m) and livestock (1.25 m) populations was reported, respectively. The livestock is the major source of income, meat and wool in the area. The overexploitation of vegetation by the grazing animals and the cutting of trees and shrubs for fuel purposes have resulted in environmental degradation that threatens the natural resources in this area. There is no developed transportation system in the Nara Desert. Due to low literacy rate in the area, there is a lack of employment opportunities [5].

1.3. Floristical and faunilistical assessment of Nara Desert wetland complex

In the region of NDWC the richest biodiversity comprises a mosaic habitat of sandy hills, canals, forests, agriculture fields, freshwater and hypersaline wetlands. The area has the richest plant biodiversity consisting of 160 plant species belonging to 118 genera and 45 families were recorded [8, 9, 10]. The seasonal crops include sugarcane, cotton, wheat, barley and sunflower. The major vegetation in the sandy habitats are Prosopis cineraria, Acacia niloticus, Salvadora oleoides, Dalbergia sissoo, Tamarix aphylla, Melia azedarach, Populus spp. and Calotropis procera [5, 6, 11, 12, 13]. In the Nara Desert, the various drought-tolerant plant species, such as cactuses and succulents (Agaves spp.), Aerva javanica, Calligonum polygonoides, Crotalaria burhia, Capparis decidua, Dipterygium glaucum, Tephrosia villosa, Aristida adscensionis, Cassia, Tephrosia uniflora and Cassia italic were recorded [5]. In the zone of Nara Desert, a mixed vegetation of shrubs and plants, such as Typha spp., Hydrilla verticillata, Paspalum distichum, Polygonum hyaropier, Urticularia lotus, Nelumbium nuciferum, Desmostachya bininata, Phragmites karka, Saccharum bengalensis and Tamarix indica were also reported [5, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23].

The region has been received the high socio-economic values for the local community which is dependent on the agriculture, livestock, fish farms and freshwater wetlands. In this area, the small to medium villages are scattered and their major economies are agriculture and livestock [1, 2, 5, 17, 24]. In this zone, the variety of different wild mammalian species includes Hemiechnus auritus, Caracal caracal, Felis chaus, Felis margarita, Herpestes edwardsi, Herpestes javanicus, Canis lupus pallipes, Vulpes zerda, Hyaena hyaena, Mellivora capensis, Manis crassicaudata, Gazella bennettii, Hyelaphus porcinus, Sus scrofa cristatus, Lepus tibetanus, Funambulus pennantii, Hystrix indica, Lutrogale perspicilletta, Lutra lutra and Prionailurus viverrinus [5, 25, 26, 27]. The NDWC has the richest biodiversity of native and migratory avian fauna of which more than 78 avian species were recorded [5, 7, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30]. From this region, two threatened species of Indian-backed vulture and houbara bustard were recorded. The indigenous bird species of myna, crow, sparrow, red-wattled lapwing, white-tailed plover, and stilt were commonly observed. Two bird species of large-pied wagtail (Motacilla maderaspatensis) and rock bunting (Emberiza cia) were the first time reported in this region [5]. Some important bird species categorized by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUNCN) Red List as Least Concern species include the Indian darter, black or red-naped ibis, ruddy Shel duck; as Vulnerable, the marbled teal, and as Near Threatened, the ferruginous duck [5, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32].

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2. Material and methods

For the collection of data the study was carried out in Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary which is located between 26°28° N and 68°70° N (Elevation 50–115 m) in the province of Sindh, Pakistan For the collection of flora species, the direct method/observation was applied during the diurnal period. To collect the faunal species, the direct and indirect methods were applied. For the collection of important ecological data of floristical and faunistical species, the field work for diurnal and nocturnal surveys were conducted randomly.

For the various physicochemical parameters, water from 10 randomly selected stations from a few selected lakes of NDWC were sampled monthly from January to December 2015. The samples were collected from two different sampling sites of upper surface and lower bottom layers and were kept in (Van Dorn Plastic Bottles 1.5 liter) during the collection period. After the samples were kept in 10% nitric acid for 24 hours and rinsed with the distilled water. Water samples were mixed in acid-washed container, rinsed with distilled water, and then stored at 4°C for further analysis. For quality assurance, the samples were analyzed in duplicate through careful standardization and samples examined. Physicochemical analysis was performed by the standardized methods [33]. Chemical properties of water samples including water temperature, depth, and transparency were measured with the Secchi Disk. The temperature was measured by a mercury thermometer immersed into a water depth of 15 cm for 2–5 mins. The pH was measured by of an Orion Model 420 pH meter. The EC, TDS, and Na parameters were measured by a WTW 320 conductivity meter. Alkalinity, hardness, Cl and phosphate were analyses conducted by the standardized methods as recognized by WHO [34]. Titration method (2310) was used to measure Ca, HCO3 and HCO. Mg and K were analyzed by spectrometry. For the analysis of BOD and DO, the Winkler method and a Jenway Model 9071 Oxygen Meter were used, respectively (Table 1).

