The key geometrical parameters, the singlet-triplet energy splitting (Δ
The effect of substitution on the potential energy surfaces of RAl☰SbR (R = F, OH, H, CH3, SiH3, SiMe(SitBu3)2, SiiPrDis2, Tbt, and Ar*) is investigated using density functional theories (M06-2X/Def2-TZVP, B3PW91/Def2-TZVP, and B3LYP/LANL2DZ + dp). The theoretical results demonstrated that all the triply bonded RAl☰SbR compounds with small substituents are unstable and can spontaneously rearrange to other doubly bonded isomers. That is, the smaller groups, such as R = F, OH, H, CH3 and SiH3, neither kinetically nor thermodynamically stabilize the triply bonded RAl☰SbR compounds. However, the triply bonded R’Al☰SbR´ molecules that feature bulkier substituents (R´ = SiMe(SitBu3)2, SiiPrDis2, Tbt, and Ar*) are found to possess the global minimum on the singlet potential energy surface and are both kinetically and thermodynamically stable. In particular, the bonding characters of the R’Al☰SbR´ species agree well with the valence-electron bonding model (model) as well as several theoretical analyses (the natural bond orbital, the natural resonance theory, and the charge decomposition analysis). That is to say, R’Al☰SbR´ molecules that feature groups are regarded as R′─Al Sb─R′. Their theoretical evidence shows that both the electronic and the steric effects of bulkier substituent groups play a decisive role in making triply bonded R′Al☰SbR′ species synthetically accessible and isolable in a stable form.
- group 13 elements
- group 13 elements
- triple bond
The chemical synthesis and structural characterization of molecules that feature triple bonds  between heavier group 14 elements (E14 = Si, Ge, Sn and Pb) are of interest because of their interesting structural chemistry and their potential applications in organic and inorganic synthesis [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Although understanding of these RE14☰E14R molecules that feature heavier group 14 atoms has increased during the last two decades, the understanding of the RE13☰E15R compounds, which are isoelectronic to acetylene from a valence electron viewpoint, is still limited. The reason for this limited knowledge of acetylene analogues, RE13☰E15R, could be due to the fact that there has been limited preparation and the isolation of these species in a stable form [11, 12]. Theoretical methods allow a theoretical design of the RE13☰E15R molecules to be made that increases understanding of their potential properties.
The III-V semiconductors that contain antimony have several important applications in optoelectronic devices that operate in the infrared region and in high-speed devices, which has prompted widespread studies of promising precursor systems for these materials . In particular, the chemical synthesis and structural characterization of AlSb single-source precursors of the type R3Al-SbR´3 has attracted much attention, owing to their importance in CVD procedures , which is a developing industry for the production of thin films of the corresponding semiconducting materials . As far as the authors are aware, only a handful of group 13 antimonides that contain Al─Sb σ-bonds have been discovered , No triply bonded RAl☰SbR species, which is isoelectronic to HC☰CH, has been reported both experimentally and theoretically.
Density functional theory (DFT) is sued to determine the structures, the kinetic stability and bonding properties of various RAl☰SbR triply bonded forms on the singlet ground state, in order to obtain a better understanding of aluminum☰antimony triple bonds. This work reports the possible existence of triply bonded RAl☰SbR molecules, from the viewpoint of the effect of substituents, using DFT . That is, M06-2X/Def2-TZVP, B3PW91/Def2-TZVP and B3LYP/LANL2DZ + dp are used for small substituents (R = H, F, OH, CH3, and SiH3) and M06-2X/Def2-TZVP  for large substituents (R = SiMe(Si
2. General considerations
The valence-bond bonding model is a well-known satisfactory method, which is an approximate theory to explain the electron pair or chemical bond by quantum mechanics, for predicting molecular geometries . Two valence-bond bonding models (Figure 1) are thus used to interpret the bonding properties of triply bonded RAl☰SbR species. In model , the RAl☰SbR molecule is partitioned into two units: a singlet R─Al and a singlet R─Sb. In model , the RAl☰SbR compound is divided into two moieties: a triplet R─Al and a triplet R─Sb. As a result, the choice of the bonding model that is used to explain the bonding characters of RAl☰SbR depends on the promotion energies (Δ
Two points are worthy of note. The first is that since aluminum and antimony respectively belong to group 13 and group 15 and both elements have different atomic radii (covalent radii: 118 pm and 140 for Al and Sb, respectively) , the overlapping populations between Al and Sb should not be strong. The second is that the lone pairs of both aluminum and antimony feature the valence s character. This, in turn, makes the overlap integrals between the lone pair orbital and the pure p orbital small. These two factors mean that the triple bond between aluminum and antimony is weak, unlike the traditional triple bond in acetylene.