Parameters Abbreviation Units Procedure
Temperature Temp °C Mercury thermometer
pH pH pH Unit pH meter
Electrical conductivity EC Mu/Scm Conductivity meter
Total dissolved solids TDS mg L−1 WTW 320
Turbidity Turb NTU Nephlometric turbidity meter
Calcium Ca mg L−1 Titration method (EDTA)
Magnesium Mg mg L−1 Titration method (EDTA)
Hardness Hard mg L−1 Titration (silver nitrate)
Carbonate HCO ppm Titration (2310)
Bi-carbonate HCO3 ppm Titration (2310)
Alkalinity Alkal mg L−1 Titration (silver nitrate)
Chlorides Cl mg L−1 Titration (silver nitrate)
Sodium Na mg L−1 WTW (320)
Potassium K mg L−1 Titration method (EDTA)
Sulphate SO4 mg L−1 Titration (2310)
Biological oxygen Demand BOD mg L−1 Winkler method
Dissolved oxygen DO mg L−1 Winkler method

Table 1.

Analytical procedure for physicochemical parameters of NDWC during 2015.

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3. Results

3.1. Ecological assessment: (Flora and Fauna)

Flora: In the region of Nara Desert a variety of different floral species of aquatic as well as terrestrial plants, herbs, shrubs and drought resistant plant species were recorded (Table 2).

S. No# Scientific Name Common Name Local Name
1. Acacia nilotica Thorn mimosa, Bubul Bubar
2. Dalbergia sissoo roxb Sisu, Tali Talehi
3. Alhagi maurorum Camel-thorn bush Kandero
4. Albizia durraz Siris Sareenhn
5. Mimosa pudica L. Chui-mui, Lajwanti Sharam Booti
6. Prosopis juliflora Mosquite Deevi
7. Prosopis cinreria Jamal gotha Kandi
8. Tamarind indica linn Imli Gidaamri
9. Trigodela L. Proshan, kakpie Hurbo
10. Ocimum L. Basil Nazbu
11. Grevia L. Phalsa Pharva
12. Azadirachia indica Neem Nim
13. Ficus benghalensis L. Banyan tree Barr
14. Ficus religiosa L. Sacred Fig Pipal
15. Morus alba L. White Mulberry Toot
16. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Red Gum, Eucalyptus Safedo
17. Zizephus mauritiana Lam Berry Baer
18. Salvadora persica L. Peelu Khabbar
19. Cordia gharaf Gondni Gaiduri
20. Tamarix passerinoides Tamarisk Layee
21. Pennisatum glaicum L. Bajra Bajhari
22. Zea mays L. Corn Makai
23. Desmostachya bipinnata Dub, Halfa grass Drubh
24. Calotropis procera Milk Weed Akk
25. Eruka sativa Salad Rocket Janmbho
26. Opentia ficus indica L. Cactus Thohar
27. Capparix decidus Kapparis Kirar
28. Suaeda fruiticosa Shrubby Seablight Laani
29. Citrullus colocynchis L. Bitter Apple Tooh
30. Calligonum polygonoides Phog Phog
31. Aerva javanica Kopak Bush Booh
31. Tamarix aphylla Tamarisk Lao
32. Salvadora oleoides Jaal Jaar
33. Crotolaria burhia Burhia Rattlepod Soma
34. Dipterygium glaucum Safrawi Phair
35. Aristida adscensionis Sixweeks Threeawn Lumb Gaah
36. Cassia italic Cassia, Golden tree Ghora wal
37. Tephrotia uniflora Senegal Siringh/Andhari
38. Teophrotia villosa Creeping Thistle Phoodno
39. Typha latifolia Cattail Kanahn
40. Typha angusta Cattail Kaani
41. Paspalum distichum Knotgrass Naru Gaah
42. Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Hydrilla
43. Nyphaea lotus White Lotus Kanwal
44. Polygonum hyaropier Blake’s Knotweed Anjbar
45. Urticulara lotus Water Lotus Kanwal
46. Nelumbium nuciferum Nelumbium Kanwal

Table 2.

Flora of NDWS.

Fauna: Amphibians: In the Nara Desert three amphibian species belonging from two families of Ranidae and Bufonidae were reported (Table 3).

S. No# Scientific Name Common Name
1. Crocodylus palustris Mugger crocodile
2. Kuchuga tecta Saw-back turtle
3. Kuchuga smithi Brown turtle
4. Geoclemys hemiltonii Spotted-pond turtle
5. Canis aureus Asiatic jackal
6. Fellis chaus Jungle cat
7. Prionailurus viverrinus Fishing cat
8. Felis silvestris Desert cat
9. Vulpes vulpes Red fox
10. Lutrogale perspicillata Smooth-coated otter
11. Herpestes javanicus Small Indian mongoose
12. Herpestes edwardsi Gray mongoose
13. Axis porcinus Hog deer
14. Sus scrofa Indian wild boar
15. Funambulus pennanti Palm squirrel
16. Gerbilus nanus Balochistan gerbill
17. Hemiechinus collaris Long-eared hedgehog
18. Hystrix indica Indian crested porcupine
19. Lepus nigricollis Desert hare
20. Meriones hurrianae Indian desert jird
21. Mus musculus House mouse
22. Tatera indica Indian gerbil
23. Aspiderestes gangeticus Indian soft shell turtle
24. Lissemys punctate punctata Indian flapshell turtle
25. Naja naja naja Indian cobra
26. Echis carinatus Saw-scaled viper
27. Eryx johni Indian sand boa
28. Lytorhynchus paradoxus Sindh awlheaded sand snake
29. Platyceps rhodorchis Cliff racer platyceps
30. Platyceps ventromaculatus Glossy-bellied racer
31. Xenochrophid piscator Checkered keelback
31. Calotes versicolor Tree lizard
32. Trapelus megalonyx Afghan ground agama
33. Hemidactylus brookii Yellow-bellied house gecko
34. Hemidactylus brooki Spotted Indian house gecko
35. Cyrtopodion scaber Keeled rock gecko
36. Ophoimorus raithmai Three-fingered sand-fish
37. Ophoimorus tridactylus Indian sand swimmer
38. Eutrophis macularia Bronze grass skink
39. Varanus bengalensis Bengal monitor
40. Varanus griseus Desert monitor
41. Acanthodactylus cantoris Indian fringetoed sandy lizard
42. Bufo stomaticus Marbled toad
43. Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Bull frog
44. Rana cyanophlyctis Skittering frog
45. Tachybaptus ruficollis Little grebe
46. Podiceps nigricollis Black-necked grebe
47. Phalacrocorax niger Little cormorant
48. Phalacrocorax carbo Large cormorant
49. Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Indian darter
50. Ardea cinerea Gray heron
51. Ardea purpurea Purple heron
52. Ardeola grayii Indian pond heron
53. Bubulcus ibis Cattle egret
54. Egretta alba Large egret
55. Egretta intermedia Intermediate egret
56. Egretta garzetta Little egret
57. Egretta gularis Reef heron
58. Ixobrychus minutus Little bittern
59. Ixobrychus sinensis Yellow bittern
60. Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy shelduck
61. Marmaronetta angustirostris Marbled teal
62. Anas crecca Common teal
63. Anas platyrhynchos Mallard
64. Anas strepera Gadwall
65. Anas clypeata Shoveller
66. Aythya ferina Common pochard
67. Aythya nyroca Ferruginous duck
68. Aythya fuligula Tufted duck
69. Aythya collaris Ring-necked duck
70. Elanus caeruleus Blackwinged kite
71. Milvus migrans Common kite
72. Haliastur indus Brahminy kite
73. Accipiter badius Central Asian shikra
74. Butastur teesa White-eyed buzzard
75. Circus aeruginosus Marsh harrier
76. Falco tinnunculus Common kestrel
77. Pandion haliaetus Osprey
78. Francolinus pondicerianus Gray partridge
79. Francolinus francolinus Black partridge
80. Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted waterhen
81. Gallinula chloropus Indian moorhen
82. Porphyrio porphyrio Purple moorhen
83. Fulica atra Common coot
84. Charadrius leschenaultia Greater sand plover
85. Vanellus indicus Redwattled lapwing
86. Vanellus leucurus White tailed plover
87. Charadrius dubius Little ringed plover
88. Charadrius alexadrinus Kentish plover
89. Charadrius mongolus Lesser sand plover
90. Numenius arquata Curlew
91. Numenius phaeopus Whimbler
92. Limosa lapponica Bartailed godwit
93. Tringa totanus Common redshank
94. Tringa stagnatilis Marsh sandpiper
95. Tringa nebularia Green shank
96. Tringa glareola Wood sandpiper
97. Tringa hypoleucos Common sandpiper
98. Gallinnago gallinago Common snipe
99. Calidris minutus Little stint
100. Calidris alpine Dunlin
101. Philomachus pugnax Ruff
102. Himantopus himantopus Blackwinged stilt
103. Larus heuglini Heuglin’s gull
104. Larus brunnicephalus Brown headed gull
105. Larus ridibundus Black Headed gull
106. Larus genei Slenderbilled gull
107. Gelochelidon nlitica Gull-billed tern
108. Hydroprogne caspia Caspian tern
109. Sterna aurantia Indian River tern
110. Sterna acuticauda Blackbellied tern
111. Sterna albifrons Little tern
112. Sterna sendvicensis Sandwitch tern
113. Columba livia Blue rock pigeon
114. Streptopelia decaocto Ring dove
115. Sterptopelia senegalensis Little brown dove
116. Centropus sinensis Crown pheasant
117. Ketupa zeylonensis Brown fish owl
118. Athene brama Spotted owlet
119. Ceryle rudis Pied kingfisher
120. Alcedo athis Common kingfisher
121. Halcyon smyrnensis Whitebreasted kingfisher
122. Merops orientalis Green-bee eater
123. Merops persicus Blue-cheeked bee eater
124. Corcias benghalensis Indian roller
125. Upupa epops Common hoopoe
126. Amomanes deserti Desert lark
127. Calendrella brachydactyla Great short-toed lark
128. Galerida cristata Crested lark
129. Riparia diluta Pale sand martin
130. Hirundo fuligula Crag/rock martin
131. Hirundo rustica Barn or common swallow
132. Lanius isabellinus Rufous tailed or Isabelline shrike
133. Lanus meridionalis Southern gray shrike
134. Lanius vittatus Bay backed shrike
135. Dicrurus adsimilis Black drongo
136. Acridotheres adsimilis Indian myna
137. Sturnus vulgaris Common
138. Phoenicurus ochruros Starling
139. Oenanthe albonigra Hume’s wheatear
140. Saxicoloides fulicata Indian robin
141. Saxicola caprata Pied robin chat
142. Oenanthe isabellina Isabelline wheatear
143. Oenanthe sdeserti Desert wheatear
144. Corvus splendens House crow
145. Dendrocitta vagabunda Tree pie
146. Prinia flaviventris Yellow bellied prinia
147. Prinia burnesii Rufous vented prinia
148. Pycnonotus leucogenys White-cheeked bulbul
149. Pycnonotus cafer Red-vented bulbul
150. Turdoides caudatus Common babbler
151. Turdoides earlie Striated babbler
152. Turdoides striata Jungle babbler
153. Rhipidura aureola White browed fantail
154. Phylloscopus collybita Common chiffchaff
155. Acrocephalous stentoreus Clamorous reed warbler
156. Sylvia curruca Lesser whitethroat sylvia
157. Phylloscopus trochiloides Greenish warbler
158. Motacilla alba White wagtail
159. Motacilla flava Yellow wagtail
160. Nectarinia asiatica Purple sunbird
161. Passer domesticus House sparrow
162. Passer pyrrhonotus Sindh jungle sparrow