Bearing the above bonding analyses in mind, theoretical evidences are given in the following sections.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Small ligands on substituted RAl☰SbR
Five small substituents (R = F, OH, H, CH3 and SiH3) are chosen, which include electronegative and electropositive groups, to determine their stability and bonding properties on the triply bonded RAl☰SbR molecules using the three types of DFT calculations (i.e., M06-2X/Def2-TZVP, B3PW91/Def2-TZVP and B3LYP/LANL2DZ + dp). Figure 2 shows the potential energy surfaces of the intra-molecular 1,2-migration reactions for five triply bonded RAl☰SbR compounds that feature small substituents. That is to say, the triply bonded RAl☰SbR species can undergo a 1,2-shift to give either R2Al〓Sb: or: Al〓SbR2 doubly bonded isomers.
As seen in Figure 2, the three DFT computational results demonstrate that the triply bonded RAl☰SbR species that feature small substituents are all both kinetically and thermodynamically unstable on the intra-molecular 1,2-migration reaction potential energy surfaces. In other words, once the triply bonded RAl☰SbR with small substituents is formed, it can easily proceed along the 1,2-migration to give the thermodynamically stable doubly bonded isomer, either R2Al〓Sb: or: Al〓SbR2. The theoretical findings give strong evidence that the triply bonded RAl☰SbR molecules that feature the small ligands are highly unlikely to be detected experimentally.
Although current theoretical observations show that the formation of RAl☰SbR involving small ligands is not likely, some of their physical properties, which are shown in Table 1, must be theoretically determined in order to design much more stable aluminum☰antimony acetylene analogues.
As seen in Table 1, the three DFT computational results predict that the Al☰Sb triple bond distance (Å) is in the ranges 2.388–2.539 (M06-2X/Def2-TZVP), 2.397–2.536 (B3PW91/Def2-TZVP) and 2.436–2.565 (B3LYP/LANL2DZ + dp). Table 1 also shows that all of the geometrical structures of RAl☰SbR adopt the bent form, as demonstrated in Scheme 2. That is, ∠R─Al─Sb ≈ 180.0° and ∠Al─Sb─R ≈ 90.0°. The reason for this vertical angle at the Sb center can be ascribed to the relativistic effect, as discussed previously . The three DFT calculations shown in Table 1 all indicate that the electronic ground states for R─Al and the R─Sb fragments are singlet and triplet, respectively. In particular, all of the DFT results shown in Table 1 show that most of the singlet-triplet energy splitting (Δ
In brief, the three DFT calculations shown in this work show that irrespective of their electronegativity, the triply bonded RAl☰SbR molecules that feature small ligands are highly unlikely to exist, even in the low-temperature matrices. In particular, the bond orders of these Al☰Sb triple bonds are theoretically predicted to be a weak double bond, rather than a triple bond.
3.2. Large ligands on substituted R’Al☰SbR´
Three bulky groups were then used to search for kinetically stable triple-bonded R’Al☰SbR´ molecules: R´(〓SiMe(Si
Table 2 shows that the Al☰Sb triple bond distance is predicted to be 2.422–2.477 Å. Since no experimental results for the Al☰Sb triple bond length have been reported, these values are estimates. These theoretical calculations also show that the geometrical structures of R′Al☰SbR′ molecules that feature bulky groups adopt a bent structure; i.e., ∠R′─Al─Sb ≈ 160.0° and ∠Al─Sb─R′ ≈ 120.0°. As stated previously, the triply bonded R′Al☰SbR′ species feature this bent geometry because of the relativistic effect .