Table 3.

Fauna of NDWS.

Reptiles: Region of Nara Desert is considered rich in herpeto-fauna with 24 reptilian species belonging to three orders and 12 families. Out of the 24-reptilian species, 2 were herbivores, 13 were carnivores and 9 were insectivores. A famous indigenous Vulnerable reptilian species of marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) was also reported from the Nara Canal and its adjacent territories (Figure 2) (Table 3).

Figure 2.

A view of marsh crocodile.

Birds: In the region of NDWC, these wetlands are recognized as the major habitats for the variety of rare and endangered migratory birds. In NDWC, 118 bird species belonging to 13 orders and 35 families belonging were reported. Fifty-nine birds were native species while 53 birds were migratory species. The important migratory birds were the marbled teal, Anan angustirostris (Vulnerable-threatened) and the ferruginous duck, Aythya nyroca and the Indian darter, Anhyinga rufa (Near-threatened) (Table 3).

Small mammals: From the habitat of NDWC the small mammal populations belonging to 3 orders and 5 families were also reported. The small mammals included 5 granivores, 2 herbivores and 1 omnivore (Table 3).

Large Mammals: Large Mammals: Twenty-five species of large mammals were reported. From order Carnivora, 10 species included the jungle cat, jackal, small Indian mongoose, gray mongoose, wolf and red fox and from the Order Artiodactyla, the wild boar (Table 3) (Figure 36).

Figure 3.

A view of Lake in NDWC.

Figure 4.

A view of plantation in NDWC.

Figure 5.

A view of Desert dune in NDWC.

Figure 6.

A view of Typha in NDWC.

3.2. Analysis of physicochemical parameters

The highest air temperature of 45°C was measured in July and the lowest of 20°C was measured in January (Tables 4, 11). The highest and lowest water temperatures were 42 and 17°C, respectively (Table 4). The highest and lowest values (9.3 and 6.9) for pH were measured in November and December, respectively (Tables 11, 12). The highest and lowest values (9120 and 364 mu/Scm) for EC were measured in November and May, respectively (Tables 11, 13). The highest and lowest values (1042 and 214 mg/L) for TDS were measured in March and May, respectively (Tables 7, 13). The highest and lowest values (186 and 0.20 NTU) for turbidity were measured in the months of January – September, respectively (Tables 7, 9). The highest and lowest values (1214 and 6 mg/L) for Ca were measured in January and November, respectively (Tables 8, 10). The highest and lowest values (876 and 12 mg/L) for Mg were measured in March and May, respectively (Tables 8, 13). The highest and lowest values (5536 and 140 mg/L) for hardness were measured in March and May, respectively (Tables 7, 13). The highest and lowest values (71.6 and 2.0 mg/L) for alkalinity were measured in November and September, respectively (Tables 8, 11). The highest and lowest values (3418 and 22 mg/L) for Cl were measured in March and May, respectively (Tables 7, 13). The highest and lowest values (1231 and 21 mg/L) for Na were measured in November and May, respectively (Tables 10, 13). The highest and lowest values (182 and 3 m/L) for K were measured in January and July, respectively (Tables 7, 13). The highest and lowest values (2980 and 38 mg/L) for SO4 were measured in November and May, respectively (Tables 7, 13). The highest and lowest values (3580 and 0.5 mg/L) for HCO3 were measured in November and July (Tables 8, 11) while the value of 0 for HCO was measured in all the months of the study period (Tables 413). The highest and lowest values (4.6 and 2.7 mg/L) for BOD were measured in January and July, respectively (Tables 9, 10). The highest and lowest values (6.1 and 3.7 mg/L) for DO were measured in November and July, respectively (Tables 4, 10).

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 20 25 28 32 38 43 45 42 32 28 23 20
Tem: Water 17 21 23 28 29 38 33 37 29 24 20 17
pH 8.2 8.1 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.9 7.9 8.0 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1
EC 985 915 954 885 875 870 850 860 820 890 970 930
TDS 630 618 613 605 590 598 600 620 580 612 640 624
Turb 30 35 32 38 40 42 45 37 28 33 35 41
Ca 40 38 52 50 58 52 65 54 35 34 45 42
Mg 27 30 37 32 35 33 40 25 23 29 24 38
Hard 210 234 270 218 245 240 256 228 205 215 225 220
Alkal 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.7
Cl 131 127 122 132 115 142 145 130 120 124 140 135
Na 128 143 145 135 120 128 150 132 110 122 130 137
K 18 20 21 23 19 20 25 21 16 17 20 18
SO4 128 138 140 98 32 110 116 114 105 118 120 132
HCO
HCO3 175 152 162 147 150 134 130 170 140 153 165 160
BOD 3.0 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.3 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.8 3.7
DO 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.1 4.7

Table 4.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 1. Gunjo Bhanbharo Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 20 25 26 30 32 37 42 38 32 27 23 20
Tem: Water 16 21 23 26 29 33 38 35 29 24 20 17
pH 8.2 8.0 8.1 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.8 8.1 7.6 8.0 7.9 8.2
EC 2860 2478 2730 2380 2595 2517 2370 2678 2173 2594 2436 2247
TDS 1830 1800 16,500 1700 1540 1460 1285 1678 1240 1315 1464 1780
Turb 33 24 30 22 25 19 21 20 18 26 28 29
Ca 140 137 150 145 130 142 120 126 114 118 132 122
Mg 60 48 75 70 52 65 45 44 42 58 53 66
Hard 600 652 680 575 580 638 590 618 563 598 620 640
Alkal 7.0 8.2 12.0 9.1 8.0 8.5 10.0 7.8 6.0 11.0 9.0 8.4
Cl 192 185 210 190 170 192 165 204 154 167 184 180
Na 382 370 350 308 315 338 286 268 250 317 375 347
K 32 36 38 32 28 25 24 33 20 24 27 23
SO4 778 754 725 674 635 653 605 725 582 762 683 697
HCO
HCO3 350 270 285 315 260 290 250 305 250 360 376 326
BOD 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 3.4
DO 5.0 4.9 4.8 4..7 4.9 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.7

Table 5.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 2. Bachal Bhanbharo Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 24 26 30 32 37 43 36 32 27 23 20
Tem: Water 18 20 23 28 29 34 39 32 29 24 20 17
pH 8.0 7.9 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.8 7.3 7.5 7.9 7.7
EC 925 876 856 815 814 764 725 780 705 802 883 865
TDS 586 562 547 540 510 487 462 516 443 550 532 580
Turb 9.2 11.4 11.9 10.7 10.4 11.9 12.3 10.9 11.2 11.0 11.6 10.8
Ca 82 74 68 80 54 67 45 56 40 65 75 70
Mg 74 70 62 51 52 58 48 66 42 54 68 62
Hard 538 518 426 487 410 468 430 500 410 485 520 508
Alkal 3.5 3.2 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.2 2.8 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.4
Cl 168 156 139 141 130 127 118 1162 106 149 156 150
Na 42 33 38 41 34 35 32 36 27 40 38 39
K 40 34 32 29 30 35 34 47 28 37 36 33
SO4 208 193 195 165 173 182 164 158 153 168 192 187
HCO
HCO3 142 137 130 129 123 132 120 125 105 139 134 138
BOD 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.8
DO 5.2 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.6 5.1 5.1 5.0

Table 6.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 3. Skebi Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 23 26 31 32 39 44 40 32 26 23 20
Tem: Water 19 20 23 27 29 36 40 36 29 23 20 17
pH 8.5 8.6 9.0 8.5 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.8 8.2 8.9 8.4 8.6
EC 1327 2190 1270 1250 1194 1230 1054 1180 983 1246 1127 1110
TDS 9827 8965 10,420 9547 8974 9657 7590 8540 6580 7890 8936 9570
Turb 0.27 0.23 0.29 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.26 0.29 0.28
Ca 728 745 772 710 685 715 680 672 582 720 782 730
Mg 838 782 876 816 782 725 678 698 645 763 812 804
Hard 5428 5160 5536 5096 4528 4826 3974 4976 3792 5120 5265 5380
Alkal 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.7 3.6 3.5
Cl 3329 3289 3418 3370 3236 3190 3075 2987 2868 3145 3185 3276
Na 52 50 46 54 58 45 48 47 42 48 49 50
K 182 159 170 180 162 150 156 169 140 160 172 157
SO4 2980 2896 2937 2765 2830 2696 2589 2752 2438 2686 2845 2810
HCO
HCO3 182 153 170 167 162 146 156 149 140 148 172 160
BOD 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.0
DO 5.5 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.1