In addition, the bonding energy (BE) that is shown in Table 2 shows that the central aluminum and antimony atoms in the substituted R′Al☰SbR′ compounds are strongly bonded, since the BE values are in the range 71–97 kcal/mol for R′ = SiMe(Si
Besides these, Dapprich and Frenking developed a useful method , which is called the introduced charge decomposition analysis (CDA), from which one may analyze donor-acceptor interactions of a A-B molecule. From CDA, one may obtain three parts. The first part is the number of electrons donated from the R′─Al unit to the R′─Sb monomer, which can be considered as (R′─Al) → (R′─Sb). The second part is the number of electrons back donated from the R′─Sb component to the R′─Al moiety, which can be represented as (R′─Al) ← (R′─Sb). The third part is the repulsive interactions between (R′─Al) and (R′─Sb), which can be described as (R′─Al) ↔ (R′─Sb). The CDA results about the (SiMe(Si
The bonding characters of the Al☰Sb triple bond in R′Al☰SbR′ molecules were examined using the natural bond orbital (NBO)  and the natural resonance theory (NRT)  analysis, whose results are given in Table 4, are used to determine the bonding properties. For instance, Table 4 shows that for (SiMe(Si
|R’Al☰SbR’||WBI||NBO analysis||NRT analysis|
|R’ = SiMe(Si
||2.17||σ: 1.91||σ: 0.4799 Al (sp3.23) + 0.8773 Sb (sp0.60)||23.03% (Al)
|π⊥: 1.81||π⊥: 0.5288 Al (sp1.98) + 0.8487 Sb (sp12.43)||27.96% (Al)
|π‖: 1.89||π‖: 0.4753 Al (sp99.99) + 0.8798 Sb (sp99.99)||22.59% (Al)
|R’ = Si
||2.18||σ: 1.91||σ: 0.5525 Al (sp1.71) + 0.8335 Sb (sp1.15)||30.53% (Al)
|π⊥: 1.86||π⊥: 0.4723 Al (sp3.67) + 0.8815 Sb (sp3.68)||22.30% (Al)
|π‖: 1.89||π‖: 0.4476 Al (sp99.99) + 0.8943 Sb (sp99.99)||20.03% (Al)
|R’ = Tbt||2.07||σ: 1.95||σ: 0.6923 Al (sp0.18) + 0.7216 Sb (sp12.38)||47.93% (Al)
|π⊥: 1.88||π⊥: 0.4488 Al (sp47.14) + 0.8936 Sb (sp99.99)||20.14% (Al)
|π‖: 1.91||π‖: 0.4772 Al (sp99.99) + 0.8788 Sb (sp99.99)||22.78% (Al)
|R’ = Ar*||2.02||σ: 1.96||σ: 0.6946 Al (sp0.16) + 0.7194 Sb (sp18.14)||48.25% (Al)
|π⊥: 1.83||π⊥: 0.4543 Al (sp99.99) + 0.8908 Sb (sp40.30)||20.64% (Al)
|π‖: 1.92||π‖: 0.4266 Al (sp99.99) + 0.9044 Sb (sp99.99)||18.20% (Al)
This study uses DFT computations to theoretically design substituted RAl☰SbR molecules that feature the Al☰Sb triple bond, that are stable from the kinetic viewpoint. The theoretical observations show that only bulky substituents (R′) can significantly stabilize the triply bonded R′Al☰SbR′ compounds, and not small substituents. The theoretical findings also show that the bonding characters of the R′Al☰SbR′ species that feature bulky groups can be represented as R′─Al
The authors are grateful to the National Center for High-Performance Computing of Taiwan for generous amounts of computing time, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan for the financial support.
Fischer RC, Power PP. π-Bonding and the lone pair effect in multiple bonds involving heavier main group elements: Developments in the new millennium. Chemical Reviews. 2010; 110:3877-3923. DOI: 10.1021/cr100133q
Danovich D, Bino A, Shaik S. Formation of carbon–carbon triply bonded molecules from two free carbyne radicals via a conical intersection. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 2013; 4:58-64. DOI: 10.1021/jz3016765
Sasamori T, Hironaka K, Sugiyama T, Takagi N, Nagase S, Hosoi Y, Furukawa Y, Tokitoh N. Synthesis and reactions of a stable 1,2-diaryl-1,2-dibromodisilene: A precursor for substituted disilenes and a 1,2-diaryldisilyne. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2008; 130:13856-13857. DOI: 10.1021/ja8061002.