Table 7.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 4. Tooti Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 25 26 33 37 41 42 39 32 26 23 20
Tem: Water 19 22 23 30 33 38 39 36 29 23 20 17
pH 9.2 9.0 9.1 8.7 8.8 9.0 8.5 8.6 8.3 8.4 8.9 8.8
EC 7984 7878 7920 7636 7180 7280 6568 6892 5872 6972 6217 7684
TDS 5123 4976 5068 4783 4837 4690 4287 4528 4027 4686 4839 5074
Turb 38 32 33 37 30 36 28 29 24 31 35 34
Ca 1214 1180 1174 1168 1034 1149 983 1084 845 987 1128 1068
Mg 394 376 374 310 345 355 285 367 262 296 312 342
Hard 3985 3884 3923 3810 3812 3792 3529 3626 3428 3590 3782 3888
Alkal 2.9 2.3 2.64 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.6 2.8 2.7
Cl 147 140 132 130 127 129 120 125 108 134 142 128
Na 75 72 69 71 62 73 56 54 48 66 72 70
K 23 21 18 19 16 20 14 22 15 17 21 22
SO4 1915 1880 1819 1792 1725 1682 1528 1632 1372 1575 1882 1794
HCO
HCO3 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6
BOD 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.2 4.0
DO 5.4 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.1

Table 8.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 5. Dangewari Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 24 26 34 38 43 44 38 32 28 23 20
Tem: Water 19 21 23 30 35 40 41 34 29 24 20 17
pH 9.0 8.8 8.9 8.6 8.5 8.7 8.3 8.4 8.1 8.3 8.6 8.8
EC 8912 8842 8720 8254 7837 7632 6865 6540 5392 6934 6836 7894
TDS 5610 5495 5580 5324 4872 4670 4583 4264 3983 4685 4892 4975
Turb 186 183 180 172 162 148 152 138 106 162 170 180
Ca 492 471 482 465 385 390 328 387 295 348 412 426
Mg 782 735 757 708 628 615 573 628 412 593 684 710
Hard 4427 4350 4321 4230 4082 4150 3862 3764 3429 3927 4128 4250
Alkal 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.7
Cl 142 137 130 120 126 119 114 121 108 133 125 138
Na 54 49 46 44 42 43 37 39 32 46 41 40
K 8.0 8.4 4.0 7.5 5.0 6.8 6.0 8.7 7.0 6.5 9.0 8.9
SO4 2286 2175 2213 2098 2145 1945 2096 2190 1827 1670 1273 1450
HCO
HCO3 1.2 1.1 1.06 1.3 1.03 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2
BOD 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.2
DO 5.1 4.8 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.0 4.9

Table 9.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 6. Kharari Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 20 24 26 30 37 41 44 38 32 27 23 20
Tem: Water 18 21 23 27 34 37 40 34 29 24 20 17
pH 8.0 7.8 7.9 7.6 7.7 7.9 7.5 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.7 7.9
EC 5489 5370 5282 5685 4827 5120 4628 4952 5273 5734 6190 5856
TDS 3186 3256 2973 3080 2863 2965 2682 2792 2854 3124 3340 3260
Turb 12.6 11.8 12.0 11.3 10.0 9.2 8.0 10.4 9.0 9.8 11.9 10.5
Ca 22 18 20 19 18 17 15 21 13 11 6 10
Mg 294 265 240 217 235 247 192 230 205 208 273 253
Hard 1082 978 926 912 884 890 836 992 928 985 1180 1005
Alkal 20.5 19.6 `19.8 18.7 19.2 20.2 16.2 17.6 18.5 19.9 21.4 20.7
Cl 603 568 583 590 535 528 483 610 528 630 666 642
Na 787 740 782 714 739 728 626 775 712 805 821 794
K 38 35 31 34 29 32 26 36 28 30 32 33
SO4 937 883 826 694 793 782 638 728 875 635 1040 868
HCO
HCO3 980 940 826 860 793 836 782 872 863 945 1070 984
BOD 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.5 2.9 3.4 2.7 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.0 4.4
DO 5.6 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.8 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.0

Table 10.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 7. Raja Pathan Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 25 26 34 39 42 45 40 32 26 23 20
Tem: Water 19 22 23 30 36 39 41 36 29 23 20 17
pH 8.8 8.7 8.4 8.6 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.3 9.0 9.1 9.3 8.9
EC 8379 8239 7838 5673 4570 6890 5820 7346 7739 8215 9120 8764
TDS 1529 1432 1482 1380 1273 1446 1382 1457 1528 1590 1690 1568
Turb 0.27 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.22 0.23 0.21 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.22
Ca 49 45 38 46 30 42 36 47 40 51 54 50
Mg 329 348 230 297 186 245 210 305 236 264 397 322
Hard 1626 1486 1327 1336 1182 1479 1268 1504 1529 1545 1770 1654
Alkal 67.4 59 48 51 43 49 50 62 60.2 57 71.6 68
Cl 320 316 257 286 216 265 237 248 285 317 397 304
Na 1125 1030 937 879 792 915 845 1056 1026 1187 1231 1115
K 67 70 53 56 47 58 52 60 62 57 72 55
SO4 386 357 274 290 218 287 274 370 326 365 403 378
HCO
HCO3 3428 3294 3028 3125 2793 2880 2983 3145 3218 3472 3580 3356
BOD 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.7
DO 5.6 5.5 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.2

Table 11.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 8. Old Nara Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 23 26 34 38 41 42 37 32 28 23 20
Tem: Water 19 20 23 30 35 38 39 34 29 25 20 17
pH 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.6 7.3 7.5 7.1 7.4 7.0 7.3 6.9 7.2
EC 1263 1143 1172 1092 938 1286 1027 1167 1263 1342 1495 1275
TDS 729 720 628 612 510 664 543 675 692 754 808 785
Turb 31 32 28 29 25 26 27 28 30 27 33 30
Ca 58 55 50 52 40 48 46 50 53 57 64 60
Mg 49 47 46 43 36 44 42 45 47 53 56 51
Hard 328 345 275 263 204 289 232 254 245 316 390 327
Alkal 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.8 4.6
Cl 152 148 138 119 110 134 126 160 135 145 166 141
Na 141 128 136 130 106 128 124 133 130 140 150 137
K 17 14 16 15 12 13 4 11 5 9 18 17
SO4 239 215 143 178 137 198 153 232 172 214 260 243
HCO
HCO3 210 225 189 194 145 178 162 196 186 224 240 210
BOD 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.3
DO 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.8 5.0 4.8

Table 12.

Physicochemical analysis of water sample of station 9. Saedo Pattan Lake.

Parameters Months
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp: Air 21 24 26 33 35 40 43 38 32 27 23 20
Tem: Water 19 21 3 30 31 36 40 34 29 24 20 17
pH 7.6 7.4 7.2 7.3 7.0 7.2 6.9 7.1 7.0 7.5 7.3 7.1
EC 528 512 489 537 364 464 387 486 472 515 596 564
TDS 312 302 307 289 214 289 230 267 278 307 321 298
Turb 162 157 147 137 117 118 26 127 145 167 180 172
Ca 47 49 53 51 38 45 42 51 48 50 60 54
Mg 18 15 17 13 4 12 15 14 16 15 19 17
Hard 210 208 203 198 140 212 154 168 182 185 230 217
Alkal 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.4
Cl 30 31 29 27 22 28 25 26 28 30 32 29
Na 31 28 30 25 21 24 27 26 29 28 33 30
K 7.0 6.8 6.0 6.2 5.0 5.4 3.0 4.8 5.0 5.9 4.0 4.7
SO4 61 55 47 44 38 43 40 49 46 56 69 62
HCO
HCO3 171 156 154 128 104 145 120 138 125 167 180 171
BOD 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.4
DO 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.9

Table 13.

Analysis of physicochemical parameters of water sample for station 10. Nara Canal Chundiko.

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4. Discussion and conclusion

The Nara Desert Wetland Complex (NDWC) encompasses sandy dunes, steep hills and includes low lying flat zones associated with different natural wetlands formed from the seepage of Nara Canal. These different wetlands are the major perennial source of water for the agricultural lands, local communities, wildlife and grazing livestock. NDWC comprises more than 225 seasonal and permanent, small, medium and large-sized lakes/wetlands. The total area of Nara Canal is distributed from Sorah (Sukkur) to Head Jamrao about 108,960 hectares and Nara Canal was declared in 1972 as a Game Reserve area for the protection of wild animals. The NDWC is also recognized as an essential potential Ramsar Site [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The different floral habitation distributed in the Nara Desert includes phytoplankton, reed vegetation, herbs, shrubs and trees. The area is ecologically-rich with the faunal biodiversity which includes zooplankton, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, small and large mammals. The NDWC has received high economic, social, floral and faunal habitats, and aquatic biodiversity values because the local communities are directly or indirectly dependent on these natural sustainable resources [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 29, 35] (Figure 7).

Figure 7.

A view of Nara Canal Khairpur.

In the area the water quality and recharged by the Nara Canal is mainly sweet and acceptable ranges of TDS between 500 and 800 ppm except hypersaline lakes. The hypersaline water of desert area is mainly observed brackish which have TDS between 10,000 and 28,000 pp. [5, 36].

The climate of the area is mainly arid having high temperatures and late summer rains observed. The seasonal rainfall is varied and is less than 250–300 mm and rainy season usually starts from June to September. Before the monsoon season, the average temperature is exceeding 45°C in the desert region and in the plains of NDWS the average temperature between 30 and 40°C. The wetland complex is recognized of great hydrological values as 98% Nara Canal water is used for agriculture and only 2% water is used for domestic and drinking purposes. The wetland complex of Nara Canal is 361.6 km long and 90–135 m wide. The maximum water depth of wetland complex is 7.5 m. The highest water discharges of Nara Canal are reported in the months of May–July and the minimum water flow in the August [1, 2, 3, 4, 7].