Spikes GH, Power PP. Lewis base induced tuning of the Ge–Ge bond order in a “digermyne”. Chemical Communications. 2007; 1:85-87. DOI: 10.1039/B612202G
Phillips AD, Wright RJ, Olmstead MM, Synthesis PPP. Characterization of 2,6-Dipp2-H3C6SnSnC6H3-2,6-Dipp2 (Dipp = C6H3-2,6-Pri2): A tin analogue of an alkyne. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2002; 124:5930-5931. DOI: 10.1021/ja0257164
Pu L, Twamley B, Power PP. Synthesis and characterization of 2,6-Trip2H3C6PbPbC6H3-2,6-Trip2 (trip=C6H2-2,4,6-i-Pr3): A stable heavier group 14 element analogue of an alkyne. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2000; 122:3524-3525. DOI: 10.1021/ja993346m
Lühmann N, Müller T. A compound with a Si–C triple bond. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition. 2010; 49:10042-10044. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201005149
Wu P-C, Su M-D. Theoretical designs for germaacetylene (RC☰GeR'): A new target for synthesis. Dalton Transactions. 2011; 40:4253-4259. DOI: 10.1039/C0DT00800A
Wu P-C, Su M-D. Triply bonded stannaacetylene (RC☰SnR): Theoretical designs and characterization. Inorganic Chemistry. 2011; 50:6814-6822. DOI: 10.1021/ic200930v
Wu P-C, Su M-D. A new target for synthesis of triply bonded plumbacetylene (RC☰PbR): A theoretical design. Organometallics. 2011; 30:3293-3301. DOI: 10.1021/om2000234
Paetzold P. Boron-nitrogen analogues of cyclobutadiene, benzene and cyclooctatetraene. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon. 1994; 93-94:39-50. DOI: 10.1080/10426509408021797
Wright RJ, Phillips AD, Allen TL, Fink WH, Power PP. Synthesis and characterization of the monomeric imides Ar‘MNAr‘ ‘ (M = Ga or in; Ar‘ or Ar‘ ‘ = terphenyl ligands) with two-coordinate gallium and indium. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2003; 125:1694-1695. DOI: 10.1021/ja029422u
Gardiner MG, Raston CL. Advances in the chemistry of Lewis base adducts of alane and gallane. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 1997; 166:1-34. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-8545(97)00002-7
Grovenor CRM. Microelectronic Materials. Philadelphia, PA: Adam Hilger; 1989
Park HY, Wessels A, Roesky HW, Schulz S. First approach to an AlSb layer from the single source precursors [Et2AlSb(SiMe3)2]2 and [iBu2AlSb(SiMe3)2]2. Chemical Vapor Deposition. 1999; 5:179-184. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3862(199908)5:4<179::AID CVDE179>3.0.CO;2-6
Schulz S, Kuczkowski A, Nieger M. Synthesis and X-ray structures of all-alkyl-substituted AlSb ring compounds. Organometallics. 2000; 19:699-702. DOI: 10.1021/om990795m
Kuczkowski A, Schulz S, Nieger M, Schreiner PR. Experimental and Computational Studies of R3Al-ER’3 (E = P, As, Sb, Bi; R = Et, t-Bu; R’ = SiMe3, i-Pr) Donor-Acceptor Complexes: Role of the Central Pnictine and the Substituents on the Structure and Stability of Alane Adducts. Organometallics. 2002; 21:1408-1419. DOI: 10.1021/om0200205
Zhao Y, Truhlar DG. Density functionals with broad applicability in chemistry. Accounts of Chemical Research. 2008; 41:157-167. DOI: 10.1021/ar700111a
Takagi N, Nagase S. Substituent effects on germanium−germanium and tin−tin triple bonds. Organometallics. 2001; 20:5498-5500. DOI: 10.1021/om010669u
Ebbing DD, Gammon SD. General Chemistry. New York: Brooks/Cole; 2015. Chap. 9
Reed AE, Curtiss LA, Weinhold F. Intermolecular interactions from a natural bond orbital, donor-acceptor viewpoint. Chemical Reviews. 1998; 88:899-926. DOI: 10.1021/cr00088a005
Pyykkö P. Strong closed-shell interactions in inorganic chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 1997; 97:597-636. DOI: 10.1021/cr940396v
Liptrot DJ, Power PP. London dispersion forces in sterically crowded inorganic and organometallic molecules. Nature Reviews Chemistry. 2017; 1:4-16. DOI: 10.1038/s41570-016-0004
Dapprich S, Frenking G. Investigation of donor-acceptor interactions: A charge decomposition analysis using fragment molecular orbitals. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 1995; 99:9352-9362. DOI: 10.1021/j100023a009
Glendening ED, Badenhoop JK, Weinhold F. Natural resonance theory. III. Chemical applications. Journal of Computational Chemistry. 1998; 19:628-646. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-987X(19980430)19:6<628::AID-JCC5>3.0.CO;2-T
Huheey JE, Keiter EA, Keiter RL. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity. 4th ed. New York, USA: Harper Collins; 1993. p. 246