The assessment of physicochemical parameters such as pH and alkalinity revealed that the lake water has mostly remained alkaline during the whole study period except the Nara Canal station due to its input of rain water. The range of hardness was higher in most of the selected lakes of NDWC. The acceptable level of hardness in lake waters is recognized as 200 mg/L by the World Health Organization [34]. The physicochemical parameters of Na and Mg, as well as the EC, TDS concentrations were found to be higher than the WHO standard. The Na is the major solute that can also affect aquatic biodiversity [37]; Na concentrations during the study period were higher than WHO accepted standard in most of the wetlands in the NDWC. The WHO recommended that the tolerable level of Cl is 250 mg/L [34]. In this study, the various wetlands had higher Cl concentration than the acceptable WHO standard. However, the concentrations of Ca, K, SO4, HCO3, BOD and DO were higher than the acceptable WHO standard in the most of selected wetlands during the study period.

In the study area, quality of water is mainly sweet and acceptable for drinking purposes. The range of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) reported between 500 and 800 ppm. In the area, there are also few brackish wetlands reported and TDS varies between 10,000 and 28,000 due to recharge of insufficient amount of water. The quality of ground water is mainly dominated by sulfate, chloride, calcium and magnesium ions [16, 38, 39]. The conductivity (or TDS) is major parameter along with pH in recognizing the water quality. The values of both parameters is considered acceptable in freshwater lakes while it is otherwise considered the saline lakes. If the value of turbidity is higher than considering alkaline water while above the WHO standard level of 5 NTU. The value of higher turbidity may be due to discharge of waste materials and agriculture run off. The Nara Canal is originates from the Indus River. The water in the Indus River is generally contaminated carrying organic and inorganic polluted particles load from the upstream due to anthropogenic activities. The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA 2002) recorded that the value of BOD in Indus River is exceeds more than 6.5 mg/L, which is also recognized by Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) the water of Indus River is highly polluted. According to microbiological analysis of water by WWF-Pakistan (2007) confirmed that in the two sites the presence of fecal coliform. The availability of Fecal coliform in the water system is considering harmful for the human population consumption which may cause water borne disease. In freshwater bodies the availability of Fecal coliform is an indicator of contamination with the human and animal excreta [5, 7, 36, 38, 40, 41].

The parameters of water were only collected to examine the quality of water for the purpose of drinking. Although, it has also been reported that the more than 100,000 fisherman population who were directly associated with the fishery occupation have suffered a lot in the recent decades. In the wetland complexes the higher amount of inflow of saline effluent has causing in the devastation of the lake [7, 40].

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5. Threats

Hunting: In the study area, the hunting for recreation is observed common and uncontrolled. However, the region is protected but there is no effective implementation of the wildlife laws for the wild animals. Due to hunting pressure, this is also leading to imbalance between the predator and prey species.

Foraging of Livestock: The large amount of grazing livestock in the area together with the recent climatic changes is degrading the food chain in the ecosystem dynamics.

Cutting trees: In the study area, the cutting of trees in the adjoining desert region for continuous practice of conversion of lands into agricultural fields which is affecting the wild population.

Developmental activities: In this modern era the human population is increasing in higher rate and habitation, the developmental activities in the region and conversion of land for the purpose of agriculture has been damaging the wild habitat and ultimately increasing stress on the existing wildlife.

Recommendation:

Controlled hunting: To control the hunting the check posts should be established for keeping vigilance at important points on uncontrolled hunting. Due to shortage of infrastructure in Sindh Wildlife Department like as transport system and staff failed to stop hunting so that the officials must enhance staff and transport. The Wildlife authorities must consider strengthening of Sindh Wildlife Department in the region.

Ecotourism: The area of Nara Wetland Complex is a best site for promoting ecotourism. For sighting of wildlife and bird watching the watch towers at potential points and other facilities should be developed for promoting community based conservation tourism. The people of local community should be participated and benefited from all this tourism activates. From local community the youth should be trained as a volunteers and co-guides. These health activities will provide the incentives to the local community as a source of income generating activity and an alternative livelihood source.

Promote participatory wildlife management and conservation: For promoting participation in wildlife management and conservation the institutional capacity of community based organizations in the region should be developed.

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Acknowledgments

This research study on “Ecology and Environmental Assessment of Nara Desert Wetland Complex, (NDWC) Khairpur, Sindh-Pakistan” was financially supported by University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh- Pakistan.

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Conflict of interest

The research study of “Ecology and Environmental Assessment of Nara Desert Wetland Complex, (NDWC) Khairpur, Sindh-Pakistan”; has there is no conflict of interest.

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Notes/Thanks/Other Declarations

I am very thankful to WWF-Pakistan and Sindh Wildlife Department for their support during the collection of data in the studied areas of NDWC.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Temtemperature
pHpH
ECelectrical conductivity
TDStotal dissolved solids
Turturbidity
Cacalcium
Mgmagnesium
Hardhardness
HCOcarbonate
HCO3bi-carbonate
Alkalalkalinity
Clchlorides
Nasodium
Kpotassium
SO4sulfate
BODbiological oxygen demand
DOdissolved oxygen
NDWCNara Desert wetland complex
WHOWorld Health Organization
WWFWorldwide Fund for Nature

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Written By

Muhammad Saleem Chang

Submitted: November 8th, 2017 Reviewed: May 11th, 2018 Published: October 3rd, 2